Katarina Borer

Katarina Borer
University of Michigan | U-M · School of Kinesiology

Ph.D.

About

135
Publications
19,832
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2,415
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Publications

Publications (135)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study had two aims: (1) To confirm the efficacy of exercise speed and impulse (session duration at a given speed) to produce total and abdominal fat loss in postmenopausal women, and (2) compare the exercise speed and impulse necessary for the stimulation of fat loss to the suppression of bone mineral loss. Of special interest w...
Article
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The current prevalence of obesity in the US is strongly associated with excessive food intake and insufficient physical activity. This study examined whether changing the timing of exercise before or after two daily meals could alter human appetite for food. Fifty-four healthy postmenopausal women were matched by body weight and assigned to two gro...
Article
Full-text available
The intent of this review is to survey physiological, psychological, and societal obstacles to the control of eating and body weight maintenance and offer some evidence-based solutions. Physiological obstacles are genetic and therefore not amenable to direct abatement. They include an absence of feedback control against gaining weight; a non-homeos...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis currently afflicts 8 million postmenopausal women in the US, increasing the risk of bone fractures and morbidity, and reducing overall quality of life. We sought to define moderate exercise protocols that can prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our previous findings singled out higher walking speed and pre-exercise meals as necessary...
Article
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Type 2 diabetes increases bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Usual treatment with anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs has some undesirable side effects, which justified our interest in the osteogenic potential of nutrition and exercise. Since meal eating reduces bone resorption, downhill locomotion increases mechanical stress, and brief o...
Article
Structural integrity of bones is supported by mechanical loading, energy intake, and sex hormones. It is unclear why postmenopausal (PM) diabetics experience more bone breaks despite higher body weight and positive energy balance than non-diabetics. We hypothesized that greater bone fragility in PM diabetics may result from peripheral insulin resis...
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Fat gain in our United States (US) environment of over-abundant, convenient, and palatable food is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and increased mortality. Fuller understanding of physiological and environmental challenges to healthy weight maintenance could help prevent these morbidities. Human physiological limitat...
Article
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic...
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Background Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads f...
Data
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Data
Detailed IRB clinical trial protocols. (PDF)
Article
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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) or adult-onset diabetes has significantly increased in the U.S. during the past several decades not only in adults (1) but also in adolescents (2) and children (3). In view of the health, personal, and financial burdens of T2D (2,4), the high interest and effort toward its prevention or reversal is understand...
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A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the (1) autonomic nervous system (ANS); (2) the suprachiasmatic (SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding w...
Article
Objectives This multi-center study was conducted to objectively evaluate energy expenditure and physical activity (PA) patterns on school days and weekends in urban 11-year-olds.Methods The sample consisted of 241 children from three cities: Zagreb, Ljubljana (both in Central Europe) and Ann Arbor (United States). Energy expenditure and PA were ass...
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Aim: Objective methods were used to evaluate children's sleep and physical activity over several days in order to test the hypotheses that: (1) low average sleep duration and/or sleep efficiency are linked to a low amount of physical activity; and (2) a reduction in sleep quantity and/or sleep efficiency during the night is followed by a decrease...
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To study whether 3-months aerobic exercise training at moderate intensity once a week can increase fitness status in healthy sedentary young men. Randomized controlled study was performed in 37 sedentary young men, 18 to 25 years old. The exercise group (19) was assigned to work on bicycle ergometry at 60% of maximal effort, once a week for 12 week...
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To investigate the effects of moderate-intensity and low frequency exercise on resting serum testosterone and cortisol levels, resting heart rate, and isokinetic strength among healthy sedentary young men. A randomized controlled study. Forty sedentary young men aged 18 to 25 years old, pedaled 50 minutes on a bicycle ergometry at 60% of maximal ef...
Article
BORER, K.T. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 114-121, 2010. Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characterist...
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Reduced counterregulatory responses to a next-day hypoglycemic challenge and hypoglycemia result from two spaced episodes of moderate-intensity exercise and have been characterized as exercise-associated autonomic failure. We hypothesized that this phenomenon is caused by postabsorptive state at the time of exercise rather than by autonomic failure...
Article
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It is uncertain how between-meal variations in energy availability and physiological changes in ghrelin, leptin, and insulin affect appetite. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the influence on human appetite of the meal size and its nutrient content or changes in energy availability and concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. W...
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Over the past quarter century obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. Exercise is one of the behavioral approaches to curbing weight gain or losing body fat. We reviewed the data on (1) magnitude of weight and fat loss when exercise is implemented without any changes in food intake, (2) necessary volumes and intensitie...
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Mechanical stresses on the bone are an important aspect of physical activity that promotes bone preservation and increases in bone mass. Exercise intensities leading to bone preservation and accrual have not been adequately defined for humans in general, and postmenopausal women in particular. To quantify parameters of effective walking intensity f...
Article
Role for ghrelin, leptin and CCK in ratings of hunger or fullness was examined in 12 healthy volunteers in five 11-h long trials. A 500 kcal meal at 6 h in a sedentary trial (SF) served as a control. A total of 400 kcal were either withhheld from breakfast (SR) or expended through exercise (between 10 and 12 h) In each experimental arm (SRR and EXR...
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GH is strongly related to body composition, physical activity, and pubertal progression. Adolescent girls decrease physical activity during puberty, whereas their weight increases. Because leptin is a good index of energy balance in active young women, we hypothesized that leptin is related to GH secretion in this population while taking into accou...
Article
To reduce the need for rehabilitation, BIOCOS, coordinated from the Halberg Chronobiology Center in Minnesota, has been collecting international reference values, notably of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), specified as a function of time, gender and age, to identify abnormality within the physiological range, so that prophylactic intervent...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) will elicit reflex metabolic compensations but no increases in hunger. Exercise expended 800 kcal once when fasted and at another time in a post-prandial state. During fasting exercise, pre-meal ratings of hunger were unaffected by EEE, but plasma concentrations of ghrelin, growth horm...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that diminishes quality of life and levies a financial burden on those who fear and experience bone fractures. Physical activity as a way to prevent osteoporosis is based on evidence that it can regulate bone maintenance and stimulate bone formation including the accumulation of mineral, in addition to stren...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that diminishes quality of life and levies a financial burden on those who fear and experience bone fractures. Physical activity as a way to prevent osteoporosis is based on evidence that it can regulate bone maintenance and stimulate bone formation including the accumulation of mineral, in addition to stren...
Conference Paper
Background: It has been shown that physically active people generally consume healthier diets than non-physically active people. To date, researchers have examined groups of active versus inactive people and their dietary choices. However peoples’ behavior on days in which they exercise and that same group of people on days in which they do not exe...
Article
"Chronoastrobiology: are we at the threshold of a new science? Is there a critical mass for scientific research?" A simple photograph of the planet earth from outer space was one of the greatest contributions of space exploration. It drove home in a glance that human survival depends upon the wobbly dynamics in a thin and fragile skin of water and...
Article
Am J Hypertens (2004) 17, 57A–58A; doi: 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.03.146 P-72: Blood pressure and pulse dynamics quantify everyday life's emotions — if excessive by circadian overswinging, chat Balasasikumar Sundaram1, R. Hanumansetty1, G. Cornelissen1, Kuniaki Otsuka1, George S. Katinas1, Jarmila Seigelova1, Pavel Homolka1, Salvador Sanchez De La P...
Article
Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in a physically fit, normotensive postmenopausal African American woman, before and after 15 weeks of aerobic training. Mean BP, HR, and HR variability were normal at the outset and were further improved by training. Training had no effect on circadian BP variation, which exceeded gen...
Article
This review provides evidence that the bioengineering community needs to develop cost-effective, fully unobtrusive, truly ambulatory instrumentation for the surveillance of blood pressure and heart rate. With available instrumentation, we document a disease risk syndrome, circadian blood pressure over-swinging (CHAT, short for circadian hyper-ampli...
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Exercise stimulates reproductive function in hamsters exposed to short-day photoperiod (SDP) in contrast to its inhibitory effects in women and rats. SDP inhibits hamster reproduction in part by increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPGA) to the negative feedback of gonadal steroids. To determine whether EX facilitat...
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The way in which exercise influences statural, hypertrophic and reparative growth is examined from the perspective of the human lifespan. Statural growth depends on a neuroendocrine programme which channels nutrient energy towards increments in lean body mass. Exercise can facilitate statural growth and is a necessary stimulus for reparative growth...
Article
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We tested the hypothesis that voluntary running and moderate food restriction alter the acute phase response (APR), one index of nonspecific immune function. Hamsters were kept sedentary or permitted to run and were fed ad libitum or had food restricted for 20 days and were then injected intraperitoneally with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fe...
Article
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Acute aerobic exercise has been shown to elicit physiological changes characteristic of the acute phase response (APR), a nonspecific host defense response. Regular evocation of these changes may prime the immune system to improve resistance to disease. Because food deprivation is associated with an impaired APR, food restriction may prevent these...
Article
To establish the relative importance of light and food in the control of core temperature (Tc) rhythm in food-restricted hamsters, mature female hamsters maintained in 14L:10D lighting were fed restricted amounts of food at the onset of light (n = 6) or at the onset of dark (n = 6) and were compared to ad lib-fed animals. After 21-25 days of this e...
Article
To assess exercise effects on growth, other variables modulating growth need to be taken into account. Endogenous control of growth proceeds from local actions of growth factors and dependence on nutrition abundance through guidance by growth hormone (GH) and other anabolic hormones to neuroendocrine suppression of growth. Nutrient abundance contro...
Article
Female Sprague-Dawley rats (12:12-h light-dark photoperiod) with access to running wheels have an elevated body temperature (BT) both during exercise (nighttime) and nonexercise periods (daytime). We studied whether the exercise-induced increase in BT is modulated by the release of the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Two weeks after th...
Article
Female Sprague-Dawley rats (12:12-h photoperiod; body temperature, BT, measured with biotelemetry) with access to running wheels for 6 wk have an elevated BT (compared with rats with no access to exercise wheels, i.e, sedentary) both during the period of voluntary exercise (nighttime) (0.5 degree C, P = 0.0001) and the nonexercise period (daytime)...
Article
Voluntary exercise during ad libitum feeding accelerates growth in mature female hamsters. If food is restricted during the exercise period, growth is suppressed, but ad libitum access to food at the cessation of exercise permits rapid catch-up growth in length and weight during retirement. To see whether the exercise-induced stimulus to grow persi...
Article
The possibility that habitual voluntary running induces a chronic change in adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis and secretion was examined in freely running mature female hamsters, in whom this behavior accelerates growth, reduces body fat levels, and elevates core temperature. Hamsters were free to run on horizontal discs or in vertical wheels betwee...