Katherine B Carnelley

Katherine B Carnelley
University of Southampton · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

83
Publications
36,830
Reads
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2,291
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
University of Southampton
August 1994 - January 2000
Cardiff University
September 1991 - August 1994
University of Michigan
Education
September 1986 - May 1991
University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Field of study
  • Social - Personality Psychology
September 1986 - May 1989
University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Field of study
  • Social and Personality Psychology
September 1982 - June 1984

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
Perceiving one’s partner as supportive is considered essential for relationships, but we know little about which factors are central to predicting perceived partner support. Traditional statistical techniques are ill-equipped to compare a large number of potential predictor variables and cannot answer this question. This research used machine learn...
Article
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Romantic partners often support each other to progress toward goals. However, at times partners’ goals are not in harmony and conflict with partner or relationship needs, leading to negative consequences for couple members. The present study examined whether non-harmonious opportunities were associated with support provider’s and recipient’s behavi...
Article
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The term “phubbing” is a portmanteau of “phone” and “snubbing”, representing interruptions in face-to-face interactions due to smartphones acting as a distractor. Phubbing has previously been associated with several negative relational and personal outcomes (i.e., reduced relationship satisfaction, low mood, and increased interpersonal conflict). T...
Article
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Objectives: Paranoia describes unfounded interpersonal threat beliefs. Secure attachment imagery attenuates paranoia, but limited research examines mechanisms of change and no studies examine how secure imagery may be implemented most effectively in clinical practice. In this study, we tested: (a) the causal impact of secure, anxious, and avoidant...
Article
Full-text available
In the meta‐analysis, we combined evidence across studies from different theoretical perspectives addressing the association between partner support (responsive, practical, and negative support) and goal outcomes (self‐efficacy, commitment, and progress). The sample included 195 effect sizes from 36 samples with 10,130 participants in romantic rela...
Article
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COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the global economy and affected millions of people's work and personal lives across the world. The purpose of the present study was to better understand how individuals' work and personal goals have been affected by the pandemic and how they have adapted to these changes. We conducted qualitative semi-struct...
Article
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Background: The relationship between attachment and paranoia is now well established. There is good theoretical reason and evidence to indicate that attachment style affects cognitive, affective, and behavioural processes which, in turn, contribute to the maintenance of paranoia, but this research has not been integrated. We critically and systema...
Article
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Attachment security priming effects therapeutic change in people with depression and anxiety. Preliminary studies indicate that visualising secure attachment memories also reduces paranoia in non-clinical and clinical groups, probably due to a decrease in cognitive fusion. Benefits to clinical populations depend on the sustainability of these effec...
Article
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COVID-19 has resulted in a mental health crisis across the globe. Understanding factors that may have increased individuals' risk of poor mental health outcomes is imperative. Individual differences in attachment styles have been shown to predict poorer mental health outcomes and insecure individuals struggle to cope with stressful situations. Ther...
Article
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Following the global outbreak of COVID-19 in March 2020, individuals report psychological distress associated with the “new normal”—social distancing, financial hardships, and increased responsibilities while working from home. Given the interpersonal nature of stress and coping responses between romantic partners, based on the systemic transaction...
Article
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many couples are staying at home together for an extended period. This is likely to impact couples as they navigate their responsibilities while maintaining a healthy relationship during uncertain times. We conducted qualitative research to investigate participants’ perception on how relationships changed considering C...
Article
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When romantic partners’ personal goals conflict, this can negatively affect personal goal outcomes, such as progress. In a concurrent mixed methods study, we investigated whether goal conflict and negation of goal conflict were associated with goal outcomes (progress, confidence, motivation) and what strategies partners used during the COVID-19 pan...
Article
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Objectives. Paranoia describes unfounded and distressing interpersonal threat beliefs. Secure attachment imagery has been shown to attenuate paranoia and anxiety in non-clinical and clinical groups, but little is known about the differential effects of anxious and avoidant imagery or mechanisms of change. In this study, we tested the impact of secu...
Article
To further understand protective mechanisms to prevent post-traumatic stress disorder or assist recovery from psychological trauma, this study investigated whether pharmacological and psychological activation of a secure attachment representation elicits higher felt-security and a related response pattern of reduced physiological arousal and increa...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, people have been stuck indoors with their partners for months. Having a supportive partner is likely to be especially important during this time where access to outside sources of support is limited. The present mixed-methods study aimed to investigate how partner support is associated with goal outcomes during COVID-1...
Article
Due to the pandemic, people have been stuck indoors with their partners for months. Instead of being able to rely on multiple sources of support, many couples have to rely on each other more. We investigated whether goal conflict, successful negotiation of the conflict, and individual differences in attachment styles were associated with perceived...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, relationship researchers have become increasingly interested in examining whether partner support is associated with a range of outcomes in times of growth and opportunity and not merely in times of distress. In the present meta-analysis, we combined evidence across studies from different theoretical perspectives addressi...
Preprint
Interdependence theory suggests that romantic partners become more interdependent as they spend more time together. Due to COVID-19, partners have been together for an extended period while coping with demands caused by the pandemic. This is likely to lead to instances of conflict between partners’ goals. Goal conflict is damaging for relationships...
Preprint
Due to the pandemic, people have been stuck indoors with their partners for months. Instead of being able to rely on multiple sources of support, many couples have to rely on each other more. We investigated whether goal conflict, successful negotiation of the conflict, and individual differences in attachment styles were associated with partner su...
Article
Full-text available
: Attachment security priming has been extensively used in relationship research to explore the contents of mental models of attachment and examine the benefits derived from enhancing security. This systematic review explores the effectiveness of attachment security priming in improving positive affect and reducing negative affect in adults and chi...
Article
In four studies, we tested if workplace secure attachment entails organisational benefits, given that such relationships are associated with increased positive relationship emotions. In Study 1, employees rated the extent to which colleagues, supervisors, and other individuals fulfill the attachment functions. In Study 2, employees listed up to 10...
Article
We sought to understand how attachment orientation influenced attitudes towards different types of psychological therapies. In two studies, we (1) examined attachment orientation as a predictor of attitudes towards different therapies and (2) tested whether attachment security priming could improve attitudes. Study 1 (n = 339) found associations be...
Article
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the potential effectiveness of secure attachment priming in outpatients with depressive disorders. Methods: Forty-eight participants engaged in secure attachment priming or neutral priming in the laboratory (Time 1), after which they received three daily consecutive primes via text message (Times 2...
Article
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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
Using a bull’s-eye hierarchical mapping technique (HMT), the present study examined placement of parents in adults’ attachment networks over time. We hypothesized that attachment style would predict distance at which network members (mother, father, and romantic partner) would be placed from the core-self over time. Participants completed the HMT o...
Article
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Mindfulness practice has many mental and physical health benefits but can be perceived as ‘difficult’ by some individuals. This perception can discourage compliance with mindfulness meditation training programs. The present research examined whether the activation of thoughts and feelings related to attachment security and self-compassion (through...
Article
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Correlational evidence links attachment insecurity (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) to depression and anxiety (Carnelley, Pietromonaco, & Jaffe, 1994; Eng et al., 2001), but the causal directions of these relationships remain unspecified. Our aim (Study 1, N = 144) was to prime attachment anxiety and avoidance and test causal relations...
Article
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In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), e...
Article
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Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy provides a unique opportunity to collect and analyse data regarding the idiosyncratic content of people's core beliefs about the self, others and the world. 'Beating the Blues' users recorded a core belief derived through the downward arrow technique. Core beliefs from 1813 mental health patients were code...
Article
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The chief difference between Frost's same-sex and heterosexual couples was that same-sex couples experienced more stigma and discrimination. We discuss implications of these stressors for relationship outcomes and consider the role of attachment orientations. We also consider the imminent changes that might occur in these processes due to the legal...
Article
computerised cognitive behavioural therapy provides a unique opportunity to collect and analyse data regarding the idiosyncratic content of people’s core beliefs about the self, others and the world. Methods: ‘Beating the Blues’ users recorded a core belief derived through the downward arrow technique. Core beliefs from 1813 mental health patient...
Article
Full-text available
and Objectives: Individual differences after trauma vary considerably and can range from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to posttraumatic growth (PTG). Current theoretical models cannot fully explain this variability. Therefore, we integrated attachment theory with Ehlers and Clark’s model of PTSD to understand whether attachment style is asso...
Article
Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants...
Article
There are parallels between attachment needs (Bowlby, 1969/1982) and the love- and esteem-needs Maslow (1943) identified in his theory of self-actualization, which later included the other-oriented concept of self-transcendence (Koltko-Rivera, 2006). Our aim was to integrate these two theories of personality. A survey of undergraduates (N = 130) sh...
Article
Across two studies, we examined the extent to which adults' caregiving responses reflect the quality of care received from their attachment figures. Study 1 showed that romantic caregiving reflected the quality of perceived parental and partner care. Moreover, perceived partner care mediated the link between parental care and romantic caregiving, s...
Article
People with different attachment orientations rely on different sources of self-esteem. This 14-day diary study examined the impact of different types of feedback on self-esteem for adults of different attachment orientations. Consistent with theory, higher (vs. lower) anxious participants’ daily self-esteem fluctuated more with daily interpersonal...
Chapter
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Romantic love relationships are among the most endlessly fascinating, yet frustratingly complex, parts of life: inspiring more art, literature, and music than any other topic. Making sense of how and why romantic relationships function the way they do is, therefore, a research endeavour at once most rewarding and yet never-ending. Why do some relat...
Article
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Three studies tested and confirmed the hypothesis that secure attachment relationships lead to feelings of security and energy, as well as willingness to explore. In Study 1, priming a secure attachment relationship increased felt security and energy. In Studies 2 and 3, felt energy mediated the effect of (primed) secure attachment relationships on...
Article
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The current study examined the causal relationship between secure and anxious attachment orientations and pain sensitivity in a pain-free sample. In a double blind repeated measures study, a cold pressor task was used to induce acute pain in 95 participants before and after priming them with a secure or anxious attachment orientation or a neutral p...
Article
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Past research shows that attachment security is linked to low prejudice (Hofstra, Van Oudenhoven & Bunnk, 2005; Mikulincer & Shaver, 2001). We extend this research by examining the role of attachment security in discriminatory choices and discriminatory behaviour. The current study examines the influence of primed attachment security (vs. neutral p...
Article
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Coming out as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) to one's parents can be a challenging experience and may lead to acceptance or rejection. Attachment theory can help predict parents' reactions to coming out and consequences for romantic attachment. In a cross-sectional study of 309 LGB individuals, we found that those who perceived their mother as acc...
Data
Full-text available
There is a growing literature charting the positive personal and interpersonal effects of security priming. Security primes enhance self-and relationship views, and even evaluations of outgroups, relative to control primes. We examine how security priming is experienced by individuals and how its effects differ from those produced by other positive...
Article
Numerous studies on adult attachment have emphasized the content and valence of working models of self and others (e.g., Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). However, limited research has examined the impact of these models on the stability of evaluations of the self and close others. Foster, Kernis, and Goldman (2007) reported that individuals high in a...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing literature charting the positive personal and interpersonal effects of security priming. Security primes enhance self- and relationship views, and even evaluations of outgroups, relative to control primes. We examine how security priming is experienced by individuals and how its effects differ from those produced by other positiv...
Article
Adams et.al (2007) suggested a predictive model based on the dimensions of empathy, attachment and sexual attraction to differentiate between zoophilia and bestiality (animal sexual abuse). This paper develops this model by considering the role of anthropomorphism. It is known that anthropomorphism changes ‘normal’ care giving practices of pet owne...
Article
There is a growing literature charting the positive personal and interpersonal effects of security priming. Security primes enhance self- and relationship views, and even evaluations of outgroups, relative to control primes. We examine how security priming is experienced by individuals and how its effects differ from those produced by other positiv...
Article
Adults with different attachment orientations rely on different areas of life to maintain self-views. This paper reports two studies that examine the link between attachment and feedback-seeking patterns in interpersonal and competence-related domains. Participants in Study 1 imagined receiving feedback from a friend. Participants in Study 2 comple...
Article
Full-text available
Testing the idea that the process of forgiveness is intrinsically different across diverse relationships, this study examined the role of forgiveness in different family relationships. In 2 laboratory sessions 1 year apart, 114 families (each including 2 parents and 1 child) completed a new measure of family forgiveness and many individual-level, r...
Article
Testing the idea that the process of forgiveness is intrinsically different across diverse relationships, this study examined the role of forgiveness in different family relationships. In 2 laboratory sessions 1 year apart, 114 families (each including 2 parents and 1 child) completed a new measure of family forgiveness and many individual-level, r...
Article
A study of 80 couples (mean age 24) examined the impact of attachment patterns on reactions to manipulated positive or negative feedback, ostensibly from partners. As expected, individuals high in attachment anxiety reported more negative mood and the least indifference to partner feedback. In addition, those high in attachment anxiety reported mor...
Article
Research shows that priming attachment security results in positive relationship expectations and affect (Rowe & Carnelley, 2003). We examined whether repetitive priming of attachment security (e.g., experimentally activating cognitive representations of attachment security) would have more lasting effects on relationship- and self-views. Participa...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies of widowhood have focused on reactions during the first few years postloss. The authors investigated whether widowhood had more enduring effects using a nationally representative U.S. sample. Participants were 768 individuals who had lost their spouse (from a few months to 64 years) prior to data collection. Results indicated that the...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in attachment may influence the regulation of the sexual behavioural system in young adulthood. Two self-report studies examined the role of attachment dimensions in the link between sexual activity in the past year and current sexual self-esteem. In Study 1, attachment avoidance moderated the association between casual sex a...
Article
In 2 studies, we investigated the validity and usefulness of a bull's eye hierarchical mapping measure to examine the content and structure of attachment networks. The bull's eye identified network differences between people of different attachment styles and between different ages. Attachment networks varied in the number of members and their hier...
Article
Several theorists have proposed that differential socialization experiences lead men and women to differ in the importance they assign to relationships and in how they interpret and respond to relationships. To explore this idea, this study examined whether men and women who reported similar attachment experiences responded differently to informati...
Article
We investigated whether people can determine which partners are best able to confirm their self-views. Results suggest that people are able to determine the valence of a potential romantic partner's model of other (i.e., they are meta-accurate). Previous research indicates that people expect to have their specific negative and positive self-views c...
Article
The present research tested the extent to which perceptions of early childhood experiences with parents predicted general views of the self (i.e., self-esteem) and others (i.e., humanity-esteem), and whether attachment self- and other-models mediated these links. Two studies used a new measure of humanity-esteem (Luke & Maio, 2004) to achieve these...
Article
The present study explored processing biases resulting from manipulating the temporal accessibility of relational schemas. By priming relational schemas, relationship–specific attachment styles were activated and their biasing effect on relevant information processing (namely recall for attachment–relevant words versus other words, interpersonal ex...
Article
The goal of the attachment system is protection and felt security achieved by proximity to a caregiver; the goal of the exploratory system is discovery of the environment. These systems are complementary because a secure base enables one to explore the environment. As adults, people may explore through various leisure activities, such as travel or...
Article
We investigated the impact of widowhood on depression and how resources and contextual factors that define the meaning of loss modified this effect. In a prospective, nationally representative sample of women in the US aged 54 or older we compared 64 women who were widowed in the 3 years between data collection waves with 431 women who were stably...
Article
We examined the links among attachment, caregiving, and relationship functioning in both dating (Study 1) and married couples (Study 2), assessing both partners' perspectives. We found that (1) men and women generally evidenced caregiving characteristics similar to those of their parent% especially their same-sex parent; (2) individuals who reporte...
Chapter
In this chapter, we focus on how people react to the loss of an immediate family member, with special emphasis on reactions to sudden, traumatic loss. Although a few studies have examined loss as a result of community-level events such as floods or fires (see, e.g., Erikson, 1994; Green et al., 1990; Lindy, Green, Grace, & Titchener, 1983), the vas...
Article
Two studies examined depressives' working models of others and the relative contribution of these models and depression to relationship functioning. Respondents reported on their childhood relationships, adult attachment style, and relationship functioning. Study 1 compared mildly depressed and nondepressed college women, and Study 2 compared marri...
Article
Experiences with love in one's family of origin (between parent and child and between parents) and in recent romantic involvements were explored to understand better people's optimism about their success in intimate relationships. Two types of optimism were distinguished: optimism about future relationships in general, and optimism about marriage i...