Karol Zub

Karol Zub
Polish Academy of Sciences | PAN · Mammal Research Institute

PhD

About

95
Publications
22,692
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,149
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
1053 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Currently we investigate how variation of morphological traits (presence or absence of white winter pelage), physiological traits and genetic variation, affect fitness of individuals representing different subspecies of weasel Mustela nivalis. In Poland two subspecies of weasels occur and they differ in presence (M. n. nivalis) or absence (M. n. vulgaris) of white pelage in winter, thus camouflage mismatch in seasonal coat color can be important factor of natural selection.
Additional affiliations
May 2011 - June 2011
Institute of Biological and Environmental Science
Position
  • University of Aberdeen
September 2009 - November 2009
The University of Edinburgh
February 2007 - August 2007
Education
October 1998 - June 2002
University of Bialystok
Field of study
  • environmental biology

Publications

Publications (95)
Preprint
1. Silicon mediated plant–herbivore interactions have gained increasing recognition and have now been studied in a wide range of species. Many studies have also considered accumulation of Si by plants as a process largely driven by geo-hydrological cycles. 2. To identify factors driving the water - plant Si - herbivore nexus we analysed the concent...
Article
Full-text available
Dissecting the link between genetic variation and adaptive phenotypes provides outstanding opportunities to understand fundamental evolutionary processes. Here, we use a museomics approach to investigate the genetic basis and evolution of winter coat colouration morphs in least weasels (Mustela nivalis), a repeated adaptation for camouflage in mamm...
Article
Full-text available
• Some small mammals exhibit Dehnel's Phenomenon, a drastic decrease in body mass, braincase, and brain size from summer to winter, followed by a regrowth in spring. This is accompanied by a re‐organization of the brain and changes in other organs. The evolutionary link between these changes and seasonality remains unclear, although the intensity o...
Article
Forest habitats change significantly under the influence of global warming. It is important to predict the effects of these changes, especially in primeval forests which currently represent a small percentage of temperate forests. Such changes often manifest themselves in an acceleration of the frequency of mass seeding of trees, which causes casca...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mice of the genus Apodemus are one the most common mammals in the Palaearctic region. Despite their broad range and long history of ecological observations, there are no whole-genome data available for Apodemus, hindering our ability to further exploit the genus in evolutionary and ecological genomics context. Results: Here we presen...
Poster
Full-text available
Passive implanted transponders (PIT-tags) are currently widely use in identification of individuals in animal studies and have successfully replaced most of old-time marking methods. The advantage of this technique is an automatic registration of animal’s presence and storage of collected data. However, main limitation of the automatic systems is h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Mice of the genus Apodemus are one the most common mammals in the Palaearctic region. Despite their broad range and long history of ecological observations, there are no whole-genome data available for Apodemus , hindering our ability to further exploit the genus in evolutionary and ecological genomics context. Results Here we present r...
Article
Context: The breeding success of ground-nesting birds is strongly related to the predation rate. Many predators feed primarily on rodents when the densities of rodents are high and change to alternative prey (eggs or young birds) when the main prey populations decrease. Aims: During a 3-year study, predation on an artificial nest was related to pop...
Article
The dataset presented in this data paper supports "Linking land cover satellite data with dietary variation and reproductive output in an opportunistic forager: Arable land use can boost an ontogenetic trophic bottleneck in the White Stork Ciconia ciconia" (Orłowski et al. 2019) [1]. Analysis of data on diet and prey composition based on an investi...
Article
Full-text available
Stephanopachyslinearis (Kugelann, 1792) belongs to the family of horned powderpost beetles (Bostrichidae), represented in the fauna of Europe by 29 native species. It is a characteristic element of the northern, boreal zone of the Palaearctic and alpine areas of central and southern Europe. This species as a rare beetle important for the European U...
Article
Determining how the progressive loss of resources due to agricultural intensification and habitat degradation affect individual fitness and population persistence is a matter of urgency. Here we explored three major questions in order to extend knowledge of the relationship between reproduction rate, diet and energy intake in White Storks Ciconia c...
Article
Full-text available
Direct phenological mismatch caused by climate change can occur in mammals that moult seasonally. Two colour morphs of the weasel Mustela nivalis (M. n.) occur sympatrically in Białowieża Forest (NE Poland) and differ in their winter pelage colour: white in M. n. nivalis and brown in M. n. vulgaris. Due to their small body size, weasels are vulnera...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies on habitat selection among animals are conducted at local scales, whereas reliable determination of species requirements at larger spatial scales can be problematic. We used data available for NATURA 2000 sites to determine the habitat requirements of two relatively widespread and common species—pine marten Martes martes and stone mart...
Poster
Full-text available
Skeletal ontogeny in mammals is typically progressive and unidirectional, leading to a continuous growth of each skeleton component and reaching a plateau of minimal change in adulthood . However, some species exhibit a rare seasonal effect which causes reversible shrinking and regrowth of different body parts, specially the skull. Traditional tech...
Article
Full-text available
Nest predation is one of the most important mortality factors of birds. Field observations showed that tits (Paridae) produce hissing calls and, usually, have lower breeding losses than nesting Ficedula flycatchers, which do not make such calls. We hypothesise that differences in fledgling success can be directly attributed to the vocal reaction of...
Article
Full-text available
Ontogenetic changes in skull shape and size are ubiquitous in altricial vertebrates, but typically unidirectional and minimal in full-grown animals. Red-toothed shrews exhibit a rare exception, where the shape, mass and size of the skull, brain, and several major organs, show significant bidirectional seasonal changes. We now show a similar but mal...
Article
Full-text available
Ontogenetic changes in mammalian skulls are complex. For a very few species (i.e. some Sorex shrews), these also include seasonally driven, bidirectional size changes within individuals, presumably to reduce energy requirements during low resource availabilities. These patterns are poorly understood, but are likely most pronounced in high-metabolic...
Data
Table S1. Summary of the optimal generalized additive model of BDs per species. For each factor, degrees of freedom (df) are indicated, but for the smooth term df indicates effective degrees of freedom. The test statistic listed is either the F-statistic for the factor level or the t-value for each level within a factor.
Data
Table S2. ANOVAs on the optimal models, per species, with the addition of an interaction between the smooth term (day of year) and each factor, suggest (via p< 0.05) that the predictions would be improved by applying a smooth term to each level within a factor separately, except for sex in M. erminea. Thus, as the different levels within most facto...
Data
Table S3. We bootstrapped t-tests (5000 iterations, with replacement) between age categories for each sex and species combination to produce a normally distributed random sample from the observed non-normally distributed measurement data and compared the likelihood (p-value) of calculating the number of possible t-values (i.e., tb; mean t-value fro...
Data
Table S5. Optimal generalized additive models of adult BDs per species-sex-origin combination. These results are displayed graphically in Figure 3. Only the specimen's collection day of the year with a smooth term is included as an explanatory variable here. For each origin-sex combination per species (row), sample size (n), standard error (SE), in...
Data
Figure S2. Standardized braincase volume was positively correlated with braincase cross-sectional area (top) and braincase depth (bottom) in M. erminea (blue; Spearman's rho = 0.937 and 0.792, p < 0.001, respectively) and M. nivalis (orange; Spearman's rho = 0.935 and 0.709, p < 0.001, respectively) specimens. Standard error indicated with shading....
Data
Figure S4. Boxplots showing the distribution and mean of braincase depth (top) and standardized braincase depth (BDs, bottom) of M. erminea (left) and M. nivalis (right) per age, sex, and origin grouping. Alternating grey vertical bars distinguish origins. Sexes (F, female; M, male) are separated by color, with increasing darkness within sex and or...
Data
Table S4. The optimal generalized additive model to predict adult BDs in both M. erminea (n = 323) and M. nivalis (n = 488), ranked by model weight. Explained deviance (adjusted; R2), effective degrees of freedom (edf), log-likelihood (log(L)), second-order AIC (AICc), change in AICc (ΔAICc), and model weight (w) are provided.
Data
Figure S3. Frequency plots showing the distributions of each skull metric (condylobasal length, left; braincase breadth, center; and braincase depth, right) per species (M. erminea, top; M. nivalis, bottom) for each age and sex combination. Vertical dashed lines indicate means. Note: scales are consistent between species within metrics, but differ...
Data
Code S1. Program R code for executing bootstrapping of t-tests to compare skull metrics between age, sex, species, and origin groupings.
Data
Figure S1. Stoat and weasel specimens were assigned to one of three age classes based on (i) the degree of ossification of the nasal sutures, (ii) the roundness of the braincase, (iii) the progression of development of the sagittal and nuchal crests, and (iv) to lesser degrees tooth ware and the presence of damage from Skrjabingylus nasicola worms...
Data
Figure S5. Generalized additive model predictions for seasonal patterns in the condylobasal lengths (left column), braincase depths (center column), and standardized braincase depths (right column) for adult females (turquoise and triangles) and males (dark blue and plus-signs) of both M. erminea (top row) and M. nivalis (bottom row). Here we show...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Weather is known to be one of the most basic factors impacting animal populations, therefore climate changes should generate impacts on their population dynamics. In this study we analyzed long term data (1993-2016) from the root vole (Microtus oeconomus) population which lives in the valley of natural lowland European river Biebrza (E Poland). We...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In presented study we tested a trade-off between breeding dispersal and fitness in males of small rodents on the root vole example. During three years of the study (2013,2014, 2015) we analysed reproductive success of migrating and resident males as well as selected physiological, behavioural and morphological traits which are known to be related w...
Article
Earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) form a significant component of the food web and form the staple diet of many higher trophic level predators, such as invertebrate-feeding birds and mammals. Their almost complete digestion in the predator's gut hampers their detection or quantification in faeces or pellets except through labour-intensive micro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Climate changes also affect European forests. Some species of trees, like Norway spruce Picea abies, are sensitive to high temperatures and water deficiency. After having been weakened by summer droughts they become vulnerable to more intensive colonization of tree-eating insects. Spruce trees which become infested by the European spruce bark beetl...
Article
Plant–herbivore interactions are hypothesized to drive vole population cycles through the grazing-induced production of phytoliths in leaves. Phytoliths act as mechanical defences because they deter herbivory and lower growth rates in mammals. However, how phytoliths impair herbivore performance is still unknown. Here, we tested whether the amount...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to recognize distribution, number and breeding success of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Clanga pomarina in the Knyszyn Forest. The research was carried out on the study plot of 450 km2 in 1999–2015 , and in the whole Natura 2000 area SPA Puszcza Knyszyńska PLB200003 (1395 km2) in 2010–2014. We investigated the effect of y...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large tracked mowers are often used in nature protection to combat with unwanted succession which is one of the main threat to biodiversity. We assessed the effects of this management on root vole population by comparing 3 pairs of mown and unmown plots in Biebrza National Park, NE Poland. We monitored survival rate and vole population structure be...
Article
1.It has been hypothesized that the induction of silicon (Si)-based plant defence in response to herbivore damage may engender rodent population cycles. Many studies have also considered accumulation of Si as a process controlled by geo-hydrological factors.2.To test these ideas, we investigated the relationship between concentration of Si in fibro...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed habitat requirements of Boros schneideri (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the natural forests of the continental biogeographical region, using data collected in the Białowieża Forest. This species has been found on the six host trees, but it preferred dead, standing pine trees, characterized by large diameter, moderately moist an...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its presumed significance, the association between immune defence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival is rarely studied. We analysed individual variation in immunocompetence quantified as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L), total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels, along with resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rate...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the effects of different intensities of forest management practices on bird communities in the Bialowieza Forest, eastern Poland. Stands managed for more than 100 years (cutting, planting, removal of dead wood) and stands that were partially protected in nature reserves (sporadic sanitary cutting, removal of dead wood until 2008) were c...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental manipulation of energy expenditure has long been recognized as an effective means for identifying causative effects and avoiding confounded interpretations arising from spurious correlations. This approach has been successfully applied mainly to studies on birds, particularly on reproducing adults, whereas manipulations in mammals have...
Article
Although the biological significance of individual variation in physiological traits is widely recognized, studies of their association with fitness in wild populations are surprisingly scarce. We investigated the effect of individual phenotypic variation in body mass, resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) on mortality of the root vole Micro...
Article
Full-text available
During 7 breeding seasons (2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010–2013) a breeding population of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia was studied within Warmińska Refuge – Natura 2000 SPA (central point: 54°31′N; 20°80’E). Standard methods, used during the International White Stork Census, were applied. This area is one of the key breeding sites of the species in th...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Metabolic rates and body mass of mammals vary seasonally along with ambient temperatures and food availability. At the population level, seasonal changes in metabolic rate and mass can be due to selective mortality or emigration of individuals whose metabolic rate or mass differs from the average for the population. Alternatively, the meta...
Article
Full-text available
We compiled published values of mammalian maximum oxygen consumption during exercise (VO2max) and supplemented these data with new measurements of VO2max for the largest rodent (capybara), 20 species of smaller-bodied rodents, two species of weasels, and one small marsupial. Many of the new data were obtained with running-wheel respirometers instea...
Article
Full-text available
The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response...
Article
Full-text available
In forested ecosystems, oak saplings can be found in association with coarse woody debris (CWD) that offers protection against herbivore browsing. In this study we investigated whether CWD is already a safe site during the earlier stages of oak recruitment, i.e. at the seed and seedling phase, or whether these phases require different micro-environ...
Article
Full-text available
Cycling in Unison Many small mammals, especially voles, display semi-regular cycles of population boom and bust. Given the fundamental importance of small mammals as basal consumers and prey, such cycles can have cascading effects in trophic food webs. Cornulier et al. (p. 63 ) collated raw data from vole populations across Europe collected over th...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
In general, landscape genetic studies have ignored the potential role that the phenotype of individuals plays in determining fine-scale genetic structure in species. This potential over-simplification ignores an important component that dispersal is both condition- and phenotype dependent. In order to investigate the relationship between potential...
Article
Full-text available
The small size and elongate shape of weasels (Mustela nivalis Linnaeus) probably evolved to facilitate movement within the burrow systems of prey species, but result in high energy costs of thermoregulation. In this study we measured metabolic rates of weasels during voluntary locomotion to determine if energy costs of transport are also high in th...
Article
Full-text available
Cyclic population dynamics of small mammals are not restricted to the boreal and arctic zones of Eurasia and North America, but long-term data series from lower latitudes are still less common. We demonstrated here the presence of periodic oscillations in small mammal populations in eastern Poland using 22-year (1986-2007) trapping data from margin...
Article
Overarching trends can be seen in European mammalian phylogeography, yet it is clear that species responded differently depending on adaptations to past environments. We built upon previous work on the phylogeography of weasels (Mustela nivalis) in Europe by using well-preserved museum specimens from a proposed phylogeo-graphic suture zone. The com...
Article
Body mass (BM) and resting metabolic rates (RMR) are two inexorably linked traits strongly related to mammalian life histories. Yet, there have been no studies attempting to estimate heritable variation and covariation of BM and RMR in natural populations. We used a marker-based approach to construct a pedigree and then the 'animal model' to estima...
Article
Full-text available
1. The absolute energy needs of small animals are generally lower than those of larger animals. This should drive higher mortality of larger animals, when the environmental conditions deteriorate. However, demonstration of the effect of energy constraints on survivals proved difficult, because the range of body mass within species is generally too...
Article
Full-text available
Sukcesja saproksylicznych chrząszczy (Coleoptera) na powierzchniach pohuraganowych w drzewostanach sosnowych Puszczy Piskiej
Article
Full-text available
We tested a hypothesis on the influence of prey distribution on habitat selection by the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in north-eastern Poland during the breeding season. We analysed the habitat composition in schematic territories around the nests of 116 breeding pairs of eagles (in a radius of 3 km) and related them to randomly selected si...
Article
Full-text available
Using a root vole Microtus oeconomus (Pallas, 1776) population in NE Poland we applied 31 microsatellite markers previously developed for root voles and closely related species, with the aim to improve the population genetic tools in this species. Here we present 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers grouped into four sets suitable for simultaneous...