Karla Van Leeuwen

Karla Van Leeuwen
KU Leuven | ku leuven · Parenting and Special Education Research Unit

PhD in Psychology

About

202
Publications
64,966
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,511
Citations

Publications

Publications (202)
Preprint
Well-being and parenting behaviours were studied longitudinally among mothers of younger siblings of children on the autism spectrum (‘siblings’; n = 81) and prematurely born children (‘pre-terms’; n = 40). Growth curves were modelled to investigate whether maternal well-being and group (siblings vs. pre-terms) were associated with (change in) repo...
Article
Full-text available
The current paper presents an examination of the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets and Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) to understand which personality facets are especially relevant for SPS. Associations between SPS and the FFM personality domains and facets were examined in older adolescents and young adults (Stu...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated Belgian and Dutch parental opinions on confidentiality and consent regarding medical decisions about adolescents. Through an online survey, we presented six cases (three on confidentiality, and three on consent) to 1,382 Belgian and Dutch parents. We studied patterns in parental confidentiality and consent preferences across...
Data
Three-Wave Cross-Lagged Panel Model Linking Father-Reported Maternal Parenting With Mother-Reported Child BPD Traits
Data
Three-wave Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model Linking Father-Reported Maternal Parenting With Mother-Reported Child BPD Traits and a Longitudinal Association With PD Outcomes In Young Adulthood
Preprint
The study aimed to examine differences in depressive tendencies among Chinese adolescents/mothers from diverse rural backgrounds, including ‘left-behind children’, whose one or both of parents migrate to domestic urban regions for long-term employment. Another goal was to identify moderators in the association between maternal depression and adoles...
Article
Although recent studies have documented how working-elsewhere parents remotely achieved parenting through mobile phones, namely, ‘mobile phone parenting’ (MPP), a comprehensive conceptualization of MPP dimensions remains underexplored. Very few researchers have focused on the case of millions of work-separated families with young left-behind childr...
Article
Young adolescents are hypothesized to differ in their environmental sensitivity, at both phenotypic (i.e., Sensory Processing Sensitivity [SPS]) and physiological (i.e., biological stress response) level. This is the first study that investigated whether individual differences in environmental sensitivity at physiological level could be predicted b...
Article
Background Parents of pre-schoolers diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report increased parenting stress (i.e., stress related to the parent role) and more behaviour problems of the child compared with parents of non-autistic pre-schoolers. Parenting stress and children’s behaviour problems are both associated with parenting behaviours,...
Article
Background: A growing body of empirical research shows that suicidal behaviors are prevalent in childhood. Yet, few studies have examined risk factors related to suicidal ideation (SI) among children aged 12 and younger. Aims: The current study addresses this gap. Method: A questionnaire was filled out by 1,350 Flemish primary caregivers (94.7% mot...
Article
The current paper presents a detailed examination of a lay theory perspective on the Sensory-Processing-Sensitivity (SPS) personality profile within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The lay SPS personality profile was assessed by asking self-identified highly sensitive people to rate themselves on a Five-Factor Model questionnaire (NEO-P...
Preprint
Parents of pre-schoolers diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report increased parenting stress (i.e., stress related to the parent role) and more behaviour problems of the child compared with parents of non-autistic pre-schoolers. Parenting stress and children’s behaviour problems are both associated with parenting behaviours, but have no...
Article
Background It is generally acknowledged that parent social support is an important target for intervention. To explore the specific needs of parents of young children with a significant cognitive and motor developmental delay (SDD), we aim to chart the sources and perceived sufficiency of the social support they receive. Method Within the context...
Article
Full-text available
Research on emergent autism spectrum disorder increasingly uses observational measures to investigate parenting of young children with or at elevated likelihood of autism. This systematic review analysed 21 papers narratively, including 13 unique ‘coding approaches’ and 63 parenting constructs. Through a comprehensive consensus decision-making proc...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents differ in their degree of Environmental Sensitivity, that is, the ability to perceive and process information about their environment. The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Highly Sensitive Child scale (HSC), a self-report measure of Environmental Sensitivity, in two Belgian and UK samples with a tota...
Article
Introduction: Numerous life, peer, and school-related factors have been found to be associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents; however, most studies have not explored the possible reciprocal nature of these associations. The aim of the current study was to examine bidirectional and longitudinal associations between NSSI and...
Article
This study reports on the effects of a 1-year parental involvement intervention on reading development of primary school children. The intervention included a teacher and parent training, focusing on teacher-parent communication and parental involvement in homework and reading at home. We used a cluster randomized controlled trial design with pre-,...
Article
The etiology of borderline personality pathology has consistently been framed as an interactional process between child vulnerability (i.e. emotional sensitivity and reactivity; Linehan, 1993) and invalidating parenting strategies, which evolves into increased emotion dysregulation and disinhibited behavior of the child and in turn activates more p...
Article
The current study investigated whether variations at the level of the cortisol stress response moderate the association between parental support and attachment development. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a one-year longitudinal study with two waves in which 101 children (56% girls, Mage = 11.15, SDage = 0.70) participated. Attachment anxiety...
Article
Children exhibiting a constellation of dark traits may be particularly challenging to parents, because these traits are associated with an increased chance for parents to lose a supportive attitude in dealing with the child’s difficultness, and to turn instead towards punishing strategies. The present study looks with more detail into the construct...
Article
Full-text available
Children’s readiness for school is often threatened by the occurrence of both externalizing and internalizing problems. Previous research has shown that Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is particularly effective for fostering children’s behavioral skills and reducing externalizing problems. However, whether PBIS can enhance chi...
Article
Full-text available
Theory and research both point at epigenetic processes affecting both parenting behavior and child functioning. However, little is known about the convergence of mother and child’s epigenetic patterns in families. Therefore, the current study investigated epigenetic covariance in mother–child dyads’ methylation levels regarding four stress-regulati...
Article
Full-text available
In two independent studies, we aimed to examine the extent to which teacher and peer nominations of loneliness are associated with children's and adolescents' self-reported loneliness, respectively. Additionally, we examined whether loneliness nominations from teachers and peers were informative above and beyond peer status and social behaviors ass...
Article
Full-text available
Children differ in their sensitivity to positive and negative environmental influences, which can be measured with the Highly Sensitive Child (HSC) scale. The present study introduces the HSC-21, an adaptation of the original 12 item scale with new items and factor structure that are meant to be more informative than the original ones. The psychome...
Article
Introduction. Empathy consists of a cognitive and an affective component, of which it is thought that there are gender differences. Previous studies also suggest that maternal and paternal support play a more prominent role in the development of an adolescent’s affective and cognitive empathy, respectively. Besides the environmental factor, that is...
Article
Inleiding: Naast sociale en economische factoren wordt verminderde vruchtbaarheid genoemd als oorzaak van het dalende geboortecijfer in Vlaanderen. De tijd die nodig is om tot een gewenste, natuurlijke bevruchting te komen, de zogenaamde ‘tijd tot zwangerschap’ (kortweg TTZ), is een maat voor het schatten van de prevalentie van verminderde vruchtba...
Article
Full-text available
Background.Social anxiety symptoms are among the most common mental health problems during adolescence and it has been shown that parenting influences the adolescent's level of social anxiety. In addition, it is now widely assumed that most mental health problems, including social anxiety, originate from a complex interplay between genes and enviro...
Article
Knowledge on the long-term interactive interplay between children with a significant cognitive and motor developmental delay and their parents is very scarce. We aimed to characterize the (in)variability and potential mutual influence of parent’s interactional style and child interactive engagement throughout early childhood. Every six months over...
Article
In China, both parents and grandparents play an important role in child-rearing. However, it is unclear whether parenting behaviors reported by early adolescents, parents, and grandparents are comparable. Therefore, this study investigated (a) cross-generational validity of reporting (grand)parenting behavior based on perspectives of adolescents, p...
Preprint
Research on emergent autism spectrum disorder increasingly uses observational measures to investigate parenting of young children with or at elevated likelihood of autism. This systematic review analysed 21 papers narratively, including 13 unique “coding approaches” and 63 parenting constructs. Through a comprehensive consensus decision-making proc...
Article
Full-text available
Research has indicated that a strictly dimensional or parental style approach does not capture the full complexity of parenting. To better understand this complexity, the current study combined these two approaches using a novel statistical technique, i.e., subspace K-means clustering. Four objectives were addressed. First, the study tried to ident...
Article
Full-text available
Families including a young child with a significant cognitive and motor developmental delay need to adapt their routines to the child’s needs, while balancing the resources, needs and values of the whole family system. We aim to characterize if and how their routines are sustainable in terms of ecological fit, congruence and meaningfulness, in comp...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that genetics and effortful control play an important role in the link between parenting and problem behavior. However, little is known about how these factors act simultaneously. This article used a moderated mediation model to examine whether effortful control mediated the link between parenting and externalizing problem behavior,...
Poster
Full-text available
Research project 'Parenting young children with or at elevated likelihood of autism' and preliminary findings on parenting of pre-schoolers with and without autism.
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority youth report poorer mental health than heterosexual youth. According to the minority stress framework, this results from sexual minority individuals being societally marginalized, which for sexual minority youth may include being poorly integrated in the peer context. A sociometric approach was used to test whether peer relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Background. This study used a two-wave design to examine whether (dis)agreement between mothers and adolescents and between fathers and adolescents in reports on parenting (i.e., support, proactive control, punishment, harsh punishment, and psychological control) was associated with adolescent Externalizing Problem Behavior (EPB; i.e., aggression a...
Article
Full-text available
This study used a person-centered approach to identify adolescents' peer status profiles and examined how these profiles differed regarding the development of school engagement and loneliness. A sample of 794 adolescents was followed from Grades 7 to 11 (MageWave1 = 13.81 years). Measures included peer nominations of peer status, and student report...
Article
Background Studies on parenting behaviours among parents of adolescents with ASD either used parenting behaviours that were supported in the general population, or specific ASD related parenting behaviours. This study aimed to identify which parenting components underlie parenting behaviours among parents of adolescents with ASD, and how these comp...
Article
Full-text available
Children’s readiness for school is often threatened by the occurrence of both externalising (EP) and internalising (IP) problems. In search for solutions, research has shown that School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) is particularly effective for fostering children’s behavioural skills and reducing EP. However, whether SWPBS can enhance ch...
Article
This study explored transactional associations among adolescent personality (i.e., conscientiousness, agreeableness), parental control (i.e., proactive, punitive, psychological control), and externalizing problem behavior (i.e., aggressive or rule-breaking behavior). A three-wave longitudinal study across a two-year time span provided questionnaire...
Poster
Full-text available
The importance of early environmental experiences, such as parenting, is increasingly acknowledged in research on emergent autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, heterogeneity of observational measures for parenting behaviour makes it difficult to compare results and draw conclusions. This may have serious consequences for research and clinical p...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Adolescents face multiple changes in their social environment, which makes them more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems with strong interpersonal components, such as feelings of loneliness, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Given the widespread tacit assumption that these internalizing problems represent distinct conc...
Article
De effecten van ouderlijk toezicht op het mediagebruik van adolescenten zijn niet eenduidig en kunnen niet verklaard worden door enkel ouderlijk gedrag onder de loep te nemen. Een beter begrip bereiken we dankzij een systematische kruisbestuiving tussen inzichten uit mediastudies en communicatiewetenschappen enerzijds en pedagogiek en ontwikkelings...
Article
Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to experiencing loneliness, social anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. These internalizing problems often co-occur but, until now, it remains unclear how they are associated over time. Insight in these temporal sequences is important to enhance our understanding of how internalizing problems arise and...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the effects of peer acceptance and rejection on global self-esteem and emotional school engagement in adolescents were investigated. Moreover, in line with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, we examined the potential moderating effect of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR). The sample consisted of...
Article
Previous studies often assumed that parenting practices are similar across families. This assumption is difficult to hold, especially throughout adolescence, a period of major change for both adolescents and their parents. By combining a person-centered and a variable-centered approach, the present study adds to the literature by identifying trajec...
Article
Full-text available
This 4‐year longitudinal multi‐informant study examined between‐ and within‐person associations between adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parenting (parental psychological control and autonomy support). A community sample of 819 adolescents (46.1% girls; MageT1 = 13.4 years) reported annually on social anxiety symptoms and both adolescents and...
Article
Full-text available
Background There has been an increase in externalizing problem behaviour in Vietnam over the last decade and parenting has been considered an important factor in the development of problem behaviour in adolescents in Western countries. However, few studies addressed parenting in a Vietnamese context, which may be due to the lack of a validated ques...
Article
Background & Aims: Previous research indicates that young children with a significant cognitive and motor developmental delay show low levels of interactive engagement, their parents are generally responsive towards them and these variables are positively correlated. Adapting a micro-level approach, we aim to go beyond macro-level and correlational...
Article
Full-text available
Not much is known regarding underlying biological pathways to adolescents’ loneliness. Insight in underlying molecular mechanisms could inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing loneliness. Using latent growth curve modeling, baseline levels and development of loneliness were studied in two longitudinal adolescent samples. Genes (OXTR, OXT, AVP...
Article
Background Everyday activities are an important setting for stimulating child functioning, but are understudied in young children with a significant cognitive and motor developmental delay. Therefore, we aim to characterize their family activities in terms of diversity, frequency, child engagement and family member's presence, compared to typically...
Article
This study examined the structural validity of the parenting concept throughout adolescence. First, we examined whether an established five-dimension parenting model including support, proactive control, punitive control, harsh punitive control, and psychological control, showed longitudinal invariance across time (i.e., early, middle, and late ado...
Article
In het Vlaams cohortonderzoek JOnG! werd bij 1.443 12-jarige jongeren de attitude ten opzichte van blootstelling aan lawaai en het gebruik van gehoorbescherming in kaart gebracht. Bijna de helft (45,4 %) van de jongeren gebruikt een of andere draagbare geluidsspeler met hoofdtelefoon of oortjes, en 67,3 % doet dit bij het luisteren naar muziek of h...
Article
In Tanzania, the education system focuses on schools and teachers as key educators of children, while little attention is paid to the home environment. This study examines motivational factors that may influence parental involvement at home and at school, using Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s model of parental involvement as a theoretical framework. P...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) often occurs before age 15, yet the majority of research on risk factors for this dangerous behavior has focused on older samples. Insecure attachment has been previously identified as a risk factor for both NSSI and behavioral problems, and behavioral problems appear to be particularly associated with NSS...
Article
Full-text available
Although early adolescence is a challenging period for all parents, parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face additional challenges. At present, little is known about their concrete parenting behaviors during this stage of their child’s development. The main goal of this study was to explore what behaviors parents adopt and inves...
Article
De blootstelling van een foetus tijdens de zwangerschap, omdat de moeder zelf rookt of ongewild blootgesteld is aan tabaksrook in haar omgeving, wordt in de internationale literatuur in verband gebracht met een verhoogd risico op zwangerschapsverwikkelingen en met nadelige effecten op de perinatale gezondheid van kinderen. Uit een bevraging van 2.1...
Article
Lay summary: A number of studies have concluded that parents of children with ASD experience high levels of parenting stress. However, little is known about their parenting behaviors. Especially parenting in adolescence remains under investigated, although this period is associated with additional challenges for both adolescents and their parents....
Article
Full-text available
Guided by a developmental psychopathology framework, research has increasingly focused on the interplay of genetics and environment as a predictor of different forms of psychopathology, including social anxiety. In these efforts, the polygenic nature of complex phenotypes such as social anxiety is increasingly recognized, but studies applying polyg...
Article
Er is voldoende wetenschappelijk bewijs dat zowel overconsumptie als problematisch gebruik van alcohol voor en tijdens de zwangerschap, en tijdens de borstvoeding, nadelige effecten hebben op de gezondheid, groei en ontwikkeling van de foetus en het opgroeiende kind. Voor eventuele nadelige gevolgen van licht tot matig alcoholgebruik in deze period...