Kate Scow

Kate Scow
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Land, Air and Water Resources

PhD

About

394
Publications
75,007
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
23,207
Citations
Citations since 2016
89 Research Items
10167 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500

Publications

Publications (394)
Article
Full-text available
Soil organic amendments in agricultural production can benefit crop production and a wide range of soil properties, including soil aggregation. Soil aggregate formation is largely driven by microbial activities, and can in-turn influence microbial communities by generating distinct microbial habitats, as well as associated impacts on water and nutr...
Article
Aggregate stability is a commonly used indicator of soil health because improvements in aggregate stability are related to reduced erodibility and improved soil–water dynamics. During the past 80 to 90 years, numerous methods have been developed to assess aggregate stability. Limited comparisons among the methods have resulted in varied magnitudes...
Article
Full-text available
Fungi and bacteria are the two dominant groups of soil microbial communities worldwide. By controlling the turnover of soil organic matter, these organisms directly regulate the cycling of carbon between the soil and the atmosphere. Fundamental differences in the physiology and life history of bacteria and fungi suggest that variation in the biogeo...
Article
Soil microbial communities regulate a myriad of critical biogeochemical functions in forest ecosystems. Anthropogenic disturbances in natural forests could drive major shifts in plant and microbial communities resulting in substantial biogeochemical alterations. We evaluated the effect of anthropogenic disturbances in the soils of Andean temperate...
Article
Full-text available
California has unsustainable use of agricultural water and energy, as well as problems of severe drought, nitrate pollution and groundwater salinity. As the leading producer and exporter of agricultural produce in the United States, 5.6 percent of California’s energy is currently used for pumping groundwater. These problems and new regulatory polic...
Article
Farmers, scientists, and other soil health stakeholders require interpretable indicators of soil hydraulic function. Determining which indicators to use has been difficult because of measurement disconformity, spatial and temporal variability, recently established treatments, and the effect of site characteristics on management practice differences...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is closely tied to soil health. However, additional biological indicators may also provide insight about C dynamics and microbial activity. We used SOC and the other C indicators (potential C mineralization, permanganate oxidizable C, water extractable organic C, and ß-glucosidase enzyme activity) from the North American P...
Article
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is closely tied to soil health. However, additional biological indicators may also provide insight about C dynamics and microbial activity. We used SOC and the other C indicators (potential C mineralization, permanganate oxidizable C, water extractable organic C, and β-glucosidase enzyme activity) from the North American P...
Preprint
Fungi and bacteria are the two dominant groups of soil microbial communities worldwide. By controlling the turnover of soil organic matter, these organisms directly regulate the exchange of carbon between the soil and the atmosphere. Fundamental differences in the physiology and life history of bacteria and fungi suggest that variation in the bioge...
Article
Full-text available
Currently accepted pedotransfer functions show negligible effect of management induced changes to soil organic carbon (SOC) on plant available water holding capacity (θAWHC), while some studies show the ability to substantially increase θAWHC through management. The Soil Health Institute’s North America Project to evaluate soil health measurements...
Article
Full-text available
Potential carbon mineralization (Cmin) is a commonly used indicator of soil health, with greater Cmin values interpreted as healthier soil. While Cmin values are typically greater in agricultural soils managed with minimal physical disturbance, the mechanisms driving the increases remain poorly understood. This study assessed bacterial and archaeal...
Article
Full-text available
Currently accepted pedotransfer functions show negligible effect of management-induced changes to soil organic carbon (SOC) on plant available water holding capacity (θAWHC), while some studies show the ability to substantially increase θAWHC through management. The Soil Health Institute's North America Project to Evaluate Soil Health Measurements...
Article
Full-text available
Subsoil carbon (C) stocks are a prime target for efforts to increase soil C storage for climate change mitigation. However, subsoil C dynamics are not well understood, especially in soils under long-term intensive agricultural management. We compared subsoil C storage and soil organic matter (SOM) composition in tomato–corn rotations after 25 years...
Article
Full-text available
Potential carbon mineralization (Cmin) is a commonly used indicator of soil health, with greater Cmin values interpreted as healthier soil. While Cmin values are typically greater in agricultural soils managed with minimal physical disturbance, the mechanisms driving the increases remain poorly understood. This study assessed bacterial and archaeal...
Article
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is widely cultivated to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs for the subsequent crop and can improve soil nitrogen (N) availability and crop yields, widely referred to as the “rotation effect.” The soil mechanisms behind these effects may be due to changes associated with the rhizosphere microbial community of alfalfa....
Article
Soil and soil biodiversity play critical roles in Nature's Contributions to People (NCP) # 10, defined as Nature's ability to regulate direct detrimental effects on humans, and on human-important plants and animals, through the control or regulation of particular organisms considered to be harmful. We provide an overview of pathogens in soil, focus...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue provides an assessment of the contribution of soils to Nature's Contributions to People (NCP). Here, we combine this assessment and previously published relationships between NCP and delivery on the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to infer contributions of soils to the SDGs. We show that in addition to contributing positi...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The theory of ecological stoichiometry mostly builds on studies of natural terrestrial ecosystems, whereas only limited stoichiometry information is available in response to agronomic practices. Methods We designed a greenhouse experiment in order to disentangle the specific role of cover crop identity and soil characteristic in affecting nut...
Preprint
Full-text available
Subsurface carbon stocks are a prime target for efforts to increase soil carbon storage for climate change mitigation and improving soil health. However, subsurface carbon (C) dynamics are not well understood, especially in soils under long term intensive agricultural management. We compared subsurface C dynamics in tomato-corn rotations after 25 y...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Recent foodborne disease outbreaks have caused farmers to re-evaluate their practices. In particular, concern that soil amendments could introduce foodborne pathogens onto farms and promote their survival in soils has led farmers to reduce or eliminate the application of animal-based composts. However, organic amendments (such as composts an...
Article
Compost application to soil can have numerous agricultural benefits, but our understanding of the persistence and roles of compost microbes in soil following amendment is limited. Studies of microbial invasion ecology could improve this understanding, yet most studies to date have focused on single invaders in constant environments. In contrast, ma...
Article
Full-text available
Copper (Cu) products, including copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO), are critically important agricultural fungicides and algaecides. Foliar application onto crops and subsequent aerosol drift of these Cu products, especially nCuO, on...
Article
Full-text available
Enhancing soil organic matter in agricultural soils has potential to contribute to climate mitigation while also promoting soil health and resilience. However, soil carbon (C) sequestration projects are rare in C markets. One concern surrounding soil C is uncertainty regarding the permanence of newly sequestered soil C. This scientific uncertainty...
Article
Application of municipal biosolids in agriculture present a concern with potential uptake and bioaccumulation of pharmaceutical compounds from biosolids into agronomic plants. We evaluated the efficacy of biochar as a soil amendment to minimize uptake of antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, triclocarban, and triclosan) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) a...
Article
Full-text available
Root exploitation of soil heterogeneity and microbially mediated rhizosphere nutrient transformations play critical roles in plant resource uptake. However, how these processes change under water-saving irrigation technologies remains unclear, especially for organic systems where crops rely on soil ecological processes for plant nutrition and produ...
Article
Extreme hydrological processes, such as prolonged drought and frequent wet-dry cycles, are major consequences of climate change and can influence agroecosystems by altering soil microbial communities and associated processes. Two increasingly popular soil amendments, biosolids and biochar, may reduce the negative impacts of extreme hydrological pro...
Article
Full-text available
Root exploitation of soil heterogeneity and microbially mediated rhizosphere nutrient transformations play critical roles in plant resource uptake. However, how these processes change under water-saving irrigation technologies remains unclear, especially for organic systems where crops rely on soil ecological processes for plant nutrition and produ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Contamination of foods or environments by fungi, especially those resistant to conventional fungicides or drugs, represents a hazard to human health. The objective of this study is to identify safe, natural antifungal agents that can rapidly remove fungal pathogens or contaminants from food and/or environmental sources. Results: Fift...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils can contribute to stabilizing or even lowering atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Cover crop rotation has been shown to increase SOC and provide productivity benefits for agriculture. Here we used a split field design to evaluate the short-term effect of cover crop on S...
Chapter
Semiarid and Mediterranean agroecosystems represent the bread and produce baskets of the world food supply, but they are also some of the most susceptible ecosystems to negative effects from rising global temperatures. It is no coincidence that as concern about climate change and food security grows, so has worldwide interest in soil health and car...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive management practices that maximize yields while improving yield resilience are required in the face of resource variability and climate change. Ecological intensification such as organic farming and cover cropping are lauded in some studies for fostering yield resilience, but subject to criticism in others for their low productivity. We im...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen is a critical component of the economy, food security, and planetary health. Many of the world's sustainability targets hinge on global nitrogen solutions, which, in turn, contribute lasting benefits for (i) world hunger; (ii) soil, air, and water quality; (iii) climate change mitigation; and (iv) biodiversity conservation. Balancing the p...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of applying anaerobically digested food waste and dairy manure-derived biofertilizers to processing tomatoes. The biofertilizers were produced from a pilot scale system consisting of coarse solid separation and ultrafiltration (5,000 Da) with a capacity of approximately 3.8 m3*d-1. The coarse solids had particle...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) via organic inputs is a key strategy for increasing long‐term soil C storage and improving the climate change mitigation and adaptation potential of agricultural systems. A long‐term trial in California's Mediterranean climate revealed impacts of management on SOC in maize‐tomato and wheat–fallow cropping system...
Technical Report
In collaboration with the University of California, PowWow Energy developed software that uses energy data from investor-owned utility smart electric meters to calculate water flow volumes for irrigation well pumps and booster pumps. No installation of new pump hardware is required to make these measurements. Growers are offered a software-as-a-ser...
Article
The ability of soil to retain water under drought and other extreme hydrological events is critical to the sustainability of food production systems and preserving soil ecosystem services. We investigated the impact of biochar on water retention properties in California agricultural soils in a series of column, lab incubation, and field studies. Re...
Article
Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities in row-crop and grassland soils, provide essential ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, organic matter decomposition, and soil structure, but fungi are also more sensitive to physical disturbance than other microorganisms. Adoption of conservation management practices such as no-till...
Article
Full-text available
Methane generated from small-rate releases of ethanol-blended fuels into the vadose zone potentially poses health and safety risks. Ubiquitous methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soils can convert CH4 into CO2, potentially alleviating these risks. Understanding MOB ecology can help to better predict where subsurface CH4 production may pose health a...
Article
Full-text available
Shallow, small-rate releases of ethanol-blended fuels from underground storage tanks (USTs) may be quite common and result in subsurface CH4 generation. However, vadose zone transport of CH4 generated from these fuel releases is poorly understood, despite the potential to promote vapor intrusion or create explosion hazards. In this study, we simula...
Article
Full-text available
Ugandan smallholder farmers need to feed a growing population, but their efforts are hampered by declining soil fertility rates. Agricultural extension can facilitate farmers’ access to new practices and technologies, yet farmers are understandably often hesitant to adopt new behaviors. New knowledge assimilation is an important component of behavi...
Article
This study investigated the effect of organic matter on the precipitation of struvite and calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery from synthetic dairy wastewater. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to precipitate phosphorus from solutions containing PO4³⁻ and NH4⁺ by the addition of Mg²⁺ and Ca²⁺, separately, at varying pH, Mg/P and C...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing tillage and growing cover crops, widely recommended practices for boosting soil health, have major impacts on soil communities. Surprisingly little is known about their impacts on soil microbial functional diversity, and especially so in irrigated Mediterranean ecosystems. In long-term experimental plots at the West Side Research and Exten...
Data
The effect of different treatments on community-weighted mean estimated traits (rRNA gene copy numbers and genome size) pooled across treatments. Estimates were carried out for a) average 16S rRNA gene copies per genome and b) average genome size. The effects of soil depth, tillage, and cover cropping are shown. Letters above boxplots indicate sign...
Data
Average values for total bacteria and archaea under different treatments. (XLSX)
Data
The relative average abundance of the top 15 bacterial phyla and archeaal phyla under different treatments. (XLSX)
Data
Total bacteria and archaea numbers. Total bacteria and archaea numbers in a Mediterranean-climate agricultural soil at different depths and under different cropping regimes: a-b) depth; c-d) tillage; e-f) cover cropping. Letters above boxplots indicate significant difference (p < 0.05); letters in brackets indicate significant difference (p < 0.1)....
Data
Treatments and plots sampled. (XLSX)
Data
Illumina sequencing primers used in this study. (XLSX)
Data
Pairwise Spearman correlation coefficients. Coefficients of soil physicochemical data and total bacterial and archaeal numbers in the NTCC, STCC, NTNO and STNO treatments at WSREC. Significant correlations (P<0.05) highlighted in green (positive) or red (negative). (XLSX)
Data
The average values for assigned traits rRNA gene copy number and genome size under different treatments. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
The Century Experiment at the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility at the University of California, Davis provides long-term agroecological data from row crop systems in California's Central Valley starting in 1993. The Century Experiment was initially designed to study the effects of a gradient of water and nitrogen availability on soil...
Article
Full-text available
Ca-amendments are recommended for soil fertility enhancement in acid soils. Biochar (Bc) can be used as an alternative for the same purpose. Biochar additions have been reported to alter microbial communities in soils and biogeochemical processes including nitrogen (N) cycling. In a microcosm experiment, we investigated the interactive effects of s...
Article
The Brazilian cerrado comprises a diverse vegetation gradient with soils of different physicochemical properties. Previous studies have reported that these different physicochemical properties influence the responses of soil microbial properties. However, no study to date has evaluated the responses of ammonia-oxidizing organisms across the gradien...
Article
Full-text available
California's Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are a major source of U.S. fruits and vegetables, and vulnerable to future extremes of precipitation and temperature brought on by climate change, including increased drought and flooding, and more intense and longer heat waves. To develop resilience to these threats, strategies are necessary for climate-s...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture in California contributes 8% of the state's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To inform the state's policy and program strategy to meet climate targets, we review recent research on practices that can reduce emissions, sequester carbon and provide other co-benefits to producers and the environment across agriculture and rangeland systems....
Article
Biochar soil amendments are often considered as a soil carbon (C) sequestration strategy that can have beneficial impacts on a range of soil properties and plant production. We investigated the impact of two distinct types of biochar on soil chemical properties, microbial communities, soil aggregation and aggregate-associated C within two Californi...
Article
Soil microbial communities control critical ecosystem processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter formation. Continental scale patterns in the composition and functioning of microbial communities are related to climatic, biotic, and edaphic factors such as temperature and precipitation, plant community composition, an...
Article
Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One poten...
Article
The concept of soil health has attracted considerable attention during the past two decades, but few studies have focused on the effects on soil health of long-term soil management in arid irrigated environments. We investigated the effects of cover cropping and no-till management on soil physical and chemical properties during a 15-year experiment...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presented at the American Society of Agronomy California Chapter Meeting, January 31, 2017
Article
Many field studies exploring biochars’ effects on plant productivity and soil quality have been limited to just one or two seasons, particularly in temperate agroecosystems, and have not shown how such impacts change as biochars age in the soil. Therefore, we investigated the lasting effects of a walnut shell (WS) biochar on crop yields and soil nu...
Data