# Karl WorthmannTechnische Universität Ilmenau | TUI · Institute of Mathematics

Karl Worthmann

Professor

## About

170

Publications

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Introduction

## Publications

Publications (170)

In this paper we investigate stability and recursive feasibility of a nonlinear receding horizon control scheme without terminal constraints and costs but imposing state and control constraints. Under a local controllability assumption we show that every level set of the infinite horizon optimal value function is contained in the basin of attractio...

The problem of steering a nonholonomic mobile robot to a desired position and orientation is considered. In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme based on tailored nonquadratic stage cost is proposed to fulfill this control task. We rigorously prove asymptotic stability while neither stabilizing constraints nor costs are used. To this...

We consider irreversible and coupled reversible-irreversible nonlinear port-Hamiltonian systems and the respective sets of thermodynamic equilibria. In particular, we are concerned with optimal state transitions and output stabilization on finite-time horizons. We analyze a class of optimal control problems, where the performance functional can be...

The Koopman operator has become an essential tool for data-driven approximation of dynamical (control) systems, e.g., via extended dynamic mode decomposition. Despite its popularity, convergence results and, in particular, error bounds are still scarce. In this paper, we derive probabilistic bounds for the approximation error and the prediction err...

Many real-world applications require the joint optimization of a large number of flexible devices over some time horizon. The flexibility of multiple batteries, thermostatically controlled loads, or electric vehicles, e.g., can be used to support grid operations and to reduce operation costs. Using piecewise constant power values, the flexibility o...

We consider singular optimal control of port‐Hamiltonian systems with minimal energy supply. We investigate the robustness of different stage‐cost designs w.r.t. time discretization and show that alternative formulations that are equivalent in continuous time, differ strongly in view of discretization. Furthermore, we consider the impact of additio...

The extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition (eDMD) is a very popular method to obtain data-driven surrogate models for nonlinear (control) systems governed by ordinary and stochastic differential equations. Its theoretical foundation is the Koopman framework, in which one propagates observable functions of the state to obtain a linear representation in...

Extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition (eDMD) is a powerful tool to generate data-driven surrogate models for the prediction and control of nonlinear dynamical systems in the Koopman framework. In eDMD a compression of the lifted system dynamics on the space spanned by finitely many observables is computed, in which the original space is embedded as a...

The Koopman operator has become an essential tool for data-driven analysis, prediction and control of complex systems, the main reason being the enormous potential of identifying linear function space representations of nonlinear dynamics from measurements. Until now, the situation where for large-scale systems, we (i) only have access to partial o...

Adaptive structures are equipped with sensors and actuators to actively counteract external loads such as wind. This can significantly reduce resource consumption and emissions during the life cycle compared to conventional structures. A common approach is to derive a port-Hamiltonian model and to employ linear quadratic control. However, the quadr...

Homotopy methods are attractive due to their capability of solving difficult optimization and optimal control problems. The underlying idea is to construct a homotopy, which may be considered as a continuous (zero) curve between the difficult original problem and a related, comparatively-easy one. Then, the solution of the easier one is continuousl...

We study the problem of state transition on a finite time interval with minimal energy supply for linear port-Hamiltonian systems. While the cost functional of minimal energy supply is intrinsic to the port-Hamiltonian structure, the necessary conditions of optimality resulting from Pontryagin's maximum principle may yield singular arcs. The underl...

Adequate therapeutic retinal laser irradiation needs to be adapted to local absorption. This leads to time-consuming treatments as the laser power needs to be successively adjusted to avoid undertreatment and overtreatment caused by too low or too high temperatures. Closed-loop control can overcome this burden by means of temperature measurements....

Recently, a two component MPC scheme was introduced, consisting of pure feedback control (funnel control) and model-based predictive control (funnel MPC). It achieves output tracking of a given reference signal with prescribed performance of the tracking error for a class of unknown nonlinear systems. Relying on the feedback controller's ability to...

In this chapter, we discuss how residential batteries within microgrids (MGs) can be used to provide flexibility to the DSO. On this lowest level of the grid hierarchy we only consider active power demand. In particular, we manipulate the aggregated power demand by charging and discharging residential batteries while neglecting the grid topology.

In this chapter, we present a numerical example of the approach presented in the previous chapters based on modifications of small-scale standard test systems. We emphasise that the sizes of these grids are very small and the power demands very low when compared to real-world grids. For example, active power transmission demand in real-world TSO gr...

In this chapter, we discuss how flexibilities from microgrids conveyed through the distribution level can be utilized in the operation of transmission systems. To this end, we consider both nonlinear (2.2)–(2.7) and semidefinite (2.8)–(2.13) OPF formulations and introduce flexible demand nodes (representing the connections to the DSO level) to anal...

In this chapter, we describe the implementation of the optimal amount of power delivered by the transmission grid in the distribution grid and the microgrids.

In this chapter, we describe how to determine the flexibility of a distribution grid given the flexibility of a set of microgrids (see Chap. 3). Specifically, we compute the minimum, maximum, and optimal active power demand of the entire distribution grid, i.e., the amount of power which must be supplied by the transmission grid.

In this chapter, we present the power-flow equations [5, 9], the optimal power-flow problem, the semidefinite approach for solving optimal power-flow problems [7], and the dynamic structure-preserving power grid model [8] which are relevant to several of the sections in the remainder of the book.

Data-driven surrogate models of dynamical systems based on the extended dynamic mode decomposition are nowadays well-established and widespread in applications. Further, for non-holonomic systems exhibiting a multiplicative coupling between states and controls, the usage of bi-linear surrogate models has proven beneficial. However, an in-depth anal...

Output reference tracking for nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree via sampled-data feedback control with zero-order hold is studied. We propose a novel sample-and-hold feedback controller, which achieves output reference tracking with prescribed transient behaviour of the tracking error. Furthermore, we derive explicit bounds on the ma...

We propose a novel Model Predictive Control scheme for robust output reference tracking with prescribed performance for nonlinear multi-input multi-output systems of relative degree one with stable internal dynamics. Combining funnel MPC with the model-free adaptive funnel controller, the new robust funnel MPC algorithm guarantees output tracking o...

We consider the data-driven approximation of the Koopman operator for stochastic differential equations on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS). Our focus is on the estimation error if the data are collected from long-term ergodic simulations. We derive both an exact expression for the variance of the kernel cross-covariance operator, measured...

We present a toolchain for solving path planning problems for concentric tube robots through obstacle fields. First, ellipsoidal sets representing the target area and obstacles are constructed from labelled point clouds. Then, the nonlinear and highly nonconvex optimal control problem is solved by introducing a homotopy on the obstacle positions wh...

We consider the problem of minimizing the entropy, energy, or exergy production for state transitions of irreversible port-Hamiltonian systems subject to control constraints. Via a dissipativity-based analysis we show that optimal solutions exhibit the manifold turnpike phenomenon with respect to the manifold of thermodynamic equilibria. We illustr...

Recently, data-driven predictive control of linear systems has received wide-spread research attention. It hinges on the fundamental lemma by Willems et al. In a previous paper, we have shown how this framework can be applied to predictive control of linear time-invariant descriptor systems. In the present paper, we present a case study wherein we...

Laser photocoagulation is one of the most frequently used treatment approaches for retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. The use of model-based control, such as Model Predictive Control (MPC), enhances a safe and effective treatment by guaranteeing temperature bounds. In general, real-time requirements for model-based con...

Laser photocoagulation is a technique applied in the treatment of retinal disease, which is often done manually or using simple control schemes. We pursue an optimization-based approach, namely Model Predictive Control (MPC), to enforce bounds on the peak temperature and, thus, to ensure safety during the medical treatment procedure – despite the s...

Prediction of multi-dimensional time-series data, which may represent such diverse phenomena as climate changes or financial markets, remains a challenging task in view of inherent nonlinearities and non-periodic behavior In contrast to other recurrent neural networks, echo state networks (ESNs) are attractive for (online) learning due to lower req...

In this paper, we propose a path-planning problem for stereotactic neurosurgery using concentric tube robots. The main goal is to reach a given region of interest inside the brain, e.g. a tumor, starting from a feasible point on the skull with an ideally short path avoiding certain sensitive brain areas. To describe the shape of the entire cannula...

The fundamental lemma by Jan C. Willems and co-workers has become one of the supporting pillars of the recent progress on data-driven control and system analysis. The lemma is deeply rooted in behavioral systems theory, which so far has been focused on finite-dimensional deterministic systems. This tutorial combines recent insights into stochastic...

Classical turnpikes correspond to optimal steady states which are attractors of infinite-horizon optimal control problems. In this paper, motivated by mechanical systems with symmetries, we generalize this concept to manifold turnpikes. Specifically, the necessary optimality conditions projected onto a symmetry-induced manifold coincide with those...

Traditional power grids are mainly based on centralized power generation and subsequent distribution. The increasing penetration of distributed renewable energy sources and the growing number of electrical loads is creating difficulties in balancing supply and demand and threatens the secure and efficient operation of power grids. At the same time,...

Adequate therapeutic retinal laser irradiation needs to be adapted to the local absorption. This leads to time-consuming treatments as the laser power needs to be successively adjusted to avoid under- and overtreatment caused by too low or too high temperatures. Closed-loop control can overcome this burden by means of temperature measurements. To a...

Recently, data-driven predictive control of linear systems has received wide-spread research attention. It hinges on the fundamental lemma by Willems et al. In a previous paper, we have shown how this framework can be applied to predictive control of linear time-invariant descriptor systems. In the present paper, we present a case study wherein we...

Laser photocoagulation is a technique applied in the treatment of retinal diseases. While this is often done manually or using simple control schemes, we pursue an optimization-based approach, namely Model Predictive Control (MPC), to enforce bounds on the peak temperature and, thus, safety during the medical treatment procedure - despite the spot-...

Laser photocoagulation is one of the most frequently used treatment approaches for retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. The use of model-based control, such as Model Predictive Control (MPC), enhances a safe and effective treatment by guaranteeing temperature bounds. In general, real-time requirements for model-based con...

While Koopman-based techniques like extended Dynamic Mode Decom- position are nowadays ubiquitous in the data-driven approximation of dynamical sys- tems, quantitative error estimates were only recently established. To this end, both sources of error resulting from a finite dictionary and only finitely-many data points in the generation of the surr...

We consider the problem of minimizing the entropy, energy, or exergy production for state transitions of irreversible port-Hamiltonian systems subject to control constraints. Via a dissipativity-based analysis we show that optimal solutions exhibit the manifold turnpike phenomenon with respect to the manifold of thermodynamic equilibria. We illustr...

In this paper we investigate data-driven predictive control of discrete-time linear descriptor systems. Specifically, we give a tailored variant of Willems' fundamental lemma, which shows that for descriptor systems the non-parametric modelling via a Hankel matrix requires less data compared to linear time-invariant systems without algebraic constr...

We study model predictive control for singular differential-algebraic equations with higher index. This is a novelty when compared to the literature where only regular differential-algebraic equations with additional assumptions on the index and/or controllability are considered. By regularization techniques, we are able to derive an equivalent opt...

In this letter we investigate data-driven predictive control of discrete-time linear descriptor systems. Specifically, we give a tailored variant of Willems’ fundamental lemma, which shows that for descriptor systems the non-parametric modeling via a Hankel matrix requires less data compared to linear time-invariant systems without algebraic constr...

Laser photocoagulation is one of the most frequently used treatment approaches in ophthalmology for a variety of retinal diseases. Depending on indication, treatment intensity varies from application of specific micro injuries down to gentle temperature increases without inducing cell damage. Especially for the latter, proper energy dosing is still...

We propose a model predictive control (MPC) approach for minimising the social distancing and quarantine measures during a pandemic while maintaining a hard infection cap. To this end, we study the admissible and the maximal robust positively invariant set (MRPI) of the standard SEIR compartmental model with control inputs. Exploiting the fact that...

The Koopman operator has become an essential tool for data-driven approximation of dynamical (control) systems in recent years, e.g., via extended dynamic mode decomposition. Despite its popularity, convergence results and, in particular, error bounds are still quite scarce. In this paper, we derive probabilistic bounds for the approximation error...

Stereotactic neurosurgery requires a careful planning of cannulae paths to spare eloquent areas of the brain that, if damaged, will result in loss of essential neurological function such as sensory processing, linguistic ability, vision, or motor function. We present an approach based on modelling, simulation, and optimization to set up a computati...

Turnpikes have recently gained significant research interest in optimal control, since they allow for pivotal insights into the structure of solutions to optimal control problems. So far, mainly steady state solutions which serve as optimal operation points, are studied. This is in contrast to time-varying turnpikes, which are in the focus of this...

We propose Funnel MPC, a novel Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, to track smooth reference signals with prescribed performance for nonlinear multi-input multi-output systems of relative degree one with stable internal dynamics. The optimal control problem solved in each iteration of Funnel MPC resembles the basic idea of penalty methods used i...

We investigate optimal control of linear port-Hamiltonian systems with control constraints, in which one aims to perform a state transition with minimal energy supply. Decomposing the state space into dissipative and non-dissipative (i.e. conservative) subspaces, we show that the set of reachable states is bounded w.r.t. the dissipative subspace. W...

Most countries have started vaccinating people against COVID-19. However, due to limited production capacities and logistical challenges it will take months/years until herd immunity is achieved. Therefore, vaccination and social distancing have to be coordinated. In this paper, we provide some insight on this topic using optimization-based control...

We consider the singular optimal control problem of minimizing the energy supply of linear dissipative port-Hamiltonian descriptor systems. We study the reachability properties of the system and prove that optimal states exhibit a turnpike behavior with respect to the conservative subspace. Further, we derive a input-state turnpike towards a subspa...

We consider the problem of minimizing the supplied energy of infinite-dimensional linear port-Hamiltonian systems and prove that optimal trajectories exhibit the turnpike phenomenon towards certain subspaces induced by the dissipation of the dynamics.

We consider model predictive path-following control (MPFC) without stabilizing terminal constraints or costs. We investigate sufficient stability conditions in the framework of cost controllability. Then, we analyze cost controllability for path-following problems of differentially flat systems. Using this result, we establish that under suitable a...

Classical turnpikes correspond to optimal steady states which are attractors of optimal control problems. In this paper, motivated by mechanical systems with symmetries, we generalize this concept to manifold turnpikes. Specifically, the necessary optimality conditions on a symmetry-induced manifold coincide with those of a reduced-order problem un...

We study model predictive control for singular differential-algebraic equations with higher index. This is a novelty when compared to the literature where only regular differential-algebraic equations with additional assumptions on the index and/or controllability are considered. By regularization techniques, we are able to derive an equivalent opt...

We present an approach for state and parameter estimation in retinal laser treatment by a novel setup where both measurement and heating is performed by a single laser. In this medical application, the temperature that is induced by the laser in the patient's eye is critical for a successful and safe treatment. To this end, we pursue a model-based...

In this paper we consider the problem of steering a state and input constrained differential drive robot to a desired position and orientation using model-predictive control (MPC). The viability kernel of the system is determined using the theory of barriers. Moreover, local asymptotic stability of the origin under the MPC closed-loop solution with...

Triggered by the increasing number of renewable energy sources, the German electricity grid is undergoing a fundamental change from mono to bidirectional power flow. This paradigm shift confronts grid operators with new problems but also new opportunities. In this chapter we point out some of these problems arising on different layers of the grid h...

Modern smart grids are required to transport electricity along transmission lines from the renewable energy sources to the customer’s demand in an efficient manner. It is inevitable that power is lost along these lines due to active as well as reactive power flows. However, the losses caused by reactive power flows can be reduced by optimizing the...

This book focuses on distributed and economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) with applications in different fields. MPC is one of the most successful advanced control methodologies due to the simplicity of the basic idea (measure the current state, predict and optimize the future behavior of the plant to determine an input signal, and repeat this p...

We present an approach for state and parameter estimation in retinal laser treatment by a novel setup where both measurement and heating is performed by a single laser. In this medical application, the temperature that is induced by the laser in the patient’s eye is critical for a successful and safe treatment. To this end, we pursue a model-based...