Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt

Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
University of Saskatchewan | U of S · Global Institute for Water Security

Doctor of Philosophy

About

230
Publications
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3,166
Citations

Publications

Publications (230)
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the impact of future climate on the severity of ice jam floods (IJFs) is an essential component of a flood mitigation strategy for many ice jam-prone northern communities. The general circulation model (GCM) outputs are used to derive hydrological conditions under future climate scenarios. Although GCMs are often downscaled to the point o...
Article
Full-text available
In the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere, ice jam related flooding can result in millions of dollars of property damages, loss of human life and adverse impacts on ecology. Since ice-jam formation mechanism is stochastic and depends on numerous unpredictable hydraulic and river ice factors, ice-jam associated flood forecasting is a very c...
Article
Full-text available
Study region The lower Athabasca River was used as a test case using total suspended sediment, chloride and vanadium as the model variables. Upstream model boundary conditions included water from the tributary Clearwater River (right stream tube) and the upper Athabasca River extending upstream of the tributary mouth (left stream tube). This model...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of integrated models is still hindered by submodels’ uncertainty propagation. In this article, a novel identifiability and identification framework is applied to screen and establish reasonable hypotheses of an integrated instream (WASP) and catchment water quality (VENSIM) model. Using the framework, the models were linked, and crit...
Article
Full-text available
Ice jams are impacted by several climatic factors that are likely to change under a future warming climate. Due to the complexity of river ice phenology, projection of future ice jams is challenging. However, it is important to be able to project future ice jam behavior. Additionally, ice jam research is limited by the shortage of long-term monitor...
Article
Full-text available
Cold regions provide water resources for half the global population yet face rapid change. Their hydrology is dominated by snow, ice and frozen soils, and climate warming is having profound effects. Hydrological models have a key role in predicting changing water resources but are challenged in cold regions. Ground‐based data to quantify meteorolog...
Article
Full-text available
Water quality models are an emerging tool in water management to understand and inform decisions related to eutrophication. This study tested flow scenario effects on the water quality of Buffalo Pound Lake—a eutrophic reservoir supplying water for approximately 25% of Saskatchewan’s population. The model CE-QUAL-W2 was applied to assess the impact...
Article
Full-text available
Ice-jam floods are a key concern in cold-region environments, where seasonal effects of river ice formation and break-up can have substantial impacts on flooding processes. Different statistical, machine learning, and process-based models have been developed to simulate ice-jam flood (IJF) events in order to improve our understanding of river ice p...
Article
SAR data provide the high-resolution images useful for monitoring environment, and natural resources. Nevertheless, it has been a great challenge to retrieve soil moisture over vegetated sites from SAR backscatter coefficients, as it is almost impossible to parameterize spatially heterogeneous and time-varying roughness, the effect of rainfall or c...
Article
Climate change introduces substantial uncertainty in water resources planning and management. This is particularly the case for the river systems in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere that are more vulnerable to global change. The situation becomes more challenging when there is a limited hydrological understanding of the basin. In this...
Article
Full-text available
A quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) modelling approach is introduced to mimic transverse mixing of an inflow into a river from one of its banks, either an industrial outfall or a tributary. The concentrations of determinands in the inflow vary greatly from those in the river, leading to very long mixing lengths in the river downstream of the inflow...
Article
One of the most prominent sources of error and uncertainty in water quality modeling results is the input data. In this study, data from three meteorological databases were used to test the performance of a water temperature model of Lake Diefenbaker: the data from the Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) had long-term quality control histo...
Preprint
Full-text available
A quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) modelling approach is introduced to mimic transverse mixing of an inflow into a river from one of its banks, either an industrial outfall or a tributary. The concentrations of determinands in the inflow vary greatly from those in the river, leading to very long mixing lengths in the river downstream of the inflow...
Article
Full-text available
Ice-jam floods pose a serious threat to many riverside communities in cold regions. Ice-jam-related flooding can cause loss of human life, millions of dollars in property damage, and adverse impacts on ecology. An effective flood management strategy is necessary to reduce the overall risk in flood-prone areas. Most of these strategies require a det...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cold regions provide water resources for half the global population yet face rapid change. Their hydrology is dominated by snow, ice and frozen soils, and climate warming is having profound effects. Hydrological models have a key role in predicting changing water resources, but are challenged in cold regions. Ground-based data to quantify meteorolo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Projection of the impact of future climate on ice-jam flood intensity is an essential component of a flood mitigation strategy for many northern communities. General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs are used to derive hydrological conditions under future climate scenarios. Although GCMs are often downscaled to a point of interest, there can still be...
Article
Nutrient export from agricultural areas is among the main contributors to water pollution in various watersheds. Agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) are commonly used to reduce excessive nutrient runoff and improve water quality. The successful uptake of BMPs not only depends on their effectiveness but also on their costs of impleme...
Article
Climate mediated warming water temperature, drought and extreme flooding are projected to shift the phenology of nutrients in receiving lakes and reservoirs further intensifying eutrophication and algal blooms, especially in temperate reservoirs. An emerging issue in reservoir management is the prediction of climate change impacts, a necessity for...
Article
River ice is an important hydraulic and hydrological component of many rivers in the high northern latitudes of the world. It controls the hydraulic characteristics of streamflow, affects the geomorphology of channels, and can cause flooding due to ice-jam formation during ice-cover freeze-up and breakup periods. In recent decades, climate change h...
Article
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Transdisciplinary researchers collaborate with diverse partners outside of academia to tackle sustainability problems. The patterns and practices of social interaction and the contextual nature of transdisciplinary research result in different performance expectations than traditional, curiosity-driven research. Documenting patterns of interaction...
Article
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Flooding is one of the most frequent and most costly natural disasters that occur throughout Canada, and although there is ongoing work to update and improve flood hazard assessments and mapping of high flood risk rivers throughout the country, most studies only delve into open water flooding. However, many rivers in Canada experience higher peak w...
Article
Full-text available
Ice‐jam flood risk management requires new approaches to reduce flood damages. Although many structural and non‐structural measures are implemented to reduce the impacts of ice‐jam flooding, there are still many challenges in identifying appropriate strategies to reduce the ice‐jam flood risk along northern rivers. The main purpose of this study is...
Article
Though mitigation measures and research have increased over the last few decades, ice jams and associated flooding continue to be one of the most underestimated disasters in many northern countries. Operational ice jam flood forecasting systems are becoming one of the more prominent tools used in mitigating ice-related flood risk within Canada. Sev...
Article
Large multi-purpose reservoirs serve not only to generate hydropower but to supply water for agricultural irrigation, animal and human consumption and to provide flood control. One of the key factors affecting physical functioning and deteriorating aquatic ecosystems in reservoirs is climate change. For instance, increases in water temperature acce...
Article
Model parameters and boundary conditions characterizing flood domains in riverine flood modelling play an important role in the delineation of flood hazard along rivers. Since the digital elevation model (DEM) is an integral part of the delineation of flood hazard, it is necessary to determine the relative sensitivity of the DEM alongside the hydra...
Article
Full-text available
Linking elemental processes in integrated modeling provides a means of handling emerging issues related to aquatic system management. In this study, an integral modeling strategy was used to develop a water quality model of the Qu’Appelle River, particularly for under-ice conditions, which is a topic that has not received much attention in the lite...
Article
A good water quality model needs sufficient data to characterise the waterbody, yet monitoring resources are often limited. Inadequate boundary data often contribute to model uncertainty and error. In these situations, the same water quality model can also be used to determine where sampling efforts are best concentrated for improving model reliabi...
Article
In many northern rivers, ice-jam flooding can be more severe than open-water flooding, leading to human casualties, damages to property and infrastructure and adverse impacts on ecology. Therefore, ice-jam related flooding is a major concern for many riverside communities, water authorities, insurance companies and government agencies. Ice-jam floo...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic contributing areas, various fill-and-spill mechanisms and cold-region processes make the hydrological modelling of the Prairies very challenging. Several models (from simple conceptual to advanced process-based) are available, but the focus has been largely in reproducing streamflow. Few studies have assimilated soil moisture and other hydr...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest to develop processes for creating user-informed watershed scale models of hydrology and water quality and to assist in decision-making for balanced policies for managing watersheds. Watershed models can be enhanced with the incorporation of social dimensions of watershed management as brought forward by participants such a...
Article
In cold-region environments, ice-jam floods (IJFs) can result in high water levels in rivers to overtop levees, leading to devastating floods. Since climatic conditions play an important role in ice-jam flooding, there is a growing concern among property developers, insurance companies, government agencies, and communities on future IJF probabiliti...
Article
Full-text available
In river ice modelling, deterministic river ice models are often embedded into a Monte-Carlo framework to generate ensembles of backwater staging for jams of varying length and location, and for different combinations of model parameters and boundary conditions. In this approach, values for parameters and boundary conditions are usually sampled ind...
Article
Forecasting river ice breakup is critical for supporting emergency responses to river ice-related flooding along rivers in the northern hemisphere. However, due to complex river ice processes, forecasting river ice breakup is more challenging than predicting open-water flood conditions. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding...
Article
Traditionally, hydrological models are only calibrated to reproduce streamflow regime without considering other hydrological state variables, such as soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Limited studies have been performed on constraining the model parameters, despite the fact that the presence of large number of parameters may provide large degre...
Chapter
The topic of river-ice processes begins with river freeze-up, to follow the sequence of the winter cycle, which starts with freeze-up, then midwinter ice-cover progression and lastly enters the breakup period. In an ice-jam flood forecasting context, it is important to understand the processes of ice-cover formation and the types of ice that form d...
Chapter
River-ice modelling is an indispensable tool for ice-jam flood forecasting. Potential ice-jam flood backwater levels can be predicted with such models if values for the models’ boundary conditions can be projected into the future. This applies to both operational flood forecasting and making predictions on ice-jam flood behaviour in a changed clima...
Chapter
In this chapter, the stochastic modelling framework introduced in the previous chapter is extended to calculate the probable maximum backwater-level elevations PMFice that can be attained from ice jams. The PMFice represents a threshold water level below which ice jams can still remain intact for a certain period of time but above which the jam bec...
Chapter
During the ice-cover period, initial ice-cover breakup precedes ice-jam flood events. Hence, it is important that breakup processes are well understood in order to be better prepared for ice-jam flood forecasting. Being able to predict ice-cover breakup provides an indication when ice-jam flood forecasting should commence. This chapter explains ice...
Chapter
This chapter describes a new methodology for forecasting ice-jam flooding. Detailed steps of the development of the methodology is provided first followed by spreadsheet exercises, which are continuations of the spreadsheet exercises from previous chapters. The exercises serve to reinforce the concepts underlying the forecasting approach by present...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates many techniques used to monitor the ice cover during the winter season, which are necessary to determine important characteristics of the ice cover. Such information is useful when making predictions concerning ice-cover breakup and ice-jamming potential at the end of the winter season. Characteristics such as ice type, ice...
Chapter
Remote sensing has always been an important component in the river and lake ice tool box. Remote sensing gathers information regarding the earth’s surface using means that do not require direct contact with the surface. The information is attained by detecting energy emitted or reflected from the surface; this information is then processed and anal...
Chapter
This chapter provides an example of the application of the river-ice model RIVICE by modelling ice jams along rivers and simulating scenarios to investigate a measure to mitigate ice-jam flooding. A modelling exercise is provided at the end of the chapter to expose the reader to setting up RIVICE in a framework that automates multiple runs of the m...
Book
This book exposes practitioners and students to the theory and application of river and lake ice processes to gain a better understanding of these processes for modelling and forecasting. It focuses on the following processes of the surface water ice: freeze-up, ice cover thickening, ice cover breakup and ice jamming. The reader will receive a fund...
Article
Anthropogenic and climatic induced changes to flow regimes pose significant risk to river systems. Northern rivers and their deltas are particularly vulnerable due to disproportionate warming of the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere. Of special interest is the Peace‐Athabasca Delta (PAD) in western Canada, a productive deltaic...
Article
Full-text available
Dams are typically designed to serve as flood protection, provide water for irrigation, human and animal consumption, and harness hydropower. Despite these benefits, dam operations can have adverse effects on in-reservoir and downstream water temperature regimes, biogeochemical cycling and aquatic ecosystems. We present a water quality dataset of w...
Article
Full-text available
Vertical turbulent diffusivity (Kz), which can be estimated from water temperature, is a key factor in the evolution of water quality in lentic waters. In this study, we analysed the capability of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (EFDC) to capture water temperature and vertical diffusivity in Lake Arendsee in the Northern German plain. Of par...
Article
Dam operations are known to have significant impacts on reservoir hydrodynamics and solute transport processes. The Gardiner Dam, one of the structures that forms the Lake Diefenbaker reservoir located in the Canadian Prairies, is managed for hydropower generation and agricultural irrigation and is known to have widely altering temperature regimes...
Article
Evaluating driving factors of river ice freeze-up and break-up is critical for the understanding associated with river ice processes, as well as for providing a means to predict potential natural hazards of river ice formation or deformation. Spatiotemporal changes from fifteen years (2000–2015) of MODIS reflectance band 2 images were analyzed in p...
Article
In cold region environments, any alteration in the hydro-climatic regime can have profound impacts on river ice processes. This paper studies the implications of hydro-climatic trends on river ice processes, particularly on the freeze-up and ice-cover breakup along the Athabasca River in Fort McMurray in western Canada, which is an area very prone...
Article
Changes to natural flow and air temperature in the context of climate change can have impacts on physiology, distribution and survival of fish. Of particular interest is the Athabasca River basin, a highly biologically productive basin that includes one of the largest boreal freshwater inland river deltas in the world and serves as habitat for many...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Forecasting the timing of river ice breakup is critical for supporting the emergency responses to river ice-related flooding in the northern hemisphere. However, due to complex river ice processes, forecasting the timing of ice-cover breakup and magnitude of breakup flow are more challenging than predicting open-water flood conditions. Despite cons...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal regime is a key consideration for instream flow management as the ecological integrity of river ecosystems rely on the natural dynamics of temperature range and spatiotemporal characteristics. Climate change can alter thermal regimes and influence water temperatures. This study aims to investigate probable impacts of climate change (pre...
Article
In cold region environments, ice‐jam floods (IJFs) pose a severe risk to local communities, economies, and ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that both climate and regulation affect IJF probabilities, but their relative impacts are poorly understood. This study presents a probabilistic modelling framework that couples hydrologic and hydraulic...
Article
Forecasting ice jams and their consequential flooding is more challenging than predicting open water flood conditions. This is due to the chaotic nature of ice jam formation since slight changes in water and ice flows, location of the ice jam toe along the river and initial water levels at the time of jam formation can lead to marked differences in...
Article
Ice phenology, defined as the timing of freeze-up and ice-cover breakup, plays a key role in streamflow regimes in cold-region river catchments. River freeze-up and ice-cover breakup events are controlled by meteorological and hydrological variables. In this study, we present a modelling framework consisting of a physically-based semi-distributed h...
Article
Full-text available
Winter roads are economical and effective means of providing reliable transportation links to remote regions. Operators establishing ice crossings over rivers and lakes have been facing increased pressure to deliver higher volumes of goods, larger loads, in challenging climatic conditions. A question arose from industry: “is there a way to safely p...
Article
Full-text available
Background Thermal stratification in reservoirs is a significant factor affecting water quality, and can be strongly influenced by climate change and operational strategies. Reservoirs in the temperate zone react most sensitively to climate warming during winter as ice cover and inversed stratification are about to disappear in a warmer world. In t...
Article
River ice plays an important role in high latitude regions, and ice thickness is an important consideration to local residents as well as hydrologists. Two approaches, measurement (both remotely sensed and direct) and numerical calculations, are common methods used for ice thickness quantification. Measurement of ice thickness using SAR remote sens...
Article
Full-text available
For ice-jam flood forecasting it is important to differentiate between intact ice covers and ice runs. Ice runs consist of long accumulations of rubble ice that stem from broken up ice covers or ice-jams that have released. A water wave generally travels ahead of the ice run at a faster celerity, arriving at the potentially high flood–risk area muc...
Article
Water quality is increasingly at risk due to nutrient pollution entering river systems from cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas. Agricultural activities are typically the largest non-point source of water pollution. The dynamics of agricultural impacts on water quality are complex and stem from the decisions and activities of multiple s...
Article
Full-text available
Located on the same river, the degree of eutrophication in the upper and middle reaches of the Qu'Appelle River in Saskatchewan are different. While the upper Qu'Appelle is eutrophic, the middle Qu'Appelle River is hypereutrophic. To manage the river sustainably, there is a need to understand key processes governing eutrophication in both systems....
Article
Full-text available
Despite ubiquitous warming, the lower Oder River typically freezes over almost every year. Ice jams may occur during freeze-up and ice cover breakup phases, particularly in the middle and lower reaches of the river, with weirs and piers. The slush ice and ice blocks may accumulate to form ice jams, leading to backwater effects and substantial water...
Chapter
Water quality has been under unprecedented pressure over the past few decades due, in part, to increasing nutrient pollution from cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas entering river systems. The dynamics of these impacts on water quality are complex and stem from decisions and activities of different groups of stakeholders, who can have...
Article
Full-text available
Almost 60% of the rivers in the northern hemisphere experience significant seasonal effects of river ice. In many of these northern rivers, ice-jam floods (IJFs) pose serious threats to riverine communities. Since the inundation elevations associated with ice-jam events can be several meters higher than open-water floods for the same or even lower...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue focuses on the effects of ice cover on surface water bodies, specifically rivers and lakes. Background information on the motivation of addressing this topic is first introduced with some selected references highlighting key points in this research field. A summary and synthesis of the eleven contributions is then provided, focus...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication of an under-ice river-lake system in Canada has been modeled using the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP7). The model was used to assess the potential effect on water quality of increasing inter-basin transfer of water from an upstream reservoir into the Qu’Appelle River system. Although water is currently transferred,...
Article
The regulation of rivers has always been a controversial issue, with potential benefits but also environmental impacts. In western Canada, the construction of W.A.C. Bennett Dam in the headwaters of the Peace River has raised concerns over the ecological health of the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), a socioeconomically and ecologically important delta...
Article
There is a need to determine the maximum backwater staging possible from ice jam flooding along high flood risk prone sections of northern rivers. Similar to the probable maximum flood PMF, which is primarily estimated for the most extreme open-water floods, probable maximum floods from ice jamming PMFice can provide upper thresholds of water level...
Article
Full-text available
Climate and land-use changes modify the physical functioning of river basins and, in particular, influence the transport of nutrients from land to water. In large-scale basins, where a variety of climates, topographies, soil types and land uses co-exist to form a highly heterogeneous environment, a more complex nutrient dynamic is imposed by climat...
Thesis
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This thesis focuses on computer modelling issues such as i) uncertainty, including uncertainty in parameters, data input and model structure, ii) model complexity and how it affects uncertainty, iii) scale, as it pertains to scaling calibrated and validated models up or down to different spatial and temporal resolutions, and iv) transferability of...