Karolina Janacsek

Karolina Janacsek
University of Greenwich · School of Human Sciences

PhD

About

134
Publications
36,391
Reads
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2,205
Citations
Introduction
Associate professor of psychology. I investigate human learning and memory using methods of experimental and developmental psychology, cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology.
Additional affiliations
March 2018 - August 2019
University College London
Position
  • Fellow
June 2015 - September 2015
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Position
  • Fellow
September 2013 - February 2014
Georgetown University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2009 - September 2012
University of Szeged
Field of study
  • Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience (Doctoral School of Clinical Medical Sciences)
September 2004 - June 2009
University of Szeged
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Cognitive neuroscience has highlighted the cerebral cortex while often overlooking subcortical structures. This cortical proclivity is found in basic and translational research on many aspects of cognition, especially higher cognitive domains such as language, reading, music, and math. We suggest that, for both anatomical and evolutionary reasons,...
Article
Internal models capture the regularities of the environment and are central to understanding how humans adapt to environmental statistics. In general, the correct internal model is unknown to observers, instead they rely on an approximate model that is continually adapted throughout learning. However, experimenters assume an ideal observer model, w...
Article
Full-text available
Our habits constantly influence the environment, often in negative ways that amplify global environmental and health risks. Hence, change is urgent. To facilitate habit change, inhibiting unwanted behaviors appears to be a natural human reaction. Here, we use a novel experimental design to test how inhibitory control affects two key components of c...
Preprint
The interpersonal distance theory introduces a new perspective in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research. In the manuscript we highlight neurobiological correlates of interpersonal distance regulation characteristically different in ASD. We suggest that these differences may have implications for cognitive performance in experimental and diagnosti...
Article
Memory consolidation has been mainly investigated for extended periods, from hours to days. Recent studies focused on memory consolidation occurring within shorter periods, from seconds to minutes. Yet, these studies focused on explicit sequence learning with fixed rest periods. Our study aimed at determining whether short rest periods enhance impl...
Preprint
A large portion of research into procedural memory uses sequence learning tasks, and employs between-subjects experimental designs. As such, it is crucial to establish the psychometric properties of the tasks used. In this study, we estimate the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the alternating serial reaction time (ASRT) task, on...
Preprint
Humans can implicitly learn complex perceptuo-motor skills over the course of large numbers of trials. This likely depends on our becoming better able to take advantage of ever richer and temporally deeper predictive relationships in the environment. Here, we offer a novel characterization of this process, fitting a non-parametric, hierarchical Bay...
Preprint
Previous research recognized that humans could extract statistical regularities of the environment to automatically predict upcoming events. However, it has remained unexplored how the brain encodes the distribution of statistical regularities if it continuously changes. To investigate this question, we devised an fMRI paradigm where participants (...
Preprint
Understanding the complex relationship between sleep and memory is a major challenge in neuroscience. Thousands of studies on memory consolidation in humans suggest that sleep triggers offline memory processes, resulting in less forgetting of declarative memory and performance stabilization in non-declarative memory. However, an increasing number o...
Preprint
Our habits constantly influence the environment, often in negative ways that amplify global environmental and health risks. Hence, change is urgent. To facilitate habit change, inhibiting unwanted behaviors appears to be a natural human reaction. Here we use a novel experimental design to test how inhibitory control affects two key components of ha...
Article
Full-text available
Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by repetitive movements and vocalizations, also known as tics. The phenomenology of tics and the underlying neurobiology of the disorder have suggested that the altered functioning of the procedural memory system might contribute to its etiology. However, contrary to the robust...
Preprint
Beliefs about positive and negative outcome probabilities have been frequently investigated in experience-based risky decision making. However, it has not been clarified how these beliefs emerge and whether they remain persistent if the predictability and complexity of outcome probabilities change across decision contexts. Hence, the present study...
Article
The role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in implicit sequence/statistical learning has received considerable attention in recent cognitive neuroscience research. Studies have used non-invasive brain stimulation methods to test whether the DLPFC plays a role in the incidental acquisition and expression of implicit sequence learning. In...
Article
Full-text available
Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. On the neural level, tics are thought to be related to the disturbances of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops, which also play an important role in procedural learning. Several studies have investigated the acquisition of procedur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interpersonal distance regulation is an essential element of social communication. Its impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is widely acknowledged among practitioners, but only a handful of studies reported empirical research in real-life settings focusing only on children. However, these studies did not measure the alterations of vegetativ...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing when the brain learns is crucial for both the comprehension of memory formation and consolidation and for developing new training and neurorehabilitation strategies in healthy and patient populations. Recently, a rapid form of offline learning developing during short rest periods has been shown to account for most of procedural learning, le...
Article
Full-text available
Acute stress can crucially influence learning and memory processes. One of the key processes underlying human learning and memory is the ability of our brain to rapidly detect and extract regularities from sensory input across time and space leading to effective predictive processing. Here, we aimed to get an in-depth look into the effect of stress...
Article
Full-text available
Extraction of environmental patterns underlies human learning throughout the lifespan and plays a crucial role not only in cognitive but also perceptual, motor, and social skills. At least two types of regularities contribute to acquiring skills: (1) statistical, probability-based regularities, and (2) serial order-based regularities. Memory perfor...
Article
Young children are not only prepared to learn from teaching, but they also start to spontaneously teach others, indicating that teaching is a natural instinct of the humankind. During childhood, teaching seems to precede the emergence of several cognitive abilities, so the question arises: how does teaching affect the development of later emerging...
Article
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising brain stimulation tool which is non-invasive, easy to use and relatively cheap. Since it can change brain activity in a temporal manner, it can contribute to both clinical practice and neuroscientific research. However, the effectiveness of tDCS has been questioned considering the lack o...
Article
Full-text available
Both primarily and recently encountered information have been shown to influence experience-based risky decision making. The primacy effect predicts that initial experience will influence later choices even if outcome probabilities change and reward is ultimately more or less sparse than primarily experienced. However, it has not been investigated...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are capable of acquiring multiple types of information presented in the same information stream. It has been suggested that at least two parallel learning processes are important during learning of sequential patterns—statistical learning and rule‐based learning. Yet, the neurophysiological underpinnings of these parallel learning processes...
Article
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBGTC) circuitry and is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Previous studies have found enhancement in procedural memory, which depends on the CBGTC circuitry and plays an important role in the learning and p...
Article
Anticipation of upcoming events plays a crucial role in automatic behaviors. It is, however, still unclear whether the event-related brain potential (ERP) markers of anticipation could track the implicit acquisition of probabilistic regularities that can be considered as building blocks of automatic behaviors. Therefore, in a four-choice reaction t...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical learning facilitates the efficient processing and prediction of environmental events and contributes to the acquisition of automatic behaviors. Whereas a minimal level of attention seems to be required for learning to occur, it is still unclear how acquisition and consolidation of statistical knowledge are affected when attention is div...
Article
Full-text available
The characteristics of acquiring new sequence information under dual-task situations have been extensively studied. A concurrent task has often been found to affect performance. In real life, however, we mostly perform a secondary task when the primary task is already well acquired. The effect of a secondary task on the ability to retrieve well-est...
Preprint
Full-text available
Knowing when the brain learns is crucial for both the comprehension of memory formation and consolidation, and for developing new training and neurorehabilitation strategies in healthy and patient populations. Recently, a rapid form of offline learning developing during short rest periods has been shown to account for most of procedural learning, l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humans are capable of acquiring multiple types of information presented in the same visual information stream. It has been suggested that at least two parallel learning processes are important during learning of sequential patterns – statistical learning and rule-based learning. Yet, the neurophysiological underpinnings of these parallel learning m...
Article
Full-text available
Brain networks related to human learning can interact in cooperative but also competitive ways to optimize performance. The investigation of learning and memory processes in a competitive framework is still rare. Previous studies have shown that manipulations reducing the engagement of prefrontal cortical areas could lead to improved statistical le...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primarily encountered information has been shown to influence perceptual and memory processes. However, it has been scarcely investigated how initial risk probabilities influence subsequent risk-taking behavior in an environment with repeated decisions. Therefore, the present study tested in two experiments whether young adults adjusted their choic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long-term memory depends on memory consolidation that seems to rely on learning-induced changes in the brain activity. Here, we introduced a novel approach analyzing continuous EEG data to study learning-induced changes as well as trait-like characteristics in brain activity underlying consolidation. Thirty-one healthy young adults performed a lear...
Article
Full-text available
It often occurs in our daily life that we perform weaker in a task in which we have previously shown good knowledge and understanding. In psychology, both theoretical and empirical evidence supports this phenomenon: That is, on certain occasions, our momentary performance does not accurately refl ect our underlying knowledge (competence). The aim o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anticipation of upcoming events plays a crucial role in automatic behaviors. It is, however, still unclear whether the event-related brain potential (ERP) markers of anticipation could track the implicit acquisition of probabilistic regularities that can be considered as building blocks of automatic behaviors. Therefore, in a four-choice reaction t...
Article
Full-text available
A crucial question in skill learning research is how instruction affects the performance or the underlying representations. Little is known about the effects of instructions on one critical aspect of skill learning, namely, picking-up statistical regularities. More specifically, the present study tests how pre-learning speed or accuracy instruction...
Article
Full-text available
It is unclear how implicit prior knowledge is involved and remains persistent in the extraction of the statistical structure underlying sensory input. Therefore, this study investigated whether the implicit knowledge of second-order transitional probabilities characterizing a stream of visual stimuli impacts the processing of unpredictable transiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Internal models are central to understand how human behaviour is adapted to the statistics of, potentially limited, environmental data. Such internal models contribute to rich and flexible inferences and thus adapt to varying task demands. However, the right internal model is not available for observers, instead approximate and transient internal m...
Preprint
Full-text available
There has been a growing interest in incorporating psychological and neuroscientific knowledge about the development of cognitive functions in educational policies and academic practices. In this paper, we argue that the current knowledge about the interactions between these functions and their neurodevelopmental characteristics should also be cons...
Article
Full-text available
Probabilistic learning is a fundamental cognitive ability that extracts and represents regularities of our environment enabling predictive processing during perception and acquisition of perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills. Previous studies show competition between neural networks related to executive function/working memory vs. probabi...
Preprint
Full-text available
A crucial question in skill learning research is how instruction affects the performance or the underlying representations. However, a little is known about its effect on one critical aspect of skill leaning, namely, picking-up statistical regularities. More specifically, how pre-learning speed vs. accuracy instructions affect the acquisition of no...
Preprint
Memory consolidation has mainly been investigated for extended periods, from hours to days. Recent studies suggest that memory consolidation can also occur within shorter periods, from minutes to seconds. Our study aimed at determining (1) whether short rest periods lead to improvements in implicit probabilistic sequence learning and (2) whether le...
Preprint
Full-text available
Acute stress can crucially influence learning and memory processes. A growing body of evidence shows that stress can induce a shift from cognitively demanding goal-directed to habitual, procedural forms of learning. However, the mechanisms underlying the shift are not yet understood. Here, we aimed to get an in-depth look into the effect of stress...
Article
Adaptive behavior involves rapid error processing and action evaluation. However, it has not been clarified how errors contribute to automatic behaviors that can be retrieved to successfully adapt to our complex environment. Automatic behaviors strongly rely on the process of probabilistic sequence learning and memory. Therefore, the present study...
Article
Full-text available
The role of subjective sleep quality in cognitive performance has gained increasing attention in recent decades. In this paper, our aim was to test the relationship between subjective sleep quality and a wide range of cognitive functions in a healthy young adult sample combined across three studies. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Slee...
Article
Developmental disorders of language include developmental language disorder, dyslexia, and motor-speech disorders such as articulation disorder and stuttering. These disorders have generally been explained by accounts that focus on their behavioral rather than neural characteristics; their processing rather than learning impairments; and each disor...
Article
Full-text available
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by motor and vocal tics and by alterations in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBGTC) circuitry. The CBGTC circuitry plays an important role in procedural learning, in the acquisition of skills and habits. Tics and habits are similar phenomenologically since tics ca...
Preprint
Full-text available
The characteristics of acquiring new sequence information under dual-task situations have been extensively studied so far. Such a concurrent task has often been found to affect performance. In real life, however, we mostly perform a secondary task when the primary one is already well-acquired. The effect of a secondary task on the ability to retrie...
Article
Full-text available
Sequence learning underlies numerous motor, cognitive, and social skills. Previous models and empirical investigations of sequence learning in humans and non-human animals have implicated cortico-basal ganglia-cerebellar circuitry as well as other structures. To systematically examine the functional neuroanatomy of sequence learning in humans, we c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain networks related to human learning can interact in cooperative but also in competitive ways in optimizing performance. The investigation of such interactive processes are rare in language and learning research. Previous studies have shown that manipulations reducing the engagement of frontal lobe processes can lead to improved statistical lea...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we reexamined the typical analysis methods of a visuomotor sequence learning task, namely the ASRT task (J. H. Howard & Howard, 1997). We pointed out that the current analysis of data could be improved by paying more attention to pre-existing biases (i.e. by eliminating artifacts by using new filters) and by introducing a new data gr...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is still unclear how implicit prior knowledge is involved in the extraction of the statistical structure underlying sensory input. Therefore, this study investigated whether the implicit knowledge on 2nd order transitional probabilities characterizing a stream of visual stimuli impacts the processing of unpredictable transitional probabilities e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the complex relationship between sleep and memory is one of the biggest challenges in neuroscience. Thousands of studies on memory consolidation suggest that sleep triggers offline memory processes, resulting in less forgetting in declarative memory and performance improvement in non-declarative memory. However, an increasing number o...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the developmental trajectories of cognitive functions such as learning, memory and decision making across the lifespan faces fundamental challenges. Cognitive functions typically encompass several processes that can be differentially affected by age. Methodological issues also arise when comparisons are made across age groups that di...
Article
Full-text available
The implicit acquisition of complex probabilistic regularities has been found to be crucial in numerous automatized cognitive abilities, including language processing and associative learning. However, it has not been completely elucidated how the implicit extraction of second-order nonadjacent transitional probabilities is reflected by neurophysio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Presentation rates, that is, the tempo in which we encounter subsequent items, can alter both our behavioral and neural responses in cognitive domains such as learning, memory, decision-making, perception and language. However, it is still unclear to what extent presentation rates affect the momentary performance versus the underlying cognitive fun...
Article
Real-life risky behavior seems to peak in adolescence, increasing the chance of negative and even irreversible outcomes, such as road traffic accidents, in this period of life. We are still lacking conclusive evidence, however, for an inverted U-shaped developmental trajectory for risk-taking. This raises the question whether adolescents are really...
Preprint
Full-text available
Characterizing the developmental trajectories of cognitive functions such as learning, memory and decision making across the lifespan faces fundamental challenges. Cognitive functions typically encompass several processes that can be differentially affected by age. Methodological issues also arise when comparisons are made across age groups that di...
Article
Full-text available
Procedural learning is a fundamental cognitive function that facilitates efficient processing of and automatic responses to complex environmental stimuli. Here, we examined training-dependent and off-line changes of two sub-processes of procedural learning: namely, sequence learning and statistical learning. Whereas sequence learning requires the a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Procedural learning is a fundamental cognitive function that facilitates efficient processing of and automatic responses to complex environmental stimuli. Here, we examined training-dependent and off-line changes of two sub-processes of procedural learning: namely, sequence learning and statistical learning. Whereas sequence learning requires the a...
Article
Esettanulmányunk célja bemutatni, hogy egy szkizoaffektív zavarral élő személy narratív és dialógus diskurzusaiban a rekurzió előfordulása mind szintaktikai, mind pragmatikai szinten alátámaszthatja a nyelvi funkciók eddig feltárt hibáit. Crow elmélete szerint a nyelv és a pszichózis közös evolúciós eredetűek (Crow, 1997; 2000). Munkájában kifejti,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Procedural learning facilitates the efficient processing of complex environmental stimuli and contributes to the acquisition of automatic behaviour. In the present study, we investigated two sub-components of procedural learning: statistical learning and sequence learning. The former one refers to the acquisition of frequency-based associations bet...
Poster
Procedural learning, is the development of skills through extensive practice, is a crucial ability that facilitates processing of and automatic responses to complex environmental stimuli and predictive processing. Although many studies focused on procedural learning, different processes within the procedural learning, and their neural underpinnings...