Kathryn E Moracco

Kathryn E Moracco
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | UNC · Health Behavior

Doctor of Philosophy

About

84
Publications
11,944
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3,126
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
1566 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
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District court judges who make final determinations in domestic violence protective order (DVPO) cases in North Carolina indicate often using heuristics, such as the presence of visible injury, to guide their assessment of violence severity. This approach is concerning as it minimizes nonphysical intimate partner violence. We conducted a thematic a...
Article
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Transactional sex increases HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). Understanding the individual and dyadic nature of transactional sex may provide evidence for risk reduction interventions. Multilevel logistic regression was used to cross-sectionally examine correlates of transactional sex among AGYW in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participan...
Article
We investigated the degree to which legislatively mandated firearm restrictions for domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs) have been implemented in North Carolina. We used a representative sample of n = 406 DVPO hearings (2016–17) and found that defendant access to firearms was seldom discussed (23.81%). Among granted orders (n = 303), 69.5% p...
Article
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Background The acceptability of health interventions is centrally important to achieving their desired health outcomes. The construct of acceptability of mobile health interventions among adolescents is neither well-defined nor consistently operationalized. Objectives Building on the theoretical framework of acceptability, these two studies develo...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) effects over a third of Latin American women and results in significant health, economic and social consequences. While theory suggests that increasing the status of women, in their homes and neighborhoods, should prevent IPV, little empirical work has tested this in South America, in particular examining neighborhoo...
Article
Introduction Little is known about intimate partner violence-related fatalities among young people. This study comprehensively identifies and describes intimate partner violence-related homicides, homicide–suicides, legal intervention deaths, and suicides among young people. Methods Data from the 2014–2018 National Violent Death Reporting System w...
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There is an increased call for research on promising prevention programs already embedded in communities (“homegrown interventions”). Unfortunately, there is limited guidance to help researchers prepare these types of interventions for rigorous evaluation. To address this need, this article presents our team’s process for revising a promising commu...
Article
Background Perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) use firearms to injure, scare, and manipulate their partners. Abusers who have a firearm in their homes are more likely to threaten and/or kill their partner. To date, however, limited research documents the nature of IPV perpetrator firearm access or the prevalence of nonfatal firearm abus...
Article
A high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been documented among women living in conflict-affected and refugee-hosting areas, but why this occurs is not well understood. Conflict and displacement deteriorate communities’ social cohesion and community connectedness; these neighborhood social environments may influence individual IPV ou...
Article
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Transactional sex is associated with incident HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence on the dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) which predict transactional sex are mixed and primarily come from cross-sectional studies. This study examined the association between SES and transactional sex in...
Article
Background: In 2015, 1,350 people in the U.S. were killed by their current or former intimate partner. Intimate partner violence (IPV) can also fatally injure family members or friends, and IPV may be a risk factor for suicide. Without accounting for all these outcomes, policymakers, funders, researchers, and public health practitioners may underes...
Article
Background: Research on intimate partner homicide (IPH), when someone is killed by a current or former intimate partner, in North Carolina is limited, making it difficult to understand the magnitude of IPHs and identify strategies for prevention. Methods: We used North Carolina-Violent Death Reporting System (NC-VDRS) data to assess IPHs among NC...
Article
Among violence prevention educators and researchers, there is growing interest in sexual, dating, and intimate partner violence (SV/DV/IPV) prevention programs for males because of evidence showing that boys and men are more likely than girls and women to perpetrate SV as well as more severe forms of DV/IPV. To date, comprehensive guidance on the c...
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Introduction: The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast the values, purpose, processes, and outcomes of human-centered design (HCD) and community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to address public health issues and to provide recommendations for how HCD can be incorporated into CBPR partnerships and projects. Review Proce...
Article
One goal of university campus sexual assault (CSA) policies is to help prevent CSA. Federal guidance in the 2014 White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault Checklist for Campus Sexual Misconduct Policies suggests 10 elements for inclusion in CSA policies (e.g., Policy Introduction, Grievance/Adjudication), and outlines policy to...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for non-adherence to HIV treatment for women, however the evidence on the impact of IPV on uptake of the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade is inconclusive. We examined data from 433 HIV positive pregnant women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, enrolled between...
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Objectives: Federal law requires informing the public on toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. We sought the public's advice about communicating information about these chemicals. Methods: Adolescents, young adults, and adults (N = 59), including smokers and non-smokers, participated in 9 focus groups that discussed inclusion of messages about tox...
Article
Campus sexual assault (SA) policies and sexual consent definitions have not been widely studied. The study team conducted a nationally representative review of college and university websites (n = 995), assessing the prevalence of publicly-accessible online policies and definitions and examining associations with school characteristics. A content a...
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Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms by which a cash incentive intervention increases retention in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. Methods: We used data from a randomized controlled trial in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Perceptual factors associated with loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) through six weeks postpar...
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Background: Novel strategies are needed to increase retention in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services. We have recently shown that small, incremental cash transfers conditional on attending clinic resulted in increased retention along the PMTCT cascade. However, whether women who receive incentives to attend clinic visit...
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The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be...
Article
Introduction: Most studies have assessed use of "e-cigarettes" or "electronic cigarettes," potentially excluding new electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as e-hookahs and vape pens. Little is known about how adolescents and young adults perceive ENDS and if their perceptions vary by sub-type. We explored ENDS perceptions among these p...
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Background: Novel strategies are needed to increase retention in and uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine whether small, increasing cash payments, which were conditional on attendance at scheduled clinic visits and receipt of proposed services can increase the propor...
Article
Introduction: Novel tobacco products, such as little cigars, cigarillos, hookah, and e-cigarettes, and their smoke or aerosol contain chemicals which the FDA has determined to be Harmful or Potentially Harmful Constituents. We explored adolescents' and young adults' knowledge and beliefs about constituents in novel tobacco products and their smoke...
Article
Female sex workers are particularly susceptible to HIV-infection in Russia. However, a dearth of information exists on their utilisation of HIV services. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine motivators and barriers to HIV testing among street-based sex workers in St. Petersburg, Russia. The health belief model was the the...
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Introduction: Understanding what people think about harmful and potentially harmful constituents in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has new urgency given legislation requiring FDA to disclose constituent information. Our study sought to obtain qualitative information on what people think about these constituents, and the language they use to talk a...
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Objectives: We sought to investigate adolescents' and adults' perceptions of an American Spirit advertisement with 'natural', 'organic' and 'additive-free' descriptors and related disclaimers. Methods: We conducted nine focus group discussions in the Southern USA, with 59 participants aged 13-64 years (30 male, 29 female), stratified by age, smo...
Article
Moms and Teens for Safe Dates (MTSD) is a dating abuse (DA) prevention program for teens exposed to domestic violence. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), MTSD prevented certain types of DA victimization (psychological and physical) and perpetration (psychological and cyber) among teens with higher, but not lower, exposure to domestic violence....
Article
Approximately one in three women in the United States experience intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is associated with long-term negative health consequences; therefore, there is a need to examine potential prevention strategies. Evidence suggests that domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs), a legal intervention that prevents contact between...
Article
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been vic...
Article
As funders continue to emphasize the importance of documented results, nonprofit organizations must work to complete program evaluations that are both valuable and feasible. The purpose of this paper is to document a practical process evaluation of a southeastern nonprofit, a local Meals on Wheels. Using a mixed methods approach, we sought to answe...
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Objective: We explored influences on decision making about intrauterine device (IUD) use among women in the Women's Health Project (WHP), managed by Population Services International in Madagascar. Study design: We conducted six small group photonarrative discussions (n=18 individuals) and 12 individual in-depth interviews with women who were IU...
Conference Paper
Background: Physical, sexual, and psychological domestic or intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a widespread and serious threat to women’s physical and mental health. In all 50 states, legislation mandates civil protective orders, known as domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs), which prohibit abusive partners from contacting, har...
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Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk...
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Background: Vaccination programs in school health centers (SHCs) may improve adolescent vaccine coverage. We conducted a process evaluation of an intervention to increase SHC-located vaccination to better understand the feasibility and challenges of such interventions. Method: Four SHCs participated in an intervention to increase provision of re...
Conference Paper
Background: Low uptake of HPV and other adolescent vaccines calls for novel approaches for increasing use. We tested the efficacy of a school health center (SHC) global consent intervention to promote uptake of 4 recommended vaccines. Methods: Participating North Carolina sites had existing SHCs enrolling 3,614 students. Study intervention included...
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This paper examines the relationships between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women in the US. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; N = 4,430 in present analyses). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine occ...
Article
The study aimed to understand providers' role in delivering HIV transmission prevention counseling to youth living with HIV (YLWH). We conducted 14 in-depth interviews with providers in Kinshasa, DRC. Providers' lack of knowledge and comfort in talking to youth about sex because of cultural and religious beliefs about sexuality, coupled with confus...
Article
Stigma associated with HIV and risk behaviors is known to be a barrier to health care access for many populations. Less is known about female sex workers (FSW) in Russia, a population that is especially vulnerable to HIV-infection, and yet hard-to-reach for service providers. We administered a questionnaire to 139 FSW to better understand how stigm...
Article
Objective This study examined the association between alcohol outlet density and male to female intimate partner violence (IPV).Method Data were analyzed from a national probability sample of males who reported a current heterosexual relationship (N=3194). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the likelihood of having perpetrated IPV....
Article
Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediat...
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This study examined whether alcohol outlet density is associated with male physical and sexual victimization by a female partner. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). A total of 3,179 young adult men identified a current heterosexual relationship and had complete intimate partner violence (IPV) victimiza...
Article
Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density...
Article
Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experi...
Article
Domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs) are the nation's most widely used intimate partner violence (IPV)-related legal intervention, and there is emerging evidence that DVPOs are effective. However, little is known about DVPO defendants. We examined a population-based sample of male DVPO defendants. Most had previous IPV-related offenses, ment...
Article
Physical, sexual, and psychological abuse of women by their intimate partners is common around the world.1 In response to this widespread public health problem, organizations of health care professionals, including the American Medical Association2 and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists3 recommend that all adult female patients...
Conference Paper
Our Person-Centered Model of Gendered Adolescent Aggression builds on the social ecological approach well-established within public health. Our model presupposes that: GAIA is normative rather than deviant and social rather than natural; GAIA is not desirable and is harmful to all involved; and the development of structures and practices that affir...
Conference Paper
Background/Purpose: Spouse abuse is recognized as a major public health problem within military families in the U.S, and the stress of war has the potential to increase the risk of violence. This research examines differences between the types and rates of violence perpetrated by male and female soldiers, and the Army's response. Methods: Five year...
Conference Paper
Domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs) are the most widely-used IPV-related legal intervention in the U.S ., and there is evidence that DVPO's are effective for secondary prevention of intimate partner violence. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in denial rates of DVPOs, and a dearth of information regarding how various factors, incl...
Article
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This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with...
Article
The authors compare perspectives of intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors and emergency department (ED) nurses on types of social support IPV victims need at different stages of readiness to disclose and leave a relationship. Qualitative interviews (16 IPV survivors, 10 ED nurses) center on women's responses to vignettes that illustrate differe...
Conference Paper
Alcohol-related situational violence is interpersonal physically and/or sexually violent behavior associated with drinking events outside the home. Although the positive alcohol-violence correlation is well established and accepted, there has been little systematic effort to develop a model that describes the relationships among the various factors...
Conference Paper
Introduction: North Carolina enacted S.L. 2003-410 (S919) which prohibits persons subject to a qualifying domestic violence protective order (DVPO) from owning or possessing any firearms and requires them to surrender any firearms to the county sheriff within 24 hours. Methods: We used DVPO files, criminal background checks of DVPO defendants, and...
Article
One in 5 women is a victim of sexual assault. This study examines the administration of emergency contraception to victims of sexual assault in North Carolina hospital emergency departments. One hundred seventeen surveys were mailed to hospital emergency departments across the state to determine their emergency contraception practices for victims o...
Article
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To examine the extent to which US women's self-protection strategies are associated with either their personal or vicarious victimization experiences. A cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey. Continental United States. Non-institutionalized, English-speaking women, age 18 and older. Women's self-protection strategies. 1800 US women wer...
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This paper identifies comorbid factors among female emergency department (ED) patients who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). 321 adult female patients completed self-administered questionnaires while in an urban North Carolina emergency department. IPV was assessed by questioning whether the patient had ever been afraid of a partner...
Article
Violence against women (VAW) is widespread and linked to negative public health and social outcomes. Research on VAW, however, has largely been limited to convenience samples and on variable definitions of violence, hindering our ability to fully characterize this important problem nationally and among subgroups of women. Using a population-based n...
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North Carolina women were surveyed to examine whether women's disability status was associated with their risk of being assaulted within the past year. Women's violence experiences were classified into three groups: no violence, physical assault only (without sexual assault), and sexual assault (with or without physical assault). Multivariable anal...
Article
Knowledge regarding intimate partner violence has evolved from a somewhat fragmentary and incomplete understanding of the topic to a more cohesive, multifaceted body of research. Despite these accomplishments, there are still many critical knowledge gaps about this important problem. In this age of fiscal restraint, using existing information to ad...
Article
Understanding the perspectives of women who have experienced IPV will allow us to identify specific techniques of addressing IPV that increase patient comfort and willingness to disclose and/or seek help. Our study objective was to identify what advice women who had experienced IPV would give health providers regarding how to ask about and discuss...
Article
To create appropriate intimate partner violence (IPV) services for Latino immigrants, practitioners must be aware of their needs. We conducted interviews with 100 recent Latino immigrants in a rural North Carolina county. Overall, IPV was not perceived to be a problem; however, men and women differed in their perceptions. Men were more likely to ag...
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This study estimated the prevalence of mental health problems among clients of domestic violence programs in North Carolina, determined whether domestic violence program staff members routinely screen clients for mental health problems, described how domestic violence programs respond to clients who have mental health problems, and ascertained whet...
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Women's experiences of partner violence, both before and during pregnancy, are described using a convenience sample of women recruited from prenatal clinics. Included were an index group of women who told their clinicians that they had been physically abused during pregnancy, and a comparison group of women who told their clinicians that they had n...
Article
Risk of homicide, measured with the Danger Assessment Instrument, was examined for two time periods (pregnancy and the year before pregnancy) among 53 abused women seeking prenatal care. Twenty-three women left their relationships after becoming pregnant; these women were at higher risk for homicide prior to pregnancy than the women who remained wi...
Article
To investigate women's perceptions of motivators and barriers to seeking help or accessing intimate partner violence (IPV), services six focus groups were conducted in rural and urban settings in North Carolina between June and August of 2002. Coding and theme analysis were used to summarize themes among the 67 focus group participants. The majorit...
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To describe the types of services provided to women with disabilities at community-based domestic violence programs in the state of North Carolina, the challenges faced, and strategies used to provide the services. We conducted a statewide cross-sectional survey of community domestic violence programs and had a response rate of 85%. Of the particip...
Article
Homicide is the third leading cause of deaths for girls aged 11 to 14 years and the second leading cause of death for girls aged 15 to 18 years. However, few studies examine the contextual issues of adolescent femicide, especially among 11- to 14-year-old victims. To obtain quantitative and contextual information about adolescent femicide, and to c...
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To characterize the events and examine suicide precursors among women and to examine gaps in surveillance. A statewide study in North Carolina. Suicides of women age 15 and older for the time period 1989-93, as identified from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, were included. All case files were reviewed by hand and telephone interviews were...
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To explore women's perspectives about how to enhance services for those who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and how to improve the links between such services and the health care setting. We conducted 6 focus groups involving 67 women in both rural and urban settings in North Carolina. A standardized interview guide was used to investiga...
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To describe positive and negative consequences of health care screening for intimate partner violence from the perspectives of female survivors. We conducted 7 semistructured focus group interviews with 41 women in battered women's shelters or intimate partner violence support groups. Positive consequences of screening included: recognizing that th...
Article
To identify the patterns of female intimate partner homicide, to describe the nature of the partner relationships between victims and perpetrators, and to determine the extent of intimate partner violence (IPV) preceding the homicide. We reviewed North Carolina medical examiner records and conducted telephone interviews with law enforcement officer...