Kathleen M Carley

Kathleen M Carley
Carnegie Mellon University | CMU · Institute for Software Research

Ph.D.

About

809
Publications
197,534
Reads
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26,836
Citations
Citations since 2017
216 Research Items
9783 Citations
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Introduction
I do not use ResearchGate often enough to respond to paper requests. Visit my website which hosts a majority of published papers I am able to share online: http://casos.cs.cmu.edu/publications/index.php
Additional affiliations
August 2002 - present
Carnegie Mellon University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor of Computation, Organization and Society; Appointment in Institute for Software Research International, SCS; Courtesy appointments in SDS, Heinz, GSIA and EPP;
September 1998 - July 2002
Carnegie Mellon University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor of Sociology, Organizations and IT; Appointments in SDS, Heinz, GSIA and EPP
September 1990 - August 1998
Carnegie Mellon University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Associate Professor of Sociology and Organizations
Education
September 1978 - June 1984
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Sociology
September 1974 - June 1978
September 1974 - June 1978
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Political Science

Publications

Publications (809)
Article
Full-text available
Social media has provided a citizen voice, giving rise to grassroots collective action, where users deploy a concerted effort to disseminate online narratives and even carry out offline protests. Sometimes these collective action are aided by inorganic synchronization, which arise from bot actors. It is thus important to identify the synchronicity...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This case study investigates a recent Russian disinformation narrative about U.S. biolabs and the development of biological weapons in Ukraine. This disinformation campaign was officially initiated by the Russian government, including the Russian Ministry of Defense, and was disseminated by official state-funded Russian media. In their announcement...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new computational framework for mapping state-sponsored information operations into distinct strategic units. Utilizing a novel method called multi-view modularity clustering (MVMC), we identify groups of accounts engaged in distinct narrative and network information maneuvers. We then present an analytical pipeline to holisti...
Article
Full-text available
Coordinated disinformation campaigns are used to influence social media users, potentially leading to offline violence. In this study, we introduce a general methodology to uncover coordinated messaging through an analysis of user posts on Parler. The proposed Coordinating Narratives Framework constructs a user-to-user coordination graph, which is...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social media has provided a citizen voice, giving rise to grassroots collective action, where users deploy a concerted effort to disseminate online narratives and even carry out offline protests. Sometimes these collective action are aided by inorganic synchronization, which arise from bot actors. It is thus important to identify the synchronicity...
Article
Stance detection identifies a person’s evaluation of a subject, and is a crucial component for many downstream applications. In application, stance detection requires training a machine learning model on an annotated dataset and applying the model on another to predict stances of text snippets. This cross-dataset model generalization poses three ce...
Chapter
News articles shared on social media platforms could be framed in ways such that specific points are emphasized or de-emphasized to create confusion on scientific facts. In this work, we use policy frames suggested by Boydstun et al., 2014 to find frames used in over 810k climate change news articles shared on Twitter by news agencies. Moreover, we...
Chapter
By analyzing tweets sent before and after Twitter users’ first interactions with known low- or high-credibility information sources, we have observed that people who interacted with low-credibility information tended to be more hateful even before that interaction. Such people seemed to further increase their hatefulness only following particularly...
Chapter
Full-text available
China has embraced the social media domain to promote pro-Chinese narratives and stories in recent years. However, China has increasingly been accused of launching information operations using methods such as bot activity, puppet accounts and other forms of inauthentic activity to amplify pro-Chinese messaging. This paper provides a comprehensive n...
Chapter
State-led online influence campaigns represent a major frontier in contemporary global politics. Such operations, however, do not take place unopposed and may encounter collective resistance. This study compares two competing influence campaigns during the 2021 Hong Kong Legislative Council (Legco) election: one by the Chinese state seeking to emph...
Chapter
OSIRIS, Organization Simulation In Response to Intrusion Strategies, is an agent-based simulation framework that models virtual organization composed of end user agents with complex and realistic behavior patterns. The purpose of OSIRIS is to predict and analyze the scale of cyberattack damage on the organization once targeted by cybercriminals wit...
Article
Full-text available
Social media has become an integral component of the modern information system. An average person typically has multiple accounts across different platforms. At the same time, the rise of social media facilitates the spread of online mis/disinformation narratives within and across these platforms. In this study, we characterize the coordinated info...
Article
This paper posits and tests a social cybersecurity framework to detect and characterize online trolling. Using a dataset of online trolling obtained through active learning, we empirically find that troll messages are significantly associated with more abusive language (p<.001), lower cognitive complexity (p<.01), and greater targeting of named ent...
Article
Full-text available
Coordinated campaigns in the digital realm have become an increasingly important area of study due to their potential to cause political polarization and threats to security through real-world protests and riots. In this paper, we introduce a methodology to profile two case studies of coordinated actions in Indonesian Twitter discourse. Combining n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite rapid development, current bot detection models still face challenges in dealing with incomplete data and cross-platform applications. In this paper, we propose BotBuster, a social bot detector built with the concept of a mixture of experts approach. Each expert is trained to analyze a portion of account information, e.g. username, and are...
Preprint
Online social connections occur within a specific conversational context. Prior work in network analysis of social media data attempts to contextualize data through filtering. We propose a method of contextualizing online conversational connections automatically and illustrate this method with Twitter data. Specifically, we detail a graph neural ne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coordinated campaigns in the digital realm have become an increasingly important area of study due to their potential to cause political polarization and threats to security through real-world protests and riots. In this paper, we introduce a methodology to profile two case studies of coordinated actions in Indonesian Twitter discourse. Combining n...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research dedicated a lot of effort to investigation of the activities of the Internet Research Agency, a Russia-based troll factory, as well as other information operations. However, those studies are mostly focused on the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Brexit, and other major international political events. In this study, we have attemp...
Article
Online talk about racism has been salient throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet while such social media conversations reflect existing tensions in the offline world, the same discourse has also become a target for information operations aiming to heighten social divisions. This article examines Twitter discussions of racism in the first and sixth m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coordinated groups of user accounts working together in online social media can be used to manipulate the online discourse and thus is an important area of study. In this study, we work towards a general theory of coordination. There are many ways to coordinate groups online: semantic, social, referral and many more. Each represents a coordination...
Preprint
Full-text available
State-sponsored online influence operations typically consist of coordinated accounts exploiting the online space to influence public opinion. Accounts associated with these operations use images and memes as part of their content generation and dissemination strategy to increase the effectiveness and engagement of the content. In this paper, we pr...
Article
Purpose Adult support is inversely linked to health-affecting risk behaviors. This study aimed to describe adolescent-adult support network structure and quality, and to analyze associations among network properties, strength of emotional and instrumental support, and violence involvement among predominantly Black youth residing in neighborhoods wi...
Article
Full-text available
Twitter and other social media platforms are important tools for competing groups to push their preferred messaging and respond to opposing views. Special attention has been paid to the role these tools play in times of emergency and important public decision-making events such as during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we analyze the Pro- and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: During the time surrounding the approval and initial distribution of Pfizer-BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine, large numbers of social media users took to using their platforms to voice opinions on the vaccine. They formed pro-and anti-vaccination groups toward the purpose of influencing behaviors to vaccinate or not to vaccinate. The methods...
Article
Full-text available
Social media bots have been characterized in their use in digital activism and information manipulation, due to their roles in information diffusion. The detection of bots has been a major task within the field of social media computation, and many datasets and bot detection algorithms have been developed. With these algorithms, the bot score stabi...
Article
Objective Chronic school absenteeism is linked to failure to graduate high school and poor health in adulthood. Contextual factors associated with absenteeism may be underrecognized in school and clinical settings. We examined the prevalence of self-reported absenteeism and violence exposure and their association among middle school students with i...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We examine individuals’ ability to detect social bots among Twitter personas, along with participant and persona features associated with that ability. Background Social media users need to distinguish bots from human users. We develop and demonstrate a methodology for assessing those abilities, with a simulated social media task. Metho...
Conference Paper
Organizational risk and resilience as well as insider threat have been studied through the lenses of socio-psychological studies and information and computer sciences. As with all disciplines, it is an area in which practitioners, enthusiasts, and experts discuss the theory, issues, and solutions of the field in various online public forums. Such c...
Chapter
We introduce a novel method for analyzing person-to-person content influence on Twitter. Using an Ego-Alter framework and Granger Causality, we examine President Donald Trump (the Ego) and the people he retweets (Alters) as a case study. We find that each Alter has a different scope of influence across multiple topics, different magnitude of influe...
Article
Full-text available
Social influence characterizes the change of an individual’s stances in a complex social environment towards a topic. Two factors often govern the influence of stances in an online social network: endogenous influences driven by an individual’s innate beliefs through the agent’s past stances and exogenous influences formed by social network influen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Capturing dynamics of operational similarity among terrorist groups is critical to provide actionable insights for counter-terrorism and intelligence monitoring. Yet, in spite of its theoretical and practical relevance, research addressing this problem is currently lacking. We tackle this problem proposing a novel computational framework for detect...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: Discussion about the interference of Russian actors in the 2016 U.S. presidential election campaign attracted enormous attention from the academic community. Numerous studies dedicated to the analysis of Internet operations, as well as activities of bots and trolls, formed a new interdisciplinary area that investigates online disinformati...
Article
Full-text available
Capturing dynamics of operational similarity among terrorist groups is critical to provide actionable insights for counter-terrorism and intelligence monitoring. Yet, in spite of its theoretical and practical relevance, research addressing this problem is currently lacking. We tackle this problem proposing a novel computational framework for detect...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change research describes online discourse as sharply polarized, echoing real-world divides in society. Yet while polarization in online climate change discourse has been extensively studied in terms of isolated communities and echo chambers, less is known about the extent of affective polarization that characterizes the hostile nature of i...
Preprint
Real-time location inference of social media users is the fundamental of some spatial applications such as localized search and event detection. While tweet text is the most commonly used feature in location estimation, most of the prior works suffer from either the noise or the sparsity of textual features. In this paper, we aim to tackle these tw...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a novel method for analyzing person-to-person content influence on Twitter. Using an Ego-Alter framework and Granger Causality, we examine President Donald Trump (the Ego) and the people he retweets (Alters) as a case study. We find that each Alter has a different scope of influence across multiple topics, different magnitude of influe...
Preprint
BACKGROUND During the period surrounding the approval and initial distribution of Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine, many users took to social media to voice their opinions on the vaccine. They formed pro- and anti-vaccination groups and influenced behaviors to vaccinate or not to vaccinate. The methods of persuasion and manipulation for convincin...
Article
Background: During the time surrounding the approval and initial distribution of Pfizer-BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine, large numbers of social media users took to used their platforms to voice opinions on the vaccine. They formed pro- and anti-vaccination groups towards the purpose of influencing behaviors to vaccinate or not to vaccinate. The metho...
Article
Full-text available
Background Numerous studies have shown that racial/ethnic minority and under-resourced families face barriers that delay timely access to autism services. These barriers include lack of resources and information about autism, financial hardship, mistrust in the service system, cultural and language mismatch, and other factors that have yet to be id...
Article
Full-text available
Government overlap creates problems for the public and private sector across several government systems. Research suggests that overlap burdens the political and economic system by increasing costs in terms of money, time, and complexity, decreasing innovation and investment, and dampening economic growth. Previous research has identified framework...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coordinated disinformation campaigns are used to influence social media users, potentially leading to offline violence. In this study, we introduce a general methodology to uncover coordinated messaging through analysis of user parleys on Parler. The proposed method constructs a user-to-user coordination network graph induced by a user-to-text grap...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new social media phenomenon that sees users lying about their deceptive motivations by either dishonestly claiming that they are not bots or by asserting that real news is actually fake news. We analyzed the use of the #FakeNews and #NotABot hashtags in Twitter data collected on the 2019 Canadian federal elections. Our finding...
Article
Full-text available
Digital disinformation presents a challenging problem for democracies worldwide, especially in times of crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic. In countries like Singapore, legislative efforts to quell fake news constitute relatively new and understudied contexts for understanding local information operations. This paper presents a social cybersecurity...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Although patients with emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions frequently undergo interhospital transfers, the transfer patterns and associated factors are not well understood. Objective To examine whether patients with EGS conditions are consistently directed to hospitals with more resources and better outcomes. Design, Setting, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spread of coronavirus and anti-vaccine conspiracies online hindered public health responses to the pandemic. We examined the content of external articles shared on Twitter from February to June 2020 to understand how conspiracy theories and fake news competed with legitimate sources of information. Examining external content--articles, rather t...
Preprint
Full-text available
One of the critical emerging challenges in climate change communication is the prevalence of conspiracy theories. This paper discusses some of the major conspiracy theories related to climate change found in a large Twitter corpus. We use a state-of-the-art stance detection method to find whether conspiracy theories are more popular among Disbeliev...
Chapter
We develop an agent-based model of a Twitter environment to simulate using social-cyber (BEND) maneuvers to deter a disinformation campaign. We explore the use of the network maneuvers of back, build, and neutralize to manipulate the network and the information maneuvers of excite, dismay, explain, and dismiss to control the narrative. Using belief...
Chapter
This paper explores the viability of leveraging an identity-based framework for generalizable hate speech detection. Across a corpus of seven benchmark datasets, we find that hate speech consistently features higher levels of abusive and identity terms, robust to social media platforms of origin and multiple languages. Using only lexical counts of...
Chapter
Understanding how humans respond to an ongoing pandemic and interventions is crucial to monitoring and forecasting the dynamics of viral transmission. Heterogeneous response over time and geographical regions may depend on the individual beliefs and information consumption patterns of populations. To address the need for more precise and accurate e...
Chapter
A picture speaks a thousand words. Images are extremely effective at evoking emotions and presents a potentially damaging force to the health of digital discourse. While text-based emotion analysis has been studied, little work has examined the emotions images invoke on social media platforms. This work analyzes bot-based emotion behavior differenc...
Article
Full-text available
The fear of the unknown combined with the isolation generated by COVID-19 has created a fertile environment for strong disinformation, otherwise known as conspiracy theories, to flourish. Because conspiracy theories often contain a kernel of truth and feature a strong adversarial “other,” they serve as the perfect vehicle for maligned actors to use...
Article
Full-text available
Children with autism situated in lower income families often receive intensive educational interventions as their primary form of treatment, due to financial barriers for community interventions. However, the continuity of care can be disrupted by school transitions. The quality of social relationships during the transition to a new school among pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social influence characterizes the change of opinions in a complex social environment, incorporating an individual's past stances and the impact of interpersonal influence through the social network influence. In this work, we observe stance changes towards the coronavirus vaccine on Twitter from April 2020 to May 2021, where 1\% of the agents exhi...
Article
Full-text available
Online social networks allow users to share a variety of multi-media content on the World Wide Web. The rising popularity of such social networking platforms coupled with limitations in verifying the veracity of shared content has contributed to increase in misinformation on these media. Misinformation content such as fake-news and hoaxes, though o...
Article
Full-text available
The 2020 coronavirus pandemic has heightened the need to flag coronavirus-related misinformation, and fact-checking groups have taken to verifying misinformation on the Internet. We explore stories reported by fact-checking groups PolitiFact, Poynter and Snopes from January to June 2020. We characterise these stories into six clusters, then analyse...
Article
Bot-driven electoral disinformation represents a major threat to democracies worldwide. Extant scholarship, however, tends to concentrate around Western contexts. This paper undertakes a comparative computational analysis of bot activity during four recent elections in the Asia-Pacific. Through a systematic, multi-level comparison of bot activity,...
Article
Skill mismatch is worldwide issue as it can be effect job satisfaction, wages and multiple other factors. Analyzing selft-reported skill mismatch is highly studied in prior work. In this paper we study evidence of skill mismatch between three categories: Professionals, Students and Faculty member. We collect data from a survey. In this paper we use...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study of coordinated manipulation of conversations on social media has become more prevalent as social media's role in amplifying misinformation, hate, and polarization has come under scrutiny. We discuss the implications of successful coordination detection algorithms based on shifts of power, and consider how responsible coordination detectio...
Chapter
In this study we analyzed patterns of external website usage on Twitter during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a multi-view clustering technique, which is able to incorporate multiple views of the data, to cluster the websites’ URLs based on their usage patterns and tweet text that occurs with the URLs. The results of the multi-view clustering of UR...
Article
Objective/Aim We describe best practices for modeling egocentric networks and health outcomes using a five-step guide. Background Social network analysis (SNA) is common in social science fields and has more recently been used to study health-related topics including obesity, violence, substance use, health organizational behavior, and healthcare...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the last 20 years, terrorism has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths and massive economic, political, and humanitarian crises in several regions of the world. Using real-world data on attacks occurred in Afghanistan and Iraq from 2001 to 2018, we propose the use of temporal meta-graphs and deep learning to forecast future terrorist targets. F...
Article
Full-text available
In the last 20 years, terrorism has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths and massive economic, political, and humanitarian crises in several regions of the world. Using real-world data on attacks occurred in Afghanistan and Iraq from 2001 to 2018, we propose the use of temporal meta-graphs and deep learning to forecast future terrorist targets. F...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research across different disciplines has documented the expanding polarization in social media. However, much of it focused on the US political system or its culturally controversial topics. In this work, we explore polarization on Twitter in a different context, namely the protest that paralyzed several countries in the South American region in 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
Conversations on social media (SM) are increasingly being used to investigate social issues on the web, such as online harassment and rumor spread. For such issues, a common thread of research uses adversarial reactions, e.g., replies pointing out factual inaccuracies in rumors. Though adversarial reactions are prevalent in online conversations, in...
Article
Full-text available
Hate speech has long posed a serious problem for the integrity of digital platforms. Although significant progress has been made in identifying hate speech in its various forms, prevailing computational approaches have tended to consider it in isolation from the community-based contexts in which it spreads. In this paper, we propose a dynamic netwo...