Karl J Reinhard

Karl J Reinhard
University of Nebraska at Lincoln | NU · Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Ph.D.

About

238
Publications
56,905
Reads
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6,942
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
March 2014 - June 2014
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • This will be the second of three years of working at ENSP-FIOCRUZ with funding from Ciéncia sam Fronteiras.
February 2005 - March 2005
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Funded by the Fulbright Commission and CAPES, I taught a workshop in paleonutrition.
August 2000 - present
University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 1985 - May 1988
Texas A&M University
Field of study
  • Environmental Archaeology
August 1979 - May 1984
Northern Arizona University
Field of study
  • Ecology and Evolution
September 1972 - May 1977
The University of Arizona
Field of study
  • Anthropolgy - Archaeology

Publications

Publications (238)
Article
Full-text available
Loss of gut microbial diversity 1–6 in industrial populations is associated with chronic diseases ⁷ , underscoring the importance of studying our ancestral gut microbiome. However, relatively little is known about the composition of pre-industrial gut microbiomes. Here we performed a large-scale de novo assembly of microbial genomes from palaeofaec...
Chapter
Ancient parasite studies depend on the recovery of parasite remains from archaeological material. Collection strategies, sample processing, and the use of parasitological techniques are essential to perform the analyses without loss of microremains and also to interpret the data obtained by correlating with the archaeological information. Together...
Article
Full-text available
Shotgun metagenomics applied to archaeological feces (paleofeces) can bring new insights into the composition and functions of human and animal gut microbiota from the past. However, paleofeces often undergo physical distortions in archaeological sediments, making their source species difficult to identify on the basis of fecal morphology or micros...
Article
Full-text available
Pinworms infected Ancestral Pueblo populations since early periods of occupation on the Colorado Plateau. The high prevalence of pinworm found in these populations was correlated with the habitation style developments through time. However, in previous studies, Turkey Pen Cave, an early occupation site, and Salmon Ruins, a late occupation site, exh...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lagoa Santa recorded ~12,500 years of non-continuous human occupation in cavities and open air sites. For the early- and middle Holocene occupations, lithic technology, zooarchaeology, osteological markers and multi-isotopic analyses indicate groups of foragers with low mobility and a subsistence strategy focused on gathering plant foods and huntin...
Article
Full-text available
Coprolites have been a source of study for archeologists due to several reasons: they not only provide information on the life and nutritional habits of ancient individuals but also on their health. In this paper, we processed 10 coprolites collected at La Cueva de Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 CE), Rio Zape, Mexico, with acetolysis solution for p...
Article
Full-text available
The study of coprolites has been a theme of archaeology in the American Southwest. A feature of archaeoparasitology on the Colorado Plateau is the ubiquity of pinworm infection. As a crowd parasite, this ubiquity signals varying concentrations of populations. Our recent analysis of coprolite deposits from 2 sites revealed the highest prevalence of...
Article
Full-text available
There is often the risk of confusing pollen grains with helminth eggs from archaeological sites. Thousands to millions of pollen grains can be recovered from archaeological burial sediments that represent past ritual, medication and environment. Some pollen grain types can be similar to parasite eggs. Such a confusion is represented by the diagnosi...
Article
Full-text available
Archaeoparasitological research has rapidly developed in recent years, entering a new stage of improved understanding of our ancestors’ parasitic infections across the world. This progress is based on a variety of recently developed research techniques. During a period of rapid innovation since 2016, there has been no much opportunity for parasitol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Shotgun metagenomics applied to archaeological feces (paleofeces) can bring new insights into the composition and functions of human and animal gut microbiota from the past. However, paleofeces often undergo physical distortions in archaeological sediments, making their source species difficult to identify on the basis of fecal morphology or micros...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Paleofeces are valuable to archeologists and evolutionary biologists for their potential to yield health, dietary, and host information. As a rich source of preserved biomolecules from host-associated microorganisms, they can also provide insights into the recent evolution and changing ecology of the gut microbiome. However, there is c...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of coprolite taphonomy on parasite remains and aDNA recovery has been recognized. In general, coprolites from sites protected by geologic features such as caves and rock shelters exhibit the best preservation. In contrast, coprolites from open sites can be badly affected by taphonomic processes as shown by analyses of parasite eggs. For...
Article
Full-text available
Prevotella copri is a common human gut microbe that has been both positively and negatively associated with host health. In a cross-continent meta-analysis exploiting >6,500 metagenomes, we obtained >1,000 genomes and explored the genetic and population structure of P. copri. P. copri encompasses four distinct clades (>10% inter-clade genetic diver...
Preprint
Ancient parasite studies depend on the recovery of parasite remains from archaeological material. Collection strategies, sample processing and the use of parasitological techniques are essential to perform the analyses without loss of microremains and also to interpret the data obtained by correlating with the archaeological information. Together w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prevotella copri is a common inhabitant of the human gut. Interest in P. copri has gathered pace due to conflicting reports on whether it is beneficial or detrimental to health. In a cross-continent meta-analysis exploiting >6,500 available metagenomes supported by new isolate sequencing and recovery of high-quality genomes from metagenomes, we obt...
Chapter
Forensic archaeology investigations must adhere to state laws. First, the state has a coroner’s physician arrangement to adapt to the fact that each county attorney acts as that county’s coroner. The county attorney employs forensic specialists to provide him/her with the expertise to act as the coroner. Second, the Nebraska Unmarked Human Burial S...
Presentation
The Capuchin church of Santa Lucia del Mela was built in 1610 in a prominent position, near the walls of this historic Sicilian village. This important architectural structure is associated with an underlying crypt and holds skeletonized and intentionally mummified remains of laymen and clergymen. Framed in the Sicily Mummy Project, a preliminary s...
Article
Various samples of human viscera fragments, sponges, and cloth were collected from embalming jars belonging to members of the Medici family of Florence. One jar was labeled with the name Vittoria della Rovere, who died in March of 1694. This jar contained viscera fragments that were identified as a section of collapsed intestine. The intestine of t...
Article
The Skiles Mummy (SMM), a naturally mummified adult male from the late archaic period of Lower Pecos Canyonlands of South Texas, represents a unique case of care. SMM is an exceptional mummy within this region due to both the retention of a full head of hair, and having a diagnosed case of megacolon, a complication commonly associated with Chagas d...
Article
For archaeological studies it is always necessary to consider taphonomic factors that could have influenced in ancient material preservation. Parasite eggs are usually highly degraded in ancient sites dated from all periods of time and taphonomic factors are mentioned to explain absence and low quantity of eggs found. In this study, we compare para...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of archaeological parasitology, researchers have long documented the distribution of parasites in archaeological time and space through the analysis of coprolites and human remains. This area of research defined the origin and migration of parasites through presence/absence studies. By the end of the 20th century, the field of pathoeco...
Article
Russia, both as the USSR and the Russian federation, provided a source of parasitological theory for decades. A key figure in Russian parasitology was Yevgeny Pavlovsky. He developed the nidus concept of Pavlovsky provided the conceptual basis for the field of pathoecology. He also coined the term "Paleoparasitology". Pathoecology is a foundation c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is the handout for microscopic observation of ancient parasite eggs in WORKSHOP II "Parasitology in Paleopathology: New perspectives using large data bases" (organized by Dong H. SHIN, Morgana CAMACHO, Johnica MORROW, Karl REINHARD), 45th Annual North American Meeting of Paleopathology Association, Austin (Texas), 9-11 April, 2018
Article
Archaeoparasitology provides a unique perspective on the health and habits of ancient cultures through the identification of parasite remains in archaeological materials. We identified eggs of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, in coprolites recovered from Late Archaic (1926-1751 cal. BCE) and Ancestral Puebloan (1039-1163 cal. CE) sites in C...
Article
Full-text available
In Spring of 2012, the partially undressed and skeletonized remains of a homeless adult Hispanic male was found in a fairly open wooded area in Nebraska. The remains showed evidence of extensive pathologies, which included healed traumas and surgeries. Examination of the decedent's medical records revealed that he had a history of kidney and liver...
Article
One hundred coprolites excavated from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800 CE) in the Rio Zape Valley of present-day Durango, Mexico, were examined for the presence of helminth eggs utilizing standard archaeoparasitological techniques. Eggs of the human pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered from 34 of the 100 coprolites examined. E...
Article
Full-text available
Fragmented remains of pseudoscorpions belonging to the family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) were recovered from Ychsma polity (c. AD 1000-1475) burial sediments from Pachacamac, Perú. Sediments from 21 burials were examined following rehydration in 0.5% trisodium phosphate for 48 h and subsequent screening through a 250 μm mesh. Materi...
Article
Archaeological parasitology originated in the mid-twentieth century with interdisciplinary teams of specialists directed by archaeologists. The goals of such studies were detailed analyses of dietary, medicinal, and environmental factors that shaped the patterns of infection. By the 1970s, a cadre of unique coprolite analysts was trained to analyze...
Article
Pollen analysis was applied to a mummified homicide victim in Nebraska, U.S.A., to determine the location of death. A control sample showed the normal ambient pollen in the garage crime scene. Ambient windborne types, common in the air of the region, dominated the control. Internal samples were analyzed from the sacrum, intestine, and diaphragm. Mi...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts...
Article
Full-text available
Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%....
Article
Full-text available
Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecolog...
Research
Full-text available
Many of the parasitic diseases that plagued ancient human populations continue to burden contemporary societies across the globe, and are far from being eradicated. Paleoparasitology is aimed at improving our understanding of the history of parasites and parasite population diversity over time, as well as the natural and anthropogenic conditions th...
Article
Full-text available
We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vo...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, 90 coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for 3 diarrhea-inducing protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, to determine whether these parasites were present among the people who utilized this ca...
Article
Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of dipteran remains on mummified individuals can lead to either cause for curatorial concern or to a better understanding of the individual's post-mortem environment. The present study analyzed insect remains associated with the body of a unique medieval mummy of religious significance, that of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi da Montician...
Article
Full-text available
Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continen...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of 100 desiccated feces of the Desha Complex (6800-4800 B.C.) from Dust Devil Cave near Navajo Mountain in southern Utah shows high proportions of Chenopodium seed and an absence of parasitic round­ worms. Conversely, fecal remains from other sites in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau show high incidences of parasite infection and low f...
Article
Full-text available
Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agr...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a K...
Article
Due to paleoparasitology's relatively late beginnings, the fundamental data necessary for any reasonably complete understanding of parasitic infection patterns in Korean history remains insufficient. Especially with respect to ancient samples dating to before the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910 CE), few cases have been analyzed by parasitological techniq...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen grains were recovered from six human coprolites associated with five skeletons from Furna do Estrago, Brejo da Madre de Deus county, Pernambuco State, northeast Brazil. The remains are dated between 1730 ± 50 (BETA 145954) and 1610 ± 70 (BETA 145955) years BP (before present). Previously, researchers showed that the local population was infe...
Article
Archaeoparasitological analyses of human remains can present interpretative challenges arising from diverse preservation environments. Three archaeoparasitological studies are used to demonstrate the impacts of five major types of taphonomic factors on parasite egg preservation. In the first case, an analysis of a historic Lithuanian mummy revealed...
Article
Coprolites were recovered from three burials near the Grand Place of Nivelles, Belgium. These remains yielded evidence of geohelminth parasitism. The evidence contributes to studies of differential parasite egg preservation related to the taphonomic conditions within the three burials. Using coprolite analysis techniques, parasite egg concentration...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the abdominal contents of 10 mummies from beneath the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius, Lithuania, were examined for the presence of helminth parasites using standard archaeoparasitological techniques. Of the mummies examined, only one individual presented with evidence of parasitism. This individual was infected...
Article
Understanding the endemic region of a disease is part of developing a concept of the disease's natural history and its threat to human health in both ancient and modern times. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and has recently been identified as an emergent disease in North America. Ancient endemicity and reemergence has be...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research into pollen content of tobacco resulted in a debate. We address this debate and determine that pollen analysis may be able to assist with identifying geographical origin of tobacco. However, the value of any results should be assessed on a case-by-case regional basis until sufficient database information is available for an object...
Article
Full-text available
Paleoparasitology is the application of conventional or molecular investigative techniques to archeological samples in order to reveal parasitic infection patterns among past populations. Although pioneering studies already have reported key paleoparasitological findings around the world, the same sorts of studies had not, until very recently, been...
Chapter
This chapter investigates what archaeoparasitological and pathoecological evidence can tell us about environmental change and human-environment interactions in the context of epidemiologic transitions in Europe and the Americas. The chapter generates insights into how our evolutionary interactions with parasites have influenced other aspects of hum...