Katharine A Rimes

Katharine A Rimes
King's College London | KCL · Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience

About

141
Publications
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4,829
Citations
Citations since 2016
81 Research Items
3296 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600

Publications

Publications (141)
Article
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Background Progress towards stratified care for anxiety and depression will require the identification of new predictors. We collected data on retrospectively self-reported therapeutic outcomes in adults who received psychological therapy in the UK in the past ten years. We aimed to replicate factors associated with traditional treatment outcome me...
Article
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Background Stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer (LGBQ) people may increase their risk of mental illness and reduce their access to and/or benefit from evidence-based psychological treatments. Little is known about the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of adapted psychological interventions for sexual minority individuals in the...
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Robust population-based research has established that sexual and gender minority youths (SGMYs) are at an increased risk of mental ill-health, but there is a dearth of literature that seeks to explore how to best support SGMY mental wellbeing. This scoping review aims to identify findings related to coping strategies and/or interventions for buildi...
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We applied a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) model of psychological distress and examined cognitive and behavioural predictors and mediators of depression, anxiety and suicidality among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer and other sexual or gender minority (LGBTQ+) students. LGBTQ + university students (N = 385) completed questionnaires at ba...
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ALSPAC birth-cohort data were analysed to assess prospective associations between childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), childhood/adolescent abuse, and adulthood PTSD symptoms. Structural equation models assessed whether abuse mediated the relationship between CGN and PTSD. Sex and sexual orientation differences were investigated. For females, high...
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Sexual minority young adults (lesbian, gay and bisexual), are at increased risk of experiencing mental health problems than their heterosexual peers. On average they also have lower self-esteem which may contribute to the development or maintenance of mental illnesses. Interventions to improve self-esteem could improve well-being and reduce mental...
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Research on mental health inequalities between sexual minority and heterosexual young adults has historically focussed on the additional stress processes that might explain this disparity. However, more recently there has been a shift towards research focussed on resilience factors that might promote mental health in sexual minority young adults. S...
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Sexual minorities (individuals with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, or other non-heterosexual identity) are at elevated risk of developing common mental health disorders relative to heterosexual people, yet have less favourable mental health service experiences and poorer treatment outcomes. We investigated the experiences of sexual minority servi...
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Background: Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are at an increased risk of a range of mental health problems. However, few evidence-informed interventions have been developed specifically to support their mental well-being. Interventions that are evidence-informed for the general population and are fine-tuned specifically with SGMY in mind pr...
Preprint
Background: There is substantial variation in patient symptoms following psychological therapy for depression and anxiety. However, reliance on endpoint outcomes ignores additional interindividual variation during therapy. Knowing a patient’s likely symptom trajectories could guide clinical decisions.Aim: Identify latent classes of patients with si...
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a virtual youth center, providing a safe and supportive online space for sexual minority young men to talk and learn about HIV, sexuality, relationships and sex – topics rarely addressed inclusively in mainstream education. Eleven male participants aged 15–19 years living in South England completed the full prog...
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Background The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme aims to provide equitable access to therapy for common mental disorders. In the UK, inequalities by ethnicity exist in accessing and receiving mental health treatment. However, limited research examines IAPT pathways to understand whether and at which points such inequaliti...
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Objectives: Stigma has been found to be associated with lower self-esteem, which increases the risk of difficulties across life domains including vulnerability to mental health problems. There are no previous studies of interventions for people experiencing low self-esteem in the context of different stigmatized characteristics. This study evaluat...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are at an increased risk of a range of mental health problems. However, few evidence-informed interventions have been developed specifically to support their mental well-being. Interventions that are evidence-informed for the general population and are fine-tuned specifically with SGMY in mind prof...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that sexual minorities (e.g., those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual) experience increased rates of depression compared to heterosexual individuals. Minority stress theory suggests that this disparity is due to stigma experienced by sexual minorities. Stigma processes are proposed to contribute to reduced coping/support re...
Article
Background Using a laboratory-based exercise task, this study investigated objective exercise performance as well as expectations, anxiety and perceived task performance ratings in adolescents with CFS compared to healthy controls and illness controls. Method Trials of a sit-stand exercise task (SST) were undertaken (CFS: n = 61, asthma (AS): n =...
Article
Sexual minorities, including those identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer (LGBQ) are at heightened risk of experiencing mental health problems. Nationally, treatment outcomes within England’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are worse for sexual minority patients than for heterosexuals. An IAPT service in London d...
Article
This study examined characteristics of cisgender people who use non-traditional sexual orientation labels and investigated minority stress in these groups. Pansexual (n = 160), queer (n = 80), and asexual (n = 98) participants were compared with heterosexual (n = 1,021), bisexual (n = 1,518), and lesbian/gay (n = 2,730) individuals recruited from a...
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Many individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and with other non-heterosexual orientations (LGBQ+) experience stigma, prejudice, and/or discrimination because of their sexuality. According to minority stress and identity development theories, these experiences can contribute to difficulties with self-acceptance of sexuality. Lower...
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Background and Aims: Due to exposure to societal stigma, self-acceptance of sexuality can be a challenging process for individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, or with other minority sexual identities (LGBQ+). Quantitative research in this area is limited and there is a lack of appropriately validated self-report questionnaires to...
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Previous research has firmly established that some individuals experience shame more frequently than others. This study employed a cross-sectional design to explore factors that are related to the experience of shame. In this study, 240 participants completed self-reported assessments of parental care and expectations, maternal attitudes toward neg...
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Sleep problems have a negative impact on a range of outcomes and are very common in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We aimed to (a) establish whether adolescents with CFS have more self-reported sleep problems than illness controls as well as healthy controls, (b) investigate changes in sleep problems and (c) explore the extent to...
Article
Objective Fatigue is a highly prevalent and debilitating problem in women with breast cancer. This study investigated the cognitive, behavioural, interpersonal and affective responses associated with fatigue and functional impairment for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A nested prospective study examined factors predictive of canc...
Article
Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has a major impact on functioning. However, no validated measures of functioning for this population exist. Aims We aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the 5-item School and Social Adjustment Scale (SSAS) and the 10-item Physical Functioning Subscale of the SF-36 in adolescents with CFS. Met...
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This study tested the mechanisms by which social stigma contributes to psychological distress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. A large community sample (N = 4248, M age = 29.9 years, 42.9% female, 57.1% male, 35.7% bisexual, 64.3% lesbian/gay, 9.9% non-white) was recruited using targeted and general advertisements for an online cross-sect...
Article
The tendency to select threatening over benign interpretations of ambiguous bodily sensations and cues characterises young people with chronic pain. However, previous studies disagree over whether these biases extend to non-bodily harm situations such as social evaluation. Understanding the content of these biases is crucial to the development of p...
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Background: Anxiety and depression are common, debilitating and costly. These disorders are influenced by multiple risk factors, from genes to psychological vulnerabilities and environmental stressors, but research is hampered by a lack of sufficiently large comprehensive studies. We are recruiting 40,000 individuals with lifetime depression or an...
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and other sexual minority (LGBQ+) people experience higher levels of psychological difficulties than heterosexual people. Evidence suggests that LGBQ+ treatment outcomes within England’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are worse than the outcomes for heterosexuals, especially for bisexual pe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Anxiety and depression are common, debilitating and costly. These disorders are influenced by multiple risk factors, from genes to psychological vulnerabilities and environmental stressors but research is hampered by a lack of sufficiently large comprehensive studies. We are recruiting 40,000 individuals with lifetime depression or anxi...
Article
Objective: This study investigates whether sexual minority patients have poorer treatment outcomes than heterosexual patients in England's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. These services provide evidence-based psychological interventions for people with depression or anxiety. Method: National routinely collected data...
Article
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Mindfulness has been proposed as an effective tool for regulating negative emotions and emotional disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between mindfulness and shame. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between mindfulness, self-compassion, and shame. One-hundred and fifty-nine participants complete...
Article
Background To better understand the maintenance of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), a valid and reliable measure of cognitive and behavioural responses to symptoms is required. Such a measure could also assess beliefs and coping behaviours in the context of fatigue in other somatic conditions. Aims We aimed to establish the psychometric properties...
Article
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Sexual minority individuals experience higher rates of mental health problems than heterosexual people. It has been suggested that minority stress explains this disparity, partly by elevating rates of general psychological risk factors such as low self-esteem. This study investigated self-esteem in sexual minority people compared with heterosexual...
Article
Objectives: The ability to accept painful feelings is associated with decreased distress and better functioning. We set out to design an instrument that specifically measures acceptance of shame and embarrassment, as this may be important for the social functioning and mood of people with chronic conditions. Methods: An item set was presented to 41...
Article
Introduction: Previous research has indicated that co-morbid depression is common in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Objectives: We sought to compare the characteristics of depressive symptoms in adolescents with CFS to those of healthy controls (HCs) and illness controls (adolescents with asthma). Design: Case-control study n...
Article
Background: What adolescents think about symptoms and what they do in response could contribute to fatigue maintenance. We compared the cognitive and behavioural responses of adolescents and their parents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS; N = 121) and asthma (N = 27) and explored the predictive value of these variables on fatigue and functioning...
Article
Objectives: To investigate perfectionism and beliefs about emotions in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and their parents. Design: Case-control comparing adolescents (age 11–18) with CFS (N = 121), asthma (N = 27) and healthy controls (N = 78) with a 3-month follow up for CFS participants. Main outcome measures: Adolescents: Chalder...
Article
Background: Retrospective and cross-sectional studies often report associations between childhood gender nonconformity and greater emotional and peer difficulties. This study used the ALSPAC birth cohort to investigate relationships between childhood gender-typed behavior and peer and emotional problems throughout childhood and adolescence. Metho...
Article
This study investigated general and LGBTQ-specific factors associated with having a current mental health problem, use of mental health services, suicide risk and self-harm in 1948 LGBTQ university students (ages 16-25) who took part in the Youth Chances community study in the UK. In multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with all fou...
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Background Discrimination is a well-established stressor that is substantially associated with poor health and a known contributor to health inequalities. However, the role of discrimination in health service use is less explored. This study will take an intersectional approach to investigate differences in health service use and examine the role o...
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Purpose Mental health simulation is the educational practice of recreating clinical situations in safe environments using actors, followed by structured debriefing, to foster professional development and improve care. Although evidence outlines the benefits of simulation, few studies have examined the impact of interprofessional mental health simul...
Article
Background Sexual minority youth have elevated suicidal ideation and self-harm compared with heterosexual young people; however, evidence for mediating mechanisms is predominantly cross-sectional. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated self-esteem and depressive symptoms as mediators of increased rates of suicidal ideation or self-harm (SISH)...
Article
Objectives Previous studies have found that parents of children with CFS are more fatigued, and mothers are more distressed than healthy controls. Managing the disabling symptoms of CFS can result in disruption and burden for the family. Most research has focused on mothers. This study sought to further explore the associations between adolescent f...
Article
The psycho-social contexts of older lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals suggest that they may face unique strengths and barriers in accessing social support. The present review aimed to explore what is known about this by providing a synthesis of this area of research and a methodological critique. The Applied Social Sciences Index (ASSIA),...
Article
The objective here was to explore beliefs about the causes of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a cohort of adolescents with CFS and their parents, and to explore the adolescent’s beliefs about recovery. Questionnaires were administered to a clinical cohort of adolescents (n = 104) and their parents (n = 102 mothers and 63 fathers), presenting to a...
Article
Background: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have elevated suicidality rates. Aims: To investigate LGB-related and other factors associated with suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and future suicide risk in a large UK sample. Method: Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with suicidality in 3,275 LGB young adul...
Article
Self-criticism is a transdiagnostic process associated with a range of psychological problems. This uncontrolled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session intervention using methods from compassion-focused therapy to reduce self-criticism, as well as investigating changes in a range of outcome measures. Twenty-three u...
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This pilot study compared mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with a self-help guide based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for university students experiencing difficulties due to perfectionism. Participants were randomised to an MBCT intervention specifically tailored for perfectionism or pure CBT self-help. Questionnaires were complet...
Article
Self-criticism is a trans-diagnostic construct that has been receiving considerable research and clinical attention. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore whether there is evidence from prospective studies that self-criticism is significantly associated with subsequent symptoms of psychopathology. Searches were carried out in four el...
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Introduction Beliefs about the unacceptability of expression and experience of emotion are present in the general population but seem to be more prevalent in patients with a number of health conditions. Such beliefs, which may be viewed as a form of perfectionism about emotions, may have a deleterious effect on symptomatology as well as on treatmen...
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Purpose Self‐criticism is a transdiagnostic process that has been attracting research and clinical interest. The accurate measurement of this construct is therefore crucial; however, there are currently numerous measures of self‐criticism and no guidelines about which to use in different contexts. This systematic review evaluated the measurement pr...
Article
Objective: To investigate efficacy, patient acceptability and feasibility of formulation-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). NICE guidelines for adult ADHD recommend further research into psychological treatments. Method: Sixty participants with adult ADHD were randomly alloc...
Article
Background Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a ‘common cause’ of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study inves...
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Objective: To report on the prevalence of mental health disorders in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to compare the diagnoses identified by a brief clinician-administered psychiatric interview with self-report screening questionnaires. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Consecutive attenders to specialist CFS clinics i...
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of “other-perceived” gender typicality and test its relationship with gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological distress. Data on these variables were collected from 632 participants (142 heterosexual men, 77 gay men, 50 bisexual men, 174 heterosexual women, 85 lesbian women, and...
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Background: Lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals experience more anxiety and depression than heterosexual people. Little is known about their comparative treatment response to psychological interventions. Aims: To compare sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes across sexual orientation groups, for adults receiving prim...
Article
Background: Little research has compared the mental health and victimization experiences of non-binary youth depending on their sex assigned at birth (SAAB), or compared these two groups with binary transgender youth. Aims: To compare mental health, self-harm and suicidality, substance use and victimization experiences between non-binary and binary...
Article
Objectives To explore the phenomenology of self-criticism, and the relationship with constructs such as rumination and perfectionism. Design The study followed a three-group (Depression, n = 26; Eating Disorder, n = 26; Non-clinical, n = 26) mixed methods design. Method Participants completed a set of questionnaires and were interviewed about the...
Article
This study tested direct and indirect associations between minority stressors and psychological distress a large, geographically diverse sample of transgender individuals (N = 1,207). Transgender individuals were recruited for an online, cross-sectional survey using targeted sampling. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized...
Article
Background: Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. youth not exclusively heterosexual) report more anxiety than heterosexual youth on symptom questionnaires but no research has used standardised diagnostic tools to investigate anxiety disorder risk. This study uses a UK birth cohort to investigate the risk of anxiety disorders in sexual minority and he...
Article
Background: Self-critical thinking is common across psychological disorders. This study hypothesized that it may play an important role in 'overgeneralization', the process of drawing general implications from an isolated negative experience. Aims: To explore the impact of two experimental tasks designed to elicit self-critical thoughts on the e...
Article
Introduction Literature suggests individuals who exhibit unhealthy perfectionist traits are more likely to be characterised by unhelpful emotion coping responses. The present study aims to explore negative beliefs about emotions as a mediator between unhealthy perfectionism and emotional suppression, and whether emotional suppression mediated the a...
Article
Background: Stress vulnerability has been implicated in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but has rarely been investigated directly. This study compared psychological and physiological responses to a laboratory social performance task in adolescents with CFS with chronic illness (asthma) and healthy control groups. Methods: Adolescents...
Article
Background: Cognitive-behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suggest that personality factors such as perfectionism and high moral standards may contribute to the development of CFS. Aims: To investigate cognitive, behavioural and emotional processing risk factors for CFS. Method: CFS patients (n = 67) at a UK specialist clinic c...
Article
Objectives: Trans-diagnostic approaches suggest that key cognitive and behavioural processes maintain symptoms across a wide range of mental health disorders. Fatigue is a common clinical feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood; however, empirical data supporting its prevalence are lacking. This study aimed to colla...
Article
Background: It has been suggested that the behavioural activation (BA) treatments for depression unfold their effects, at least partly, through changes in approach and avoidance tendencies. However, as yet, little research has examined the cognitive effects of these interventions. Aims: This study investigated the impact of a single session of B...
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Background: Diagnosis threat is a psychosocial factor proposed to contribute to poor cognitive outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current research explored diagnosis threat impact on objective and subjective cognitive performance in a "high risk" population of athletes. Two possible moderators of diagnosis threat - injury b...
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Background: Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a heritable disorder associated with laxity and pain in multiple joints. Physiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, but there is little research investigating its clinical effectiveness. Objectives: To develop a comprehensive physiotherapy intervention for adults with JHS; to pilot the intervent...
Article
Beliefs that it is unacceptable to experience or express negative emotions have been found to be associated with various clinical problems. It is unclear how such beliefs, which could be viewed as a form of unhelpful perfectionism about emotions, may contribute to symptomatology. Aims: This study investigated two hypotheses: a) greater endorsement...
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Objective: Emotional processing differences in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been reported but have rarely been investigated experimentally. This study used self-report, observer ratings, and electrodermal responses to test hypotheses about emotion suppression and autonomic reactivity. Methods: Eighty adults with CFS and 80 healthy control...
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Full-text available
Mental health among UK inner city non-heterosexuals: the role of risk factors, protective factors and place – CORRIGENDUM - C. Woodhead, B. Gazard, M. Hotopf, Q. Rahman, K. A. Rimes, S. L. Hatch
Article
Background: Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is a heritable disorder associated with laxity and pain in multiple joints. Physiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment but there is little research investigating its effectiveness. The aim of this study was therefore to conduct a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the feasibility of c...
Article
Objective Parkinson's disease is associated with high rates of depression. There is growing interest in non-pharmacological management including psychological approaches such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. To date, little research has investigated whether processes that underpin cognitive models of depression, on which such treatment is based, app...
Article
Objective: Neuroticism, a characteristic associated with increased stress vulnerability and the tendency to experience distress, is strongly linked to risk of different forms of psychopathology. However, there are few evidence-based interventions to target neuroticism. This pilot study investigated the efficacy and acceptability of mindfulness-bas...
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Full-text available
Sexual minorities experience excess psychological ill health globally, yet the UK data exploring reasons for poor mental health among sexual minorities is lacking. This study compares the prevalence of a measure of well-being, symptoms of common mental disorder (CMD), lifetime suicidal ideation, harmful alcohol and drug use among inner city non-het...