Katie Arkema

Katie Arkema
Stanford University | SU · Woods Institute for the Environment

About

81
Publications
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4,413
Citations

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Full-text available
Globally, rising seas threaten massive numbers of people and significant infrastructure. Adaptation strategies increasingly incorporate nature-based solutions. New science can illuminate where these solutions are appropriate in urban environments and what benefits they provide to people. Together with stakeholders in San Mateo County, California, U...
Article
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Natural and nature-based features (NNBF) have been used for more than 100 years as coastal protection infrastructure (e.g., beach nourishment projects). The application of NNBF has grown steadily in recent years with the goal of realizing both coastal engineering and environment and social co-benefits through projects that have the potential to ada...
Article
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Using alternative future scenarios in development planning supports the integration of diverse perspectives and the joint consideration of the needs of humans and nature. Here, we report on the use of scenarios as an integral part of a two-year sustainable development planning process for Andros Island, The Bahamas. We combined qualitative and quan...
Article
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Coastal communities rely on levees and seawalls as critical protection against sea-level rise; in the United States alone, $300 billion in shoreline armoring costs are forecast by 2100. However, despite the local flood risk reduction benefits, these structures can exacerbate flooding and associated damages along other parts of the shoreline—particu...
Article
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Globally, cities face massive environmental and societal challenges such as rapid population growth and climate change. In response, natural infrastructure is increasingly recognized for its potential to enhance resilience and improve human well-being. Here, we examine the role of the ecosystem services and resilience approaches in urban planning,...
Article
The emissions reduction pledges made by individual countries through the 2015 Paris Agreement represent the current global commitment to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the face of the enduring climate crisis. Natural lands carbon sequestration and storage are critical for successful pathways to global decarbonization (i. e., as a negative emi...
Article
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Sustainable tourism involves increasingly attracting visitors while preserving the natural capital of a destination for future generations. To foster tourism while protecting sensitive environments, coastal managers, tourism operators, and other decision-makers benefit from information about where tourists go and which aspects of the natural and bu...
Article
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Climate change and human activities exert a wide range of stressors on urban coastal areas. Synthetical assessment of coastal vulnerability is crucial for effective interventions and long-term planning. However, there have been few studies based on integrative analyses of ecological and physical characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in urban...
Article
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Responsiveness and resilience to coastal disasters is an increasingly critical need for governments, businesses, and communities as the intensity of hurricanes, coastal storms and sea level rise exacerbates flood and erosion damages. The number and severity of disasters have increased significantly over the past two decades while intense coastal de...
Article
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In the United States, extensive investments have been made to restore the ecological function and services of coastal marine habitats. Despite a growing body of science supporting coastal restoration, few studies have addressed the suite of societally enabling conditions that helped facilitate successful restoration and recovery efforts that occurr...
Article
Coastal zones are increasingly threatened by stressors from both climate change and human activities. Vulnerability assessment is central to the implementation of interventions for adapting climate change. However, synthetic vulnerability based on an integrative analysis of ecosystem service and socioeconomic characteristics in urban coastal zones...
Article
The magnitude and pace of global change demand rapid assessment of nature and its contributions to people. We present a fine-scale global modeling of current status and future scenarios for several contributions: water quality regulation, coastal risk reduction, and crop pollination. We find that where people's needs for nature are now greatest, na...
Article
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Coastal ecosystems are under pressure from a vast array of anthropogenic stressors, including development and climate change, resulting in significant habitat losses globally. Conservation policies are often implemented with the intent of reducing habitat loss. However, losses already incurred will require restoration if ecosystem functions and ser...
Article
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Climate change and population growth are degrading coastal ecosystems and increasing risks to communities and infrastructure. Reliance on seawalls and other types of hardened shorelines is unsustainable in an era of rising seas, given the costs to build and maintain these structures and their unintended consequences on ecosystems. This is especiall...
Article
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The ecology of an epibiont may depend not only on the dynamics of its biogenic habitat but also on microclimate variation generated within aggregations of its host, a process called physical ecosystem engineering. This study explored variation in the abundance and demography of Membranipora, a suspension-feeding bryozoan, within forests of giant ke...
Article
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Scientific understanding of coupled social-ecological systems has grown considerably in recent years, especially for fisheries and ocean management. However, few studies test the utility of approaches that capture multiple interactions between people and ecosystems within a real-world planning process. We developed a set of quantitative models that...
Article
Change is inherent in coastal systems, which are amongst the most dynamic ones on Earth. Increasing anthropogenic pressure on coastal zones interferes with natural coastal dynamics and can cause ecosystem imbalances that render the zones less stable. Furthermore, human occupation of coastal zones often requires an uncharacteristic degree of stabili...
Article
Urban nature has the potential to improve air and water quality, mitigate flooding, enhance physical and mental health, and promote social and cultural well-being. However, the value of urban ecosystem services remains highly uncertain, especially across the diverse social, ecological and technological contexts represented in cities around the worl...
Chapter
In many countries around the world, major development projects are underway. An estimated US$57 trillion in global infrastructure development is anticipated by 2030, and the road network length is projected to increase 60 percent by 2050. As awareness grows about the role ecosystems play in supporting livelihoods and human well-being, national gove...
Chapter
The overarching goal of natural and nature-based approaches is to enhance the resilience of coastal communities to sea-level rise and storms, while maintaining or restoring the multiple benefits of ecosystems for people, now and in the future. Natural approaches to coastal protection include conservation of existing wetlands, coastal forests, dunes...
Chapter
Protecting and restoring natural capital—Earth’s lands, waters, and biodiversity, and the life-supporting goods and services that flow from these—have been promoted by many as the best hope for conserving biodiversity while also supporting sustainable, inclusive growth. Evidence is growing that illuminating the ways in which people depend on nature...
Article
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Many human populations are dependent on marine ecosystems for a range of benefits, but we understand little about where and to what degree people rely on these ecosystem services. We created a new conceptual model to map the degree of human dependence on marine ecosystems based on the magnitude of the benefit, susceptibility of people to a loss of...
Article
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Much of the United States’ critical infrastructure is either aging or requires significant repair, leaving U.S. communities and the economy vulnerable. Outdated and dilapidated infrastructure places coastal communities, in particular, at risk from the increasingly frequent and intense coastal storm events and rising sea levels. Therefore, investmen...
Preprint
Coastal habitats provide important benefits to people, including habitat for species targeted by fisheries and opportunities for tourism and recreation. Yet, such human activities also can imperil these habitats and undermine the ecosystem services they provide to people. Cumulative risk assessment provides an analytical framework for synthesizing...
Chapter
Globally, the human population is fast approaching 10 billion people, with nearly a third located within 100 km of the sea. As the list of environmental ills facing the ocean and coasts grows longer, it becomes increasingly important to understand the cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors and the most promising interventions to bolster ecos...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal habitats provide important benefits to people, including habitat for species targeted by fisheries and opportunities for tourism and recreation. Yet, such human activities also can imperil these habitats and undermine the ecosystem services they provide to people. Cumulative risk assessment provides an analytical framework for synthesizing...
Data
Supporting information for methodology. Additional explanation and details for the methods and data used in this study including estimating risk, habitat data, human activities and stressor data, and the wind energy analysis. Table A, Exposure and consequence criteria used in the Habitat Risk Assessment model; Fig A, Habitat types; Table B, Habitat...
Article
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A growing number of nations aim to design coastal plans to reduce conflicts in space and safeguard ecosystems that provide important benefits to people and economies. Critics of coastal and ocean planning point to a complicated process with many actors, objectives, and uncertain outcomes. This paper explores one such decision-making process in Beli...
Article
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Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecti...
Article
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Coastal protection of communities and property using “green infrastructure” approaches is gaining popularity as the science and practice improve. Guidance is limited for decision makers interested in taking action to protect shorelines. Here, we offer practical guidance for decision makers interested in moving beyond generalities for coastal protec...
Article
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Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during...
Data
Relative importance of breaking and frictional dissipation for all non-storm waves travelling over the reef. Left: Average ratio of breaking and frictional dissipation over the reef profiles. Center: scatter plot of breaking dissipation; solid line represents an approximation of the best fit (R2>0.8). Right: scatter plot of frictional dissipation;...
Data
Coastal protection services provided by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, in present day conditions, for various combinations of live and dead habitats during a hurricane. Surge attenuation by mangroves is ignored. (EPS)
Data
Coastal protection services provided by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, in future sea-level conditions, for various combinations of live and dead habitats during a hurricane. (EPS)
Data
Protective role of corals and seagrasses during non-storm conditions in the future sea-level scenario. Box plots of wave height (top subplots) and bed shear stress (bottom subplots) values computed as a function of the presence or absence of live coral or seagrasses. Circles represent mean values. (EPS)
Data
Protective role of corals, seagrasses and mangroves during non-storm conditions in future sea-level conditions. Box plots of wave height (top subplots) and bed scour (bottom subplots) values computed as a function of different combination of presence or absence of live coral, seagrasses and mangroves. Circles represent mean values. (EPS)
Data
Coastal protection services provided by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, in future sea-level conditions, for various combinations of live and dead habitats during a hurricane. Surge attenuation by mangroves is ignored. (EPS)
Data
Non-storm wave record. Left: Complete wave record from WW3 grid point. Center: Distribution of wave height and wave period. Right: Wave rose of the complete record. Wave rose of non-storm record is similar. (EPS)
Data
Role of seagrass meadow location in coastal protection. Box plots of wave height values computed in both profiles in the presence and absence of a portion or the whole meadow. The offshore meadow is the one closest to the reef. The nearshore meadow is the one closest to the shore. In the fringing reef, the seagrass meadow was split in two equidista...
Research
Full-text available
Chapter 23 in T.E Lovejoy and L. Hannah, eds., 2019. Biodiversity and Climate Change: Transforming the Biosphere. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Article
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Recent calls for ocean planning envision informed management of social and ecological systems to sustain delivery of ecosystem services to people. However, until now, no coastal and marine planning process has applied an ecosystem-services framework to understand how human activities affect the flow of benefits, to create scenarios, and to design a...
Article
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Ecosystem Service Assessments (ESAs) have become a popular tool for science-based policy. Yet, there are few guidelines for developing an ESA to inform a decision-making process. This is an important area of inquiry since the process of conducting an ESA is likely to affect the quality of results and their influence on decisions. Drawing on the les...
Article
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An age-old conflict around a seemingly simple question has resurfaced: why do we conserve nature? Contention around this issue has come and gone many times, but in the past several years we believe that it has reappeared as an increasingly acrimonious debate between, in essence, those who argue that nature should be protected for its own sake (intr...
Article
Vegetation can protect communities by reducing nearshore wave height and altering sediment transport processes. However, quantitative approaches for evaluating the coastal protection services, or benefits, supplied by vegetation to people in a wide range of coastal environments are lacking. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, an integrated modelin...
Article
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Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform t...
Article
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Many diagnoses of declining marine species and habitats along US coasts point to upland and freshwater sources of imperilment. Yet, little work has examined how and whether activities on land affect marine resources. Similarly, the impacts of climate change on coastal systems are among the most certain; yet, few studies have explored how alternativ...
Article
Climate change alters the functions of ecological systems. As a result, the provision of ecosystem services and the well-being of people that rely on these services are being modified. Climate models portend continued warming and more frequent extreme weather events across the US. Such weather-related disturbances will place a premium on the ecosys...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The impacts of human activities in coastal areas, both on land and in the ocean, are pervasive in coastal ecosystems. Recent global analyses have revealed that almost no area of the world’s oceans is untouched by human impacts. A challenge to implementing integrated approaches to ocean management is knowing how to scre...
Article
Coastal vegetation can protect people and property from erosion and flooding, potentially providing a win-win solution for conservation and development. However, the conditions under which natural habitats provide protection have been controversial, partly because the geomorphic, ecological, and hydrodynamic factors that determine wave attenuation...
Article
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Extreme weather, sea-level rise and degraded coastal ecosystems are placing people and property at greater risk of damage from coastal hazards. The likelihood and magnitude of losses may be reduced by intact reefs and coastal vegetation, especially when those habitats fringe vulnerable communities and infrastructure. Using five sea-level-rise scena...
Article
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Carey, M. P., Levin, P. S., Townsend, H., Minello, T. J., Sutton, G. R., Francis, T., Harvey, C. J., Toft, J. E., Arkema, K. K., Burke, J. L., Kim, C-K., Guerry, A., Plummer, M., Spiridonov, G., and Ruckelshaus, M. Characterizing coastal foodwebs with qualitative links to bridge the gap between the theory and the practice of ecosystem-based managem...
Article
Full-text available
Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance t...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Our oceans are peopled, and have been for thousands of years. Climate change and other human stressors are altering the ecosystems that have long supported livelihoods in coastal communities, yet our understanding of the ecology and management of coastal ecosystems still does not integrate human wellbeing, ecology and...
Article
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People around the world are looking to marine ecosystems to provide additional benefits to society. As they consider expanding current uses and investing in new ones, new management approaches are needed that will sustain the delivery of the diverse benefits that people want and need. An ecosystem services framework provides metrics for assessing t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Summary: A great diversity of organisms modify the physical structure of estuarine and coastal environments. These physical ecosystem engineers – particularly, dune and marsh plants, mangroves, seagrasses, kelps, reef-forming corals and bivalves, burrowing crustaceans and infauna – often have substantive functional impacts over large areas and acro...