Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml

Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml
Universität Regensburg | UR · Institut für Psychologie

PhD

About

180
Publications
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6,330
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Publications

Publications (180)
Article
Full-text available
Recall of studied material is typically impaired as time between study and test increases. Selective restudy can interrupt such time-dependent forgetting by enhancing recall not only of the restudied but also of the not restudied material. In two experiments, we examined whether this interruption of time-dependent forgetting reflects a transient or...
Article
Full-text available
The forward testing effect (FTE) refers to the finding that retrieval practice of previously studied material can facilitate retention of newly studied material more than does restudy of the material. The goal of the present study was to examine how such retrieval practice affects initially studied, unpracticed material. To this end, we used two co...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Recall of encoded information gets impaired as time passes. We show that selective retrieval can interrupt such time-dependent forgetting. Selective retrieval of some studied information can revive the nonretrieved information and bring recall levels back to the levels shortly after study. Strikingly, we found that time-dependent forge...
Article
Full-text available
The memory literature has identified interference and inhibition as two major sources of forgetting. While interference is generally considered to be a passive cause of forgetting arising from exposure to additional information that impedes subsequent recall of target information, inhibition concerns a more active and goal-directed cause of forgett...
Article
Full-text available
Ironically, the presentation of a subset of studied material as retrieval cues at test often impairs recall of the remaining (target) material—an effect known as part-list cuing impairment. Part-list cues are typically provided at the beginning of the recall period, a time when nearly all individuals would be able to recall at least some studied it...
Article
Full-text available
People can purposefully forget information that has become irrelevant, as is demonstrated in list-method directed forgetting (LMDF). In this task, participants are cued to intentionally forget an already studied list (list 1) before encoding a second list (list 2); this induces forgetting of the first-list items. Most research on LMDF has been cond...
Article
Full-text available
Prior behavioral work has shown that selective restudy of some studied items leaves recall of the other studied items unaffected when lag between study and restudy is short, but improves recall of the other items when lag is prolonged. The beneficial effect has been attributed to context retrieval, assuming that selective restudy reactivates the co...
Article
The forward testing effect (FTE) refers to the finding that retrieval practice of previously studied information can facilitate learning and memory of newly studied information. The goal of the present set of six experiments was to examine whether the FTE is influenced by study material. We replicated prior work by showing that the FTE can arise wi...
Article
Interference from related memories is generally considered one of the major causes of forgetting in human memory. The most prevalent form of interference may be proactive interference (PI), which refers to the finding that memory of more recently studied information can be impaired by the previous study of other information. PI is a fairly persiste...
Article
Numerous studies have shown that the presentation of some studied items as retrieval cues at test can impair recall of the remaining items. This effect, often referred to as part-list cuing (PLC) impairment, has mostly been demonstrated with simple word lists and short retention intervals between study and test. Across 4 experiments, this study exa...
Article
Social interactions can strengthen memories, but they can also contaminate them, for instance, when individuals integrate misinformation from social sources into their own memories. In two experiments, we examined such social contagion in a novel recognition-based collaboration task. Groups of three subjects studied lists of words in isolation, but...
Article
Full-text available
Prior work reported evidence that when people are presented with both a relatively short list of relevant information and a relatively short list of irrelevant information, then a subsequent cue to forget the irrelevant list can induce successful selective directed forgetting of the irrelevant list without any forgetting of the relevant list. The g...
Article
Retrieval practice can boost memory and long-term retention. The present research suggests that it may also benefit another domain that is critical for learning, namely motivation. In three experiments, subjects studied Swedish vocabulary by means of retrieval practice - with or without corrective feedback - or restudy. After a final memory test, s...
Article
Retrieval practice can boost memory and long-term retention. The present research suggests that it may also benefit another domain that is critical for learning, namely motivation. In three experiments, subjects studied Swedish vocabulary by means of retrieval practice with or without corrective feedback or restudy. After a final memory test, subje...
Article
Numerous studies of retrieval-induced forgetting have shown that the selective retrieval of some studied items can impair recall of other nonretrieved items.Varying the lag between study and selective retrieval and using lists of unrelated items as study material, recent work replicated this detrimental effect when thelag between study and selectiv...
Article
Using lists of unrelated items as study material, recent studies have shownthat selective retrieval of some studied items can impair or improve recall of the nonretrieved items, depending on whether the lag between study and selective retrieval is short or long. This study examined whether the results generalize when the items are studied together...
Article
Full-text available
The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieving previously encoded material typically improves subsequent recall performance more on a later test than does restudying that material. Storm et al. (2014) demonstrated, however, that when feedback is provided on such a later test the testing advantage then turns to a restudying advantage on su...
Article
Selectively retrieving details from memory can result in forgetting related information, a finding known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The effect has mostly been examined in individuals, but RIF can also be socially transmitted and arise in listeners who are exposed to a speaker’s selective memory retrieval. Whether within-individual RIF (...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies on list-method directed forgetting (LMDF) have shown that people can voluntarily forget information when cued to do so. But the cognitive mechanism(s) behind this form of forgetting are still subject to debate. The present study focused on two explanations of LMDF: selective rehearsal and mental context change. Experiment 1 address...
Article
Interference susceptibility has been suggested to be a major factor for episodic memory impairment in healthy older adults. Previous work has shown that retrieval practice can reduce proactive interference and thus enhance learning and memory in younger adults, a finding referred to as the forward effect of testing in the literature. This study exa...
Article
Full-text available
Selective retrieval often impairs recall of nonretrieved items, a finding referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting. In this article, I review recent research showing that selective retrieval can also improve recall of other items. This research points to a critical role of context retrieval in selective memory retrieval. Context retrieval, which...
Article
Delay-induced forgetting refers to the finding that memory for studied material typically decreases as the delay between study and test is increased. The results of 3 experiments are reported designed to examine whether this form of forgetting is primarily caused by interference effects or contextual drift effects when people engage in neutral dist...
Article
Retrieval practice relative to restudy of learned material typically attenuates time-dependent forgetting. A recent study examining this testing effect across 12-h delays filled with nocturnal sleep versus daytime wakefulness, however, showed that sleep directly following encoding benefited recall of restudied but not of retrieval practiced items,...
Article
Full-text available
The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval of previously learned information improves retention of that information more than restudy practice does. While there is some evidence that the testing effect can already arise in preschool children when a particular experimental task is employed, it remains unclear whether, for this age group...
Article
Full-text available
If participants study a list of items and, at test, receive a random selection of the studied items as retrieval cues, then such cuing often impairs recall of the remaining items. This effect, referred to as part-list cuing impairment, is a well-established finding in memory research that, over the years, has been attributed to quite different cogn...
Article
Hypermnesia is increased recall across repeated tests in the absence of any further study opportunities. Although over the years, many factors have been identified that influence hypermnesia, to date not much is known about the role of delay between study and test for the effect. This study addressed the issue in four experiments. Employing both wo...
Article
The results of four experiments are reported, in which we examined how the effects of part-list cuing - the presentation of a random selection of studied items as retrieval cues at test - on recall of the remaining target items depend on encoding and access to study context at test. Encoding was varied by inducing high and low degrees of interitem...
Article
Full-text available
People’s memory for new information can be enhanced by cuing them to forget older information, as is shown in list-method directed forgetting (LMDF). In this task, people are cued to forget a previously studied list of items (list 1) and to learn a new list of items (list 2) instead. Such cuing typically enhances memory for the list 2 items and red...
Article
When, after study of an item list, adults are cued to forget some of the list items and encode new information instead, such cuing often induces selective forgetting of the to-be-forgotten material without impairing recall of the other items. This study examined developmental trends in such selective directed forgetting by having second graders, si...
Article
Collaborating groups typically show reduced recall relative to nominal groups, i.e., to the cumulated non-redundant recall of the same number of people remembering in isolation—a finding termed collaborative inhibition. Motivated by the results of several previous studies, this study examined in two experiments whether access to study context at te...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work in cognitive psychology showed that retrieval practice of previously studied information can insulate this information against retroactive interference from subsequently studied other information in healthy individuals. The present study examined whether this beneficial effect of interference reduction is also present in patients with s...
Chapter
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Selectively retrieving a subset of previously studied information enhances memory for the retrieved information but causes forgetting of nonretrieved information. This chapter reviews the literature on such retrieval-induced forgetting, asking whether the forgetting depends on testing format, is retrieval specific and interference dependent, is mod...
Article
When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emo...
Article
People can voluntarily forget previously studied material when cued to do so. Such directed forgetting may arise because the forget cue induces a change in mental context, thus causing context-dependent forgetting. This context-change account predicts that both context-dependent forgetting and directed forgetting should be relatively transient and...
Article
During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Numerous studies from the past five decades have shown that selective retrieval of some studied items can impair recall of other items. This chapter reviews more recent work, in which it is demonstrated that selective memory retrieval has two faces and that it can both impair and improve recall of other items. In this recent work, participants' acc...
Chapter
Selectively retrieving a subset of previously studied information enhances memory for the retrieved information but causes forgetting of nonretrieved information. This chapter reviews the literature on such retrieval-induced forgetting, asking whether the forgetting depends on testing format, is retrieval specific and interference dependent, is mod...
Article
In adults, testing can enhance subsequent learning by reducing interference from the tested information. Here, we examined this forward effect of testing in children. Younger and older elementary school children and adult controls studied four lists of items in anticipation of a final cumulative recall test. Following presentation of each of the fi...
Data
Individual patients’ topographic distribution of maximum power decrease associated with subsequent memory effect (SME) observed along 8-20 Hz frequency range in 1 s time-window (top panel; outlier not included; similarity values are presented by Pearson’s rs). Grand average of controls’ topographic distribution of maximum SME.
Article
Full-text available
Verbal episodic memory is one of the core cognitive functions affected in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Although this verbal memory impairment in SZ is a well-known finding, our understanding about its underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is rather scarce. Here we address this issue by recording brain oscillations during a memory task in a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Verbal episodic memory is one of the core cognitive functions affected in patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ). Although this verbal memory impairment in SZ is a well-known finding, our understanding about its underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is rather scarce. Here we address this issue by recording brain oscillations during a memory...
Article
This study sought to determine whether nonselective retrieval practice after study can reduce memories' susceptibility to intralist interference, as it is observed in the list-length effect, output interference, and retrieval-induced forgetting. Across 3 experiments, we compared the effects of nonselective retrieval practice and restudy on previous...
Article
The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice of previously studied information enhances its long-term retention more than restudy practice does. Recent work showed that the testing effect can be dramatically reversed when feedback is provided to participants during final recall testing (Storm, Friedman, Murayama, & Bjork, 2014)....
Article
In list-method directed forgetting [LMDF], people are cued to forget a previously studied item list (list 1) and to learn a new list of items (list 2) instead. Such cuing typically enhances memory for the list-2 items, in both recall and (sometimes) item-recognition testing. It has recently been hypothesized that the enhancement effect for list-2 i...
Article
It has recently been shown that retrieval practice can reduce memories' susceptibility to interference, like retroactive and proactive interference. In this study we therefore examined whether retrieval practice can also reduce list-method directed forgetting, a form of intentional forgetting that presupposes interference. In each of two experiment...
Article
Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the finding that retrieval practice on a subset of studied items can induce later forgetting of related unpracticed items. Although previous studies indicated that RIF is retrieval specific – i.e., it arises after retrieval practice but not after reexposure cycles -, the results of more recent work sugge...
Article
This study sought to determine whether nonselective retrieval practice after study can reduce memories’ susceptibility to intralist interference, as it is observed in the list-length effect, output interference, and retrieval-induced forgetting. Across 3 experiments, we compared the effects of nonselective retrieval practice and restudy on previous...
Article
Full-text available
To avoid thinking of unwanted memories can be a successful strategy to forget. Studying brain oscillations as measures of local and inter-regional processing, we shed light on the neural dynamics underlying memory suppression. Employing the think/no-think paradigm, 24 healthy human subjects repeatedly retrieved (think condition) or avoided thinking...
Article
Recent work with young adults has shown that, depending on study context access, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). Here, we investigated the two opposing effects of selective retrieval in older age. In Experiment 1, we examined 64 younger (20-35 years) and 64 older participants...
Article
Objectives: Although there is consensus that sex hormones modulate memory, we have an incomplete understanding of their role in remembering and forgetting. Humans continuously update memory, forgetting old, out-of-date information and encoding new, more relevant information. Updating processes can be studied with the list method of directed forgett...
Article
Selective retrieval of some studied items can both impair and improve recall of the other items. This study examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) for the two effects of memory retrieval. Participants studied an item list consisting of predefined target and nontarget items. After study of the list, half of the participants performed an...
Article
Previous research has shown that the selective remembering of a speaker and the resulting silences can cause forgetting of related, but unmentioned information by a listener (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Guided by more recent work that demonstrated both detrimental and beneficial effects of selective memory retrieval in individuals, the present res...
Article
Depending on the degree to which the original study context is accessible, selective memory retrieval can be detrimental or beneficial for the recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2012). Prior work has shown that the detrimental effect of memory retrieval is typically recall specific and does not arise after restudy trials, whereas recall sp...
Article
Proactive interference (PI) refers to the finding that memory for recently studied (target) material can be impaired by the prior study of other (nontarget) material. Previous accounts of PI differed in whether they attributed PI to impaired retrieval or impaired encoding. Here, we suggest an integrated encoding-retrieval account, which assigns a r...
Article
When subjects study items from different categories and then repeatedly retrieve some of the items from some of the categories, retrieval practice typically improves recall of the practiced items but impairs recall of related but unpracticed items, relative to control items from unpracticed categories. Here, we report the results of three experimen...
Article
Retrieval of a subset of studied items and the presentation of those items as retrieval cues typically impair retrieval of the other items. Previous research on this self-limiting property of memory retrieval has relied heavily on short retention intervals and similar context between encoding and test. Here, we examined retrieval dynamics also afte...
Article
The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice in comparison to restudy of previously encoded contents can improve memory performance and reduce time-dependent forgetting. Naturally, long retention intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep immediately after encodin...
Article
Most daily routines are determined by habits. However, the experienced ease and automaticity of habit formation and execution come at a cost when habits that are no longer appropriate must be overcome. So far, proactive and reactive control strategies that prevent inappropriate habit execution either by preparation or "on the fly" have been identif...
Article
Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previous...
Article
Full-text available
In the last couple of years, there has been a dramatic increase in laboratory research examining the benefits of recall testing on long-term learning and retention. This work was largely on the backward effect of testing, which shows that retrieval practice on previously studied information, compared to restudy of the same material, renders the inf...
Article
In adults, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories. The study reported here examined whether children also show these two faces of memory retrieval. Employing a variant of the directed-forgetting task, we asked second, fourth, and seventh graders to study a list of target and nontarget words. After study, the...
Article
It is a prominent idea that cognitive control mediates conflict adaptation, in that response conflict in a previous trial triggers control adjustments that reduce conflict in a current trial. In the present EEG study, we investigated the dynamics of cognitive control in a response-priming task by examining the effects of previous trial conflict on...
Article
Patients suffering from schizophrenia have been characterized by an apparent lack of theta (around 6 Hz) and gamma (>40 Hz) brain oscillatory activity during task execution. The neurocognitive reasons for these abnormal synchronization patterns, however, remain elusive. Recording the electroencephalogramm (EEG) during a selective visual attention t...
Article
Processing items in terms of their survival value leads to superior memory relative to many deep (semantic) processing tasks. To date, such survival processing has been investigated with short delay intervals only, ignoring possible effects of longer wake and sleep delay. In this study, subjects performed orienting tasks that induced survival or de...
Article
This chapter reviews recent experimental work on the role of retrieval inhibition in autobiographical and episodic memory. Retrieval inhibition in autobiographical and episodic memory can arise involuntarily as well as voluntarily. Evidence for involuntary inhibition has been reported in studies that show that the retrieval of information can cause...
Article
Objective: Recent work in cognitive psychology suggests that testing can increase memory for both previously and subsequently studied information. Here we examined whether these beneficial (backward and forward) effects of testing generalize to individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Twenty-four persons with severe TBI, 12....
Article
Full-text available
People can exert control over the contents of their memory and can intentionally forget information when cued to do so. The present study examined such intentional forgetting in older adults using the listwise directed forgetting (DF) task. We replicated prior work by finding intact forgetting in young-old adults (up to 75 years). Extending the pri...
Article
Full-text available
When people are cued to forget previously studied irrelevant information and study new information instead, such cuing typically leads to forgetting of the precue information. But what do people forget if, before the forget cue is provided, both irrelevant and relevant information have been encoded? Using relatively short item lists, we examined in...
Article
People's moods can influence moral judgment. Such influences may arise because moods affect moral emotion, or because moods affect moral thought. The present study provides evidence that, at least in the footbridge dilemma, moods affect moral thought. The results of two experiments are reported in which, after induction of positive, negative, or ne...
Article
Results from numerous previous studies suggest that when subjects study items from different categories and then repeatedly retrieve, or restudy, some of the items from some of the categories, repeated retrieval, but not repeated study, induces forgetting of related unpracticed items. We investigated in two experiments whether such effects of pure...
Article
Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when cue...
Article
Full-text available
Neural synchronization between distant cell assemblies is crucial for the formation of new memories. To date, however, it remains unclear whether higher-order brain regions can adaptively regulate neural synchrony to control memory processing in humans. We explored this question in two experiments using a voluntary forgetting task. In the first exp...
Article
In making decisions, people have to balance between the competing demands of speed and accuracy, a balance generally referred to as the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT). In this study, we investigated the role of controlled SAT in a two-choice task in which manual responses were either validly or invalidly cued. Examining electrophysiological measurem...
Article
Research in the past four decades has repeatedly shown that selective retrieval of some (non-target) memories can impair subsequent retrieval of other (target) information, a finding known as retrieval-induced forgetting. More recently, however, there is evidence that selective retrieval can both impair and enhance recall of related memories (K-H....
Article
Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the finding that retrieval of a subset of previously studied material can cause forgetting of related unpractised material. Prior work on the role of delay between practice and test for RIF reported mixed results. Whereas some studies found RIF to be a relatively transient phenomenon, others found RIF to...
Article
Full-text available
In list-method directed forgetting, people are cued to forget a previously studied item list and to learn a new list instead. Such cuing typically leads to forgetting of the first list and to memory enhancement of the second, referred to as list 1 forgetting and list 2 enhancement. In the present study, two experiments are reported that examined in...
Article
Full-text available
Selectively retrieving a subset of previously studied information can cause forgetting of related, nonretrieved information. Such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) has typically been attributed to inhibitory control processes. Examining participants with a mean age of about 70 years, previous work reported intact RIF in older adults, suggesting ef...
Article
Across 3 experiments, we examined the interplay of part-list cuing and forgetting, employing 3 different methods to induce episodic forgetting-list--method directed forgetting, context-dependent forgetting, and proactive interference. For each form of forgetting, participants were asked at test to recall the target items of a previously studied lis...