Karl Zilles
In memory of

Karl Zilles
Forschungszentrum Jülich · Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM)

Professor

About

1,104
Publications
129,787
Reads
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86,229
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
27562 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,000
Introduction
Karl Zilles currently works at the Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM), Forschungszentrum Jülich. Karl does research in Neuroanatomy, Biological Anthropology and Experimental Neurology and Psychiatry. His current projects are 'brain mapping and transmitter receptor expression in human, non-human primate and rodent brains' , "Gyrification (cortical folding) of the brain" and "Ultra-high resolution analysis of fibre tracts using polarized-light-imaging (PLI)". Methods and techniques: Cyto- and myeloarchitecture, Brain Mapping, Receptorarchitecture, Morphometry, PLI, immunohistochemistry, quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography.

Publications

Publications (1,104)
Article
Full-text available
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social and not spatial cognition, as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here, we investigated the evolution of the...
Article
Full-text available
The macaque monkey superior parietal lobule (SPL) is part of a neuronal network involved in the integration of information from visual and somatosensory cortical areas for execution of reaching and grasping movements. We applied quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography to analyse the distribution patterns of 15 different receptors for glutama...
Poster
Full-text available
Detailed multi-modal architecture information is the basis for understanding function, dysfunction, and potential treatment of the brain. There are multiple e!orts to generate complete and consistent maps for various species, but none addresses (quantitative) protein expression in combination with direct imaging of fiber distribution patterns. We h...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on connectivity networks in the brain when subjects are under exposure to natural sensory stimulation. Because of a complicated coupling between spontaneous and evoked brain activity under real-world stimulation, there is no critical mapping between the experimental...
Preprint
Full-text available
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social and not spatial cognition, as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here we investigated the evolution of the...
Article
The analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is challenging when subjects are under exposure to natural sensory stimulation. In this study, a two-stage approach was developed to enable the identification of connectivity networks involved in the processing of information in the brain under natural sensory stimulation. In the fir...
Preprint
Full-text available
Histological atlases of the cerebral cortex, such as those made famous by Brodmann and von Economo, are invaluable for understanding human brain microstructure and its relationship with functional organization in the brain. However, these existing atlases are limited to small numbers of manually annotated samples from a single cerebral hemisphere,...
Article
Full-text available
Human posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS) and adjacent posterior wall of parieto-occipital sulcus (POS) are functionally diverse, serving higher motor, visual and cognitive functions. Its microstructural basis, though, is still largely unknown. A similar or even more pronounced architectonical complexity, as described in monkeys, could be assumed...
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle contributes to inter-individual variability in brain aging, but previous studies focused on the effects of single lifestyle variables. Here, we studied the combined and individual contributions of four lifestyle variables - alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and social integration - to brain structure and functional connecti...
Article
Recognizing that its research may raise various ethical, social, and philosophical issues, the HBP has made the identification, examination, and management of those issues a top priority. The Ethics and Society sub-project is part of the core research project.
Article
Full-text available
On the 150th anniversary of Korbinian Brodmann’s birth, and the 100th anniversary of his death, Zilles celebrates his pioneering role in brain mapping. With the aid of hitherto unpublished documents and figures, he explains the concepts behind Brodmann’s cytoarchitectonic maps and considers their impact on current neuroimaging approaches.
Article
Areas 44 and 45 have been identified in non-human primates as homologs of the human Broca region. Distribution of large and smaller pyramids and the ventro-lateral localization in the posterior frontal lobe enable their identification in non-human primates. Since only humans hold the ability of language, it has been hypothesized that differences in...
Article
Full-text available
Cholinergic neurotransmission has a pivotal function in the caudate-putamen, and is highly associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated long-term changes in the densities of the muscarinic receptor subtypes M1, M2, M3 (mAchRs) and the nicotinic receptor subtype α4β2 (nAchRs) in the striatum of the 6-OHDA-induced...
Article
Full-text available
Different morphological changes in the caudate-putamen (CPu) of naïve rats and mice were observed after intrastriatal botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) injection. For this purpose we here studied various motor behaviors in mice (n = 46) longitudinally up to 9 months after intrastriatal BoNT-A administration as previously reported for rats, and compar...
Article
Full-text available
Different morphological changes in the caudate-putamen (CPu) of naïve rats and mice were observed after intrastriatal botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) injection. For this purpose we here studied various motor behaviors in mice (n = 46) longitudinally up to 9 months after intrastriatal BoNT-A administration as previously reported for rats, and compar...
Article
Full-text available
Histological sections offer high spatial resolution to examine laminar architecture of the human cerebral cortex; however, they are restricted by being 2D, hence only regions with sufficiently optimal cutting planes can be analyzed. Conversely, noninvasive neuroimaging approaches are whole brain but have relatively low resolution. Consequently, cor...
Article
A key component of current theories of brain structure and function is the layer-specific origin of structural connections of the cerebral cortex. This fundamental connectional feature pertains to different mammalian cortices, and recent neuroimaging advancements have started to pave the way for its function-based mapping in humans. Here, we propos...
Article
Abstract At the beginning of the 20th century it was suggested that a complex group of nuclei in the avian posterior ventral telencephalon is comparable to the mammalian amygdala. Subsequent findings, however, revealed that most of these structures share premotor characteristics, while some indeed constitute the avian amygdala. These developments r...
Article
Histological sections offer high spatial resolution to examine laminar architecture of the human cerebral cortex, however, they are restricted by being 2D, hence only regions with sufficiently optimal cutting planes can be analyzed. Conversely, non-invasive neuroimaging approaches are whole-brain but have relatively low resolution. Consequently, co...
Article
Full-text available
Broca's region was originally described as a cortical site in the inferior frontal gyrus, where speech impairment occurs after brain lesions. However, this clinico-pathological definition does not define the underlying microstructural correlates. Two cytoarchitectonic areas (BA44, BA45) were identified as correlates of Broca's region in the inferio...
Article
The human pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) encompasses 7 distinct cyto- and receptorarchitectonic areas. We lack a detailed understanding of the functions in which they are involved, and stereotaxic maps are not available. We present an integrated structural/functional map of pACC based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic mapping and meta-...
Article
Full-text available
The human amygdala consists of subdivisions contributing to various functions. However, principles of structural organization at the cellular and molecular level are not well understood. Thus, we re-analyzed the cytoarchitecture of the amygdala and generated cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of ten subdivisions in stereotaxic space based on nove...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that causes a dopamine (DA) deficit in the caudate-putamen (CPu) accompanied by compensatory changes in other neurotransmitter systems. These changes result in severe motor and non-motor symptoms. To disclose the role of...
Chapter
Mapping of the human brain is more than the generation of an atlas-based parcellation of brain regions using histologic or histochemical criteria. It is the attempt to provide a topographically informed model of the structural and functional organization of the brain. To achieve this goal a multimodal atlas of the detailed microscopic and neurochem...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes current knowledge on the structural segregation of the parietal lobe based on cyto-, myelo-, and receptorarchitectonic studies, as well as the connectivity of this brain region with other cortical and subcortical structures. The anterior part of the human parietal cortex comprises the somatosensory areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2, wh...
Article
The molecular basis for onset, maintenance and propagation of excitation along neuronal networks in epilepsy is still poorly understood. Beside different neurotransmitter receptors that control signal transfer at the synapse, one key regulator involved in all of these processes is the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF). Therefor...
Article
At the beginning of the 20th century it was suggested that a complex group of nuclei in the avian posterior ventral telencephalon is comparable to the mammalian amygdala. Subsequent findings, however, revealed that most of these structures share premotor characteristics, while some indeed constitute the avian amygdala. These developments resulted i...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the densities (fmol/mg protein) of 15 different receptors of various transmitter systems in the supragranular, granular and infragranular strata of 44 areas of visual, somatosensory, auditory and multimodal association systems of the human cerebral cortex. Receptor densities were obtained after labeling of the receptors using quantitati...
Article
Cortical layers have classically been identified by their distinctive and prevailing cell types and sizes, as well as the packing densities of cell bodies or myelinated fibers. The densities of multiple receptors for classical neurotransmitters also vary across the depth of the cortical ribbon, and thus determine the neurochemical properties of cyt...
Article
Cerebral administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) has been shown to improve disease-specific motor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson disease (PD). Since the dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia fundamentally contributes to motor function, we investigated the impact of BoNT-A on striatal dopamine receptor expression using in vitro an...
Article
Objectives: First reports on the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) showed feasibility and safety of the intervention in patients with Alzheimer´s disease. However, clinical effects vary and the mechanisms of actions are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize neuroimagi...
Data
The data presented here are related to the research article: “A cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream” in which we developed a cytoarchitectonic atlas of ventral visual cortex. Here, we provide two additional quantifications of this cytoarchitectonic atlas: First, we quantify the effect of brain template on cros...
Article
Full-text available
Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) with a frontal presentation, characterized by cognitive deficits and behavioral changes, has been recognized as an early clinical picture, distinct from the classical so-called Richardson and parkinsonism presentations. The midcingulate cortex is associated with executive and attention tasks and has c...
Article
Full-text available
The data presented here are related to the research article: “A cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream” in which we developed a cytoarchitectonic atlas of ventral visual cortex. Here, we provide two additional quantifications of this cytoarchitectonic atlas: First, we quantify the effect of brain template on cros...
Article
Full-text available
Neocortical circuits, as large heterogeneous recurrent networks, can potentially operate and process signals at multiple timescales, but appear to be differentially tuned to operate within certain temporal receptive windows. The modular and hierarchical organization of this selectivity mirrors anatomical and physiological relations throughout the c...
Article
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous e...
Article
Aging leads to global changes in brain structure and cognitive performance, with reorganization of functional brain networks. Importantly, these age-related changes show higher inter-individual variability in older subjects. To particularly address this variability is a challenge for studies on lifetime trajectories from early to late adulthood. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Brain structure and function mature together Our ability to recognize faces improves from infancy to adulthood. This improvement depends on specific face-selective regions in the visual system. Gomez et al. tested face memory and place recognition in children and adults while scanning relevant brain regions. Anatomical changes co-occurred with func...
Article
Full-text available
Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in the functional architecture of the default mode network (DMN), e.g. a posterior to anterior shift (PASA) of activations. The putative structural correlate for this functional reorganization, however, is largely unknown. Changes in gyrification, i.e. decreases of cortical folding were found to be a marker o...
Chapter
Primary sensory cortical areas display a typical cytoarchitecture. It is largely unknown whether they present a common molecular organization segregating them from other cortical areas. We analyzed multiple receptors in primary visual (V1), somatosensory (S1), and auditory (A1) areas of primate (human, macaque, marmoset, galago), scandentia (tree s...
Chapter
Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables ultra-high resolution visualization of nerve fibers in postmortem brains by the birefringent property of myelin. Using the Jones calculus, 3D orientation of fibers can be determined in serial sections throughout the brain. We present examples of fiber architecture with an unprecedented spatial resolution both i...
Article
A fundamental hypothesis in neuroscience proposes that underlying cellular architecture (cytoarchitecture) contributes to the functionality of a brain area. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) that contains domain-specific regions causally involved in perception. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used...
Article
Question First reports on the application of deep brain stimulation of the Nucleus basalis of Meynert reported feasibility and safety of the intervention in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, clinical effects vary and the mechanisms of actions are still not well understood. Methods We studied preoperative T1-weighted MR images of ten pati...
Article
It is known that motion patterns change with age (Krampe, 2002; Seidler, 2010). But is all motor performance in the elderly age-related and if not – which parameters contribute to the greater variance in elderly? The 1000BRAINS study in collaboration with the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study investigates structural and functional variability of th...
Article
Computations performed by a given cortical region are a product of its underlying cytoarchitecture and likely sculpted through development. Novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) methods sensitive to such cortical properties (e.g. macromolecular tissue volume "MTV", and tissue composition measured through T1 relaxation time "T1r") all...
Article
Full-text available
High-resolution multiscale and multimodal 3D models of the brain are essential tools to understand its complex structural and functional organization. Neuroimaging techniques addressing different aspects of brain organization should be integrated in a reference space to enable topographically correct alignment and subsequent analysis of the various...
Article
Full-text available
Research of the human brain connectome requires multiscale approaches derived from independent imaging methods ideally applied to the same object. Hence, comprehensible strategies for data integration across modalities and across scales are essential. We have successfully established a concept to bridge the spatial scales from microscopic fiber ori...
Article
While hippocampal connectivity is essential to normal memory function, our knowledge of human hippocampal circuitry is largely inferred from animal studies. Using polarized light microscopy at 1.3 µm resolution, we have directly visualized the 3D course of key medial temporal pathways in 3 ex vivo human hemispheres and 2 ex vivo vervet monkey hemis...
Chapter
The spatial arrangement and thickness of myelinated fibers within the cerebral cortex constitutes its myeloarchitecture and allows a parcellation into over 200 areas. Two major approaches exist: microscopic observations of myelin stained sections through postmortem brains, or in vivo or postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Comparison of bot...
Article
The surface of the human forebrain is folded (gyrencephalic). Gyrification pattern is highly variable between subjects. Gyrification increases with brain size in an interspecies comparison, but not within humans. It develops during the last gestational trimester, reaches a maximum around the fifth postnatal month, and declines slowly over lifetime....
Article
This article focuses on the cytoarchitectonic organization of the cerebral cortex and its segregation into cortical areas. Cytoarchitecture describes the spatial distribution of neuronal cell types, their arrangement in horizontal layers and vertical columns, as well as cortical thickness. Based on cytoarchitectonic characteristics, the cortex is d...
Article
Transmitter receptors are key molecules of signal processing in the brain. They occur at different densities between different cortical regions and layers, as well as subcortical nuclei. The differences enable mapping of these structures based on the density of a single or multiple receptors in each structure. We summarize data of selected receptor...
Article
The basal forebrain comprises heterogeneous structures located close to the medial and ventral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres. This region contains a number of interdigitating anatomical structures, including the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), and the cell groups underneath the globus pallidus in the subst...
Article
Brodmann has pioneered structural brain mapping. He considered functional and pathological criteria for defining cortical areas in addition to cytoarchitecture. Starting from this idea of structural-functional relationships at the level of cortical areas, we will argue that the cortical architecture is more heterogeneous than Brodmann's map suggest...
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-characterized neurological disorder with regard to its neuropathological and symptomatic appearance. At the genetic level, mutations of particular genes, e.g. Parkin and DJ-1, were found in human hereditary PD with early onset. Neurotransmitter receptors constitute decisive elements in neural signal transduction....
Article
Full-text available
Areas of the fusiform gyrus (FG) within human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) process high-level visual information associated with faces, limbs, words, and places. Since classical cytoarchitectonic maps do not adequately reflect the functional and structural heterogeneity of the VTC, we studied the cytoarchitectonic segregation in a region, which is...