Karol Myszkowski

Karol Myszkowski
Max Planck Society | MPG · Iformatik

About

194
Publications
27,854
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,384
Citations

Publications

Publications (194)
Article
It is often desirable or unavoidable to display Virtual Reality (VR) or stereoscopic content at low brightness. For example, a dimmer display reduces the flicker artefacts that are introduced by low-persistence VR headsets. It also saves power, prolongs battery life, and reduces the cost of a display or projection system. Additionally, stereo movie...
Article
Synthesizing realistic images involves computing high-dimensional light-transport integrals. In practice, these integrals are numerically estimated via Monte Carlo integration. The error of this estimation manifests itself as conspicuous aliasing or noise. To ameliorate such artifacts and improve image fidelity, we propose a perception-oriented fra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Video frame interpolation (VFI) enables many important applications that might involve the temporal domain, such as slow motion playback, or the spatial domain, such as stop motion sequences. We are focusing on the former task, where one of the key challenges is handling high dynamic range (HDR) scenes in the presence of complex motion. To this end...
Article
High Dynamic Range (HDR) content is becoming ubiquitous due to the rapid development of capture technologies. Nevertheless, the dynamic range of common display devices is still limited, therefore tone mapping (TM) remains a key challenge for image visualization. Recent work has demonstrated that neural networks can achieve remarkable performance in...
Article
High-dynamic range (HDR) video reconstruction using conventional single-exposure sensors can be achieved by temporally alternating exposures. This, in turn, requires computing exposure alignment which is difficult to achieve due to the exposure differences that notoriously creates problems for moving content, in particular, in larger saturated and...
Preprint
We tackle the problem of generating novel-view images from collections of 2D images showing refractive and reflective objects. Current solutions assume opaque or transparent light transport along straight paths following the emission-absorption model. Instead, we optimize for a field of 3D-varying Index of Refraction (IoR) and trace light through i...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding of material appearance perception is a complex problem due to interactions between material reflectance, surface geometry, and illumination. Recently, Serrano et al. collected the largest dataset to date with subjective ratings of material appearance attributes, including glossiness, metallicness, sharpness and contrast of reflect...
Preprint
High Dynamic Range (HDR) content is becoming ubiquitous due to the rapid development of capture technologies. Nevertheless, the dynamic range of common display devices is still limited, therefore tone mapping (TM) remains a key challenge for image visualization. Recent work has demonstrated that neural networks can achieve remarkable performance in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Foveated image reconstruction recovers full image from a sparse set of samples distributed according to the human visual system's retinal sensitivity that rapidly drops with eccentricity. Recently, the use of Generative Adversarial Networks was shown to be a promising solution for such a task as they can successfully hallucinate missing image infor...
Article
Material appearance hinges on material reflectance properties but also surface geometry and illumination. The unlimited number of potential combinations between these factors makes understanding and predicting material appearance a very challenging task. In this work, we collect a large-scale dataset of perceptual ratings of appearance attributes w...
Article
With the wider availability of full-color 3D printers, color-accurate 3D-print preparation has received increased attention. A key challenge lies in the inherent translucency of commonly used print materials that blurs out details of the color texture. Previous work tries to compensate for these scattering effects through strategic assignment of co...
Preprint
We seek to reconstruct sharp and noise-free high-dynamic range (HDR) video from a dual-exposure sensor that records different low-dynamic range (LDR) information in different pixel columns: Odd columns provide low-exposure, sharp, but noisy information; even columns complement this with less noisy, high-exposure, but motion-blurred data. Previous L...
Article
Full-text available
3D printing for rapid prototyping and production of unique objects is being actively developed. Consumer-grade printers are now commonly available for a range of purposes, while increasingly advanced techniques allow us to fabricate novel shapes, mechanical properties, and appearances. The printers’ capabilities have improved dramatically from prin...
Article
Full-text available
Volumetric light transport is a pervasive physical phenomenon, and therefore its accurate simulation is important for a broad array of disciplines. While suitable mathematical models for computing the transport are now available, obtaining the necessary material parameters needed to drive such simulations is a challenging task: direct measurements...
Preprint
Full-text available
Realistic image synthesis involves computing high-dimensional light transport integrals which in practice are numerically estimated using Monte Carlo integration. The error of this estimation manifests itself in the image as visually displeasing aliasing or noise. To ameliorate this, we develop a theoretical framework for optimizing screen-space er...
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) systems increase immersion by reproducing users' movements in the real world. However, several works have shown that this real-to-virtual mapping does not need to be precise in order to convey a realistic experience. Being able to alter this mapping has many potential applications, since achieving an accurate real-to-virtual ma...
Article
We suggest to represent an X-Field - -a set of 2D images taken across different view, time or illumination conditions, i.e., video, lightfield, reflectance fields or combinations thereof - -by learning a neural network (NN) to map their view, time or light coordinates to 2D images. Executing this NN at new coordinates results in joint view, time or...
Preprint
We suggest to represent an X-Field -a set of 2D images taken across different view, time or illumination conditions, i.e., video, light field, reflectance fields or combinations thereof-by learning a neural network (NN) to map their view, time or light coordinates to 2D images. Executing this NN at new coordinates results in joint view, time or lig...
Article
Designing point patterns with desired properties can require substantial effort, both in hand-crafting coding and mathematical derivation. Retaining these properties in multiple dimensions or for a substantial number of points can be challenging and computationally expensive. Tackling those two issues, we suggest to automatically generate scalable...
Preprint
We suggest representing light field (LF) videos as "one-off" neural networks (NN), i.e., a learned mapping from view-plus-time coordinates to high-resolution color values, trained on sparse views. Initially, this sounds like a bad idea for three main reasons: First, a NN LF will likely have less quality than a same-sized pixel basis representation....
Article
Image metrics predict the perceived per‐pixel difference between a reference image and its degraded (e. g., re‐rendered) version. In several important applications, the reference image is not available and image metrics cannot be applied. We devise a neural network architecture and training procedure that allows predicting the MSE, SSIM or VGG16 im...
Article
In real‐time rendering, the appearance of scenes is greatly affected by the quality and resolution of the textures used for image synthesis. At the same time, the size of textures determines the performance and the memory requirements of rendering. As a result, finding the optimal texture resolution is critical, but also a non‐trivial task since th...
Conference Paper
Current rendering techniques struggle to fulfill quality and power efficiency requirements imposed by new display devices such as virtual reality headsets. A promising solution to overcome these problems is foveated rendering, which exploits gaze information to reduce rendering quality for the peripheral vision where the requirements of the human v...
Article
Commercially available full-color 3D printing allows for detailed control of material deposition in a volume, but an exact reproduction of a target surface appearance is hampered by the strong subsurface scattering that causes nontrivial volumetric cross-talk at the print surface. Previous work showed how an iterative optimization scheme based on a...
Article
Multi-focal plane and multi-layered light-field displays are promising solutions for addressing all visual cues observed in the real world. Unfortunately, these devices usually require expensive optimizations to compute a suitable decomposition of the input light field or focal stack to drive individual display layers. Although these methods provid...
Preprint
Image metrics predict the perceived per-pixel difference between a reference image B and its degraded (e. g., re-rendering) version A. We devise a neural network architecture and training procedure that allows predicting the MSE, SSIM or VGG16 image difference A-B from the distorted image A alone, when the reference B is not observed. This is enabl...
Article
A large number of imaging and computer graphics applications require localized information on the visibility of image distortions. Existing image quality metrics are not suitable for this task as they provide a single quality value per image. Existing visibility metrics produce visual difference maps, and are specifically designed for detecting jus...
Conference Paper
Light-field imaging has various advantages over the traditional 2D photography, such as depth estimation and occlusion detection, which can aid intrinsic decomposition. The extracted intrinsic layers enable multiple applications, such as light-field appearance editing. However, the current light-field intrinsic decomposition techniques primarily re...
Article
A large number of imaging and computer graphics applications require localized information on the visibility of image distortions. Existing image quality metrics are not suitable for this task as they provide a single quality value per image. Existing visibility metrics produce visual difference maps, and are specifically designed for detecting jus...
Preprint
Sample patterns have many uses in Computer Graphics, ranging from procedural object placement over Monte Carlo image synthesis to non-photorealistic depiction. Their properties such as discrepancy, spectra, anisotropy, or progressiveness have been analyzed extensively. However, designing methods to produce sampling patterns with certain properties...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accommodative depth cues, a wide field of view, and ever-higher resolutions present major design challenges for near-eye displays. Optimizing a design to overcome one of them typically leads to a trade-off in the others. We tackle this problem by introducing an all-in-one solution - a novel display for augmented reality. The key components of our s...
Article
Gaze-contingent rendering shows promise in improving perceived quality by providing a better match between image quality and the human visual system requirements. For example, information about fixation allows rendering quality to be reduced in peripheral vision, and the additional resources can be used to improve the quality in the foveal region....
Article
We propose a system to infer binocular disparity from a monocular video stream in real-time. Different from classic reconstruction of physical depth in computer vision, we compute perceptually plausible disparity, that is numerically inaccurate, but results in a very similar overall depth impression with plausible overall layout, sharp edges, fine...
Article
Full-text available
Light fields become a popular representation of three-dimensional scenes, and there is interest in their processing, resampling, and compression. As those operations often result in loss of quality, there is a need to quantify it. In this work, we collect a new dataset of dense reference and distorted light fields as well as the corresponding quali...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in computer graphics enable us to create digital images of astonishing complexity and realism. However, processing resources are still a limiting factor. Hence, many costly but desirable aspects of realism are often not accounted for, including global illumination, accurate depth of field and motion blur, spectral effects, etc. especially...
Code
Matlab code for the paper renders the surfaces described in the paper
Article
Full-text available
Accommodative depth cues, a wide field of view, and ever-higher resolutions all present major hardware design challenges for near-eye displays. Optimizing a design to overcome one of these challenges typically leads to a trade-off in the others. We tackle this problem by introducing an all-in-one solution – a new wide field of view, gaze-tracked ne...
Article
Binocular disparity is the main depth cue that makes stereoscopic images appear 3D. However, in many scenarios, the range of depth that can be reproduced by this cue is greatly limited and typically fixed due to constraints imposed by displays. For example, due to the low angular resolution of current automultiscopic screens, they can only reproduc...
Article
Full-text available
Many different techniques for measuring material appearance have been proposed in the last few years. These have produced large public datasets, which have been used for accurate, data-driven appearance modeling. However, although these datasets have allowed us to reach an unprecedented level of realism in visual appearance, editing the captured da...
Conference Paper
Binocular disparity is the main depth cue that makes stereoscopic images appear 3D. However, in many scenarios, the range of depth that can be reproduced by this cue is greatly limited and typically fixed due to constraints imposed by displays. For example, due to the low angular resolution of current automultiscopic screens, they can only reproduc...
Article
Light field videos express the entire visual information of an animated scene, but their shear size typically makes capture, processing and display an off-line process, i. e., time between initial capture and final display is far from real-time. In this paper we propose a solution for one of the key bottlenecks in such a processing pipeline, which...
Article
Predicting human visual perception has several applications such as compression, rendering, editing, and retargeting. Current approaches, however, ignore the fact that the human visual system compensates for geometric transformations, e.g., we see that an image and a rotated copy are identical. Instead, they will report a large, false-positive diff...
Article
Producing a high quality stereoscopic impression on current displays is a challenging task. The content has to be carefully prepared in order to maintain visual comfort, which typically affects the quality of depth reproduction. In this work, we show that this problem can be significantly alleviated when the eye fixation regions can be roughly esti...
Article
The visual quality of a motion picture is significantly influenced by the choice of the presentation frame rate. Increasing the frame rate improves the clarity of the image and helps to alleviate many artifacts, such as blur, strobing, flicker, or judder. These benefits, however, come at the price of losing well-established film aesthetics, often r...
Article
Surface reflectance of real-world materials is now widely represented by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and also by spatially varying representations such as SVBRDF and the bidirectional texture function (BTF). The raw surface reflectance measurements are typically compressed or fitted by analytical models, that always...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the improvement of both acquisition techniques, and computational and storage capabilities, we are witnessing an increasing presence of multidimensional scene representations. Two-dimensional, conventional images are gradually losing their hegemony, leaving room for novel formats. Among these, light fields are gaining importance, further prope...
Chapter
High-Dynamic Range (HDR ) images and video can represent much greater color gamut , brightness and contrast than commonly used standard dynamic range images. When HDR video is presented on specialized HDR displays, a substantial increase of realism can be observed, sometimes compared to “looking through a window”. Efficient encoding of such video,...
Article
The visual system constantly adapts to different luminance levels when viewing natural scenes. The state of visual adaptation is the key parameter in many visual models. While the time-course of such adaptation is well understood, there is little known about the spatial pooling that drives the adaptation signal. In this work we propose a new empiri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Different from classic reconstruction of physical depth in computer vision, depth for 2D-to-3D stereo conversion is assigned by humans using semi-automatic painting interfaces and, consequently, is often dramatically wrong. Here we seek to better understand why it still does not fail to convey a sensation of depth. To this end, four typical dispari...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile phones and tablets are rapidly gaining significance as omnipresent image and video capture devices. In this context we present an algorithm that allows such devices to capture high dynamic range (HDR) video. The design of the algorithm was informed by a perceptual study that assesses the relative importance of motion and dynamic range. We fo...
Article
When human luminance perception operates close to its absolute threshold, i. e., the lowest perceivable absolute values, appearance changes substantially compared to common photopic or scotopic vision. In particular, most observers report perceiving temporally-varying noise. Two reasons are physiologically plausible; quantum noise (due to the low a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Predicting human visual perception has several applications such as compression, rendering, editing and retargeting. Current approaches however, ignore the fact that the human visual system compensates for geometric transformations, e. g., we see that an image and a rotated copy are identical. Instead, they will report a large, false-positive diffe...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting human visual perception has several applications such as compression, rendering, editing and retargeting. Current approaches however, ignore the fact that the human visual system compensates for geometric transformations, e. g., we see that an image and a rotated copy are identical. Instead, they will report a large, false-positive diffe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several approaches attempt to reproduce the appearance of a scotopic low-light night scene on a photopic display (“day-for-night”) by introducing color desaturation, loss of acuity, and the Purkinje shift toward blue colors. We argue that faithful stereo reproduction of night scenes on photopic stereo displays requires manipulation of not only colo...
Article
Providing multiple meanings in a single piece of art has always been intriguing to both artists and observers. We present Purkinje images, which have different interpretations depending on the luminance adaptation of the observer. Finding such images is an optimization that minimizes the sum of the distance to one reference image in photopic condit...
Article
Independent management of film grain in each view of a stereoscopic video can lead to visual discomfort. The existing alternative is to project the grain onto the scene geometry. Such grain, however, looks unnatural, changes object perception, and emphasizes inaccuracies in depth arising during 2D-to-3D conversion. We propose an advanced method of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many people who first see a high dynamic range (HDR) display get the impression that it is a 3D display, even though it does not produce any binocular depth cues. Possible explanations of this effect include contrast-based depth induction and the increased realism due to the high brightness and contrast that makes an HDR display “like looking throu...
Article
Sudden temporal depth changes, such as cuts that are introduced by video edits, can significantly degrade the quality of stereoscopic content. Since usually not encountered in the real world, they are very challenging for the audience. This is because the eye vergence has to constantly adapt to new disparities in spite of conflicting accommodation...
Article
Full-text available
Several approaches attempt to reproduce the appearance of a scotopic low-light night scene on a photopic display ("day-for-night") by introducing color desaturation, loss of acuity, and the Purkinje shift toward blue colors. We argue that faithful stereo reproduction of night scenes on photopic stereo displays requires manipulation of not only colo...
Article
Conventional depth video compression uses video codecs designed for color images. Given the performance of current encoding standards, this solution seems efficient. However, such an approach suffers from many issues stemming from discrepancies between depth and light perception. To exploit the inherent limitations of human depth perception, we pro...
Article
Presenting stereoscopic content on 3D displays is a challenging task, usually requiring manual adjustments. A number of techniques have been developed to aid this process, but they account for binocular disparity of surfaces that are diffuse and opaque only. However, combinations of transparent as well as specular materials are common in the real a...