# Karthik C. S.Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers

Karthik C. S.

Faculty at Rutgers University

## About

42

Publications

2,366

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258

Citations

## Publications

Publications (42)

Brouwer’s fixed point theorem states that any continuous function from a compact convex space to itself has a fixed point. Roughgarden and Weinstein (FOCS 2016) initiated the study of fixed point computation in the two-player communication model, where each player gets a function from [0,1]^n to [0,1]^n , and their goal is to find an approximate fi...

The k-Clique problem is a canonical hard problem in parameterized complexity. In this paper, we study the parameterized complexity of approximating the k-Clique problem where an integer k and a graph G on n vertices are given as input, and the goal is to find a clique of size at least k/F(k) whenever the graph G has a clique of size k. When such an...

We consider the classic 1-center problem: Given a set P of n points in a metric space find the point in P that minimizes the maximum distance to the other points of P. We study the complexity of this problem in d-dimensional $\ell_p$-metrics and in edit and Ulam metrics over strings of length d. Our results for the 1-center problem may be classifie...

K-median and k-means are the two most popular objectives for clustering algorithms. Despite intensive effort, a good understanding of the approximability of these objectives, particularly in $\ell_p$-metrics, remains a major open problem. In this paper, we significantly improve upon the hardness of approximation factors known in literature for thes...

In this paper, we show how one may (efficiently) construct two types of extremal combinatorial objects whose existence was previously conjectural. (*) Panchromatic Graphs: For fixed integer k, a k-panchromatic graph is, roughly speaking, a balanced bipartite graph with one partition class equipartitioned into k colour classes in which the common ne...

The -Even Set problem is a parameterized variant of the Minimum Distance Problem of linear codes over , which can be stated as follows: given a generator matrix and an integer , determine whether the code generated by has distance at most , or, in other words, whether there is a nonzero vector such that has at most nonzero coordinates. The question...

The k-means objective is arguably the most widely-used cost function for modeling clustering tasks in a metric space. In practice and historically, k-means is thought of in a continuous setting, namely where the centers can be located anywhere in the metric space. For example, the popular Lloyd's heuristic locates a center at the mean of each clust...

In the $(k,h)$-SetCover problem, we are given a collection $\mathcal{S}$ of sets over a universe $U$, and the goal is to distinguish between the case that $\mathcal{S}$ contains $k$ sets which cover $U$, from the case that at least $h$ sets in $\mathcal{S}$ are needed to cover $U$. Lin (ICALP'19) recently showed a gap creating reduction from the $(...

A classic problem in unsupervised learning and data analysis is to find simpler and easy-to-visualize representations of the data that preserve its essential properties. A widely-used method to preserve the underlying hierarchical structure of the data while reducing its complexity is to find an embedding of the data into a tree or an ultrametric....

In this article, we provide a unified and simplified approach to derandomize central results in the area of fault-tolerant graph algorithms. Given a graph $G$, a vertex pair $(s,t) \in V(G)\times V(G)$, and a set of edge faults $F \subseteq E(G)$, a replacement path $P(s,t,F)$ is an $s$-$t$ shortest path in $G \setminus F$. For integer parameters $...

Parameterization and approximation are two popular ways of coping with NP-hard problems. More recently, the two have also been combined to derive many interesting results. We survey developments in the area both from the algorithmic and hardness perspectives, with emphasis on new techniques and potential future research directions.

Parameterization and approximation are two popular ways of coping with NP-hard problems. More recently, the two have also been combined to derive many interesting results. We survey developments in the area both from the algorithmic and hardness perspectives, with emphasis on new techniques and potential future research directions.

Given a set of n points in ℝd, the (monochromatic) Closest Pair problem asks to find a pair of distinct points in the set that are closest in the ℓp-metric. Closest Pair is a fundamental problem in Computational Geometry and understanding its fine-grained complexity in the Euclidean metric when d = ω(log n) was raised as an open question in recent...

The direct product encoding of a string a∈ { 0,1}ⁿ on an underlying domain V⊆ (k[n]) is a function DPV(a) that gets as input a set S∈ V and outputs a restricted to S. In the direct product testing problem, we are given a function F:V→ { 0,1}k, and our goal is to test whether F is close to a direct product encoding—that is, wheth...

Brouwer's fixed point theorem states that any continuous function from a compact convex space to itself has a fixed point. Roughgarden and Weinstein (FOCS 2016) initiated the study of fixed point computation in the two-player communication model, where each player gets a function from $[0,1]^n$ to $[0,1]^n$, and their goal is to find an approximate...

The $k$-Even Set problem is a parameterized variant of the Minimum Distance Problem of linear codes over $\mathbb F_2$, which can be stated as follows: given a generator matrix $\mathbf A$ and an integer $k$, determine whether the code generated by $\mathbf A$ has distance at most $k$, or in other words, whether there is a nonzero vector $\mathbf{x...

In this paper, we prove a general hardness amplification scheme for optimization problems based on the technique of direct products. We say that an optimization problem $\Pi$ is direct product feasible if it is possible to efficiently aggregate any $k$ instances of $\Pi$ and form one large instance of $\Pi$ such that given an optimal feasible solut...

We study the parameterized complexity of approximating the k -Dominating Set (DomSet) problem where an integer k and a graph G on n vertices are given as input, and the goal is to find a dominating set of size at most F ( k ) ⋅ k whenever the graph G has a dominating set of size k . When such an algorithm runs in time T ( k ) ⋅ poly ( n ) (i.e., FP...

Every graph G can be represented by a collection of equi-radii spheres in a ddimensional metric \Delta such that there is an edge uv in G if and only if the spheres corresponding to u and v intersect. The smallest integer d such that G can be represented by a collection of spheres (all of the same radius) in \Delta is called the sphericity of G, an...

Given a set of $n$ points in $\mathbb R^d$, the (monochromatic) Closest Pair problem asks to find a pair of distinct points in the set that are closest in the $\ell_p$-metric. Closest Pair is a fundamental problem in Computational Geometry and understanding its fine-grained complexity in the Euclidean metric when $d=\omega(\log n)$ was raised as an...

A filtration over a simplicial complex K is an ordering of the simplices of K such that all prefixes in the ordering are subcomplexes of K. Filtrations are at the core of Persistent Homology, a major tool in Topological Data Analysis. To represent the filtration of a simplicial complex, the entire filtration can be appended to any data structure th...

We study the parameterized complexity of approximating the k-Dominating Set (domset) problem where an integer k and a graph G on n vertices are given as input, and the goal is to find a dominating set of size at most F(k) · k whenever the graph G has a dominating set of size k. When such an algorithm runs in time T(k)poly(n) (i.e., FPT-time) for so...

The $k$-Even Set problem is a parameterized variant of the Minimum Distance Problem of linear codes over $\mathbb F_2$, which can be stated as follows: given a generator matrix $\mathbf A$ and an integer $k$, determine whether the code generated by $\mathbf A$ has distance at most $k$. Here, $k$ is the parameter of the problem. The question of whet...

We study the parameterized complexity of approximating the $k$-Dominating Set (DomSet) problem where an integer $k$ and a graph $G$ on $n$ vertices are given as input, and the goal is to find a dominating set of size at most $F(k) \cdot k$ whenever the graph $G$ has a dominating set of size $k$. When such an algorithm runs in time $T(k) \cdot poly(...

Recently, Dohrau et al. studied a zero-player game on switch graphs and proved that deciding the termination of the game is in NP boolean AND coNP. In this short paper, we show that the search version of this game on switch graphs, i.e., the task of finding a witness of termination (or of non-termination) is in PLS.

We show a communication complexity lower bound for finding a correlated equilibrium of a two-player game. More precisely, we define a two-player $N \times N$ game called the 2-cycle game and show that the randomized communication complexity of finding a 1/poly($N$)-approximate correlated equilibrium of the 2-cycle game is $\Omega(N)$. For small app...

Recently, Dohrau et al. studied a zero-player game on switch graphs and proved that deciding the termination of the game is in NP $\cap$ coNP. In this short paper, we show that the search version of this game on switch graphs, i.e., the task of finding a witness of termination (or of non-termination) is in PLS.

Given a point-set, finding the Closest Pair of points in the set, determining its Diameter, and computing a Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree are amongst the most fundamental problems in Computer Science and Computational Geometry. In this paper, we study the complexity of these three problems in medium dimension, i.e., dimension $d=\Theta(\log N)$,...

A filtration over a simplicial complex $K$ is an ordering of the simplices of $K$ such that all prefixes in the ordering are subcomplexes of $K$. Filtrations are at the core of Persistent Homology, a major tool in Topological Data Analysis. In order to represent the filtration of a simplicial complex, the entire filtration can be appended to any da...

The sensitivity conjecture of Nisan and Szegedy [CC '94] asks whether for any Boolean function f, the maximum sensitivity s(f), is polynomially related to its block sensitivity bs(f), and hence to other major complexity measures. Despite major advances in the analysis of Boolean functions over the last decade, the problem remains wide open. In this...

The Simplex Tree (ST) is a recently introduced data structure that can
represent abstract simplicial complexes of any dimension and allows efficient
implementation of a large range of basic operations on simplicial complexes. In
this paper, we show how to optimally compress the Simplex Tree while retaining
its functionalities. In addition, we propo...

In this paper, we prove a few lemmas concerning Fibonacci numbers modulo
primes and provide a few statements that are equivalent to Wall-Sun-Sun Prime
Conjecture. Further, we investigate the conjecture through heuristic arguments
and propose a few additional conjectures for future research.