Karl E Bauman

Karl E Bauman
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | UNC · Health Behavior

PhD

About

145
Publications
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Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Full-text available
Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen...
Article
PurposeTo examine the effects of a family-based teen dating abuse prevention program, Families for Safe Dates, primarily on outcomes related to testing the conceptual underpinnings of the program including (1) factors motivating and facilitating caregiver engagement in teen dating abuse prevention activities, and 2) risk factors for teen dating abu...
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Objective: To examine factors that influence the effectiveness and quality of implementation of evidence-based family-focused adolescent substance use prevention programmes delivered in health care settings and to assess the effects of programme choice versus programme assignment on programme delivery. Design: Strengthening Families Program: For Pa...
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Violence profiles were created on the basis of whether adolescents used violence against both peers and dates, against dates but not peers, against peers but not dates, or against neither peers nor dates. We determined (1) whether risk and protective factors from five domains (individual attributes and behaviors, the peer, family, school, and neigh...
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We apply a social contextual perspective based on Bronfenbrenner's ecology of human development theory to understanding development of youth cigarette smoking. We examine the contributions of family, peer, school, and neighborhood contexts. Context attributes examined were derived from social learning and social control theories. Data are from 6,54...
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This study examined the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of parental and peer behaviors with cigarette and alcohol use in different neighborhood contexts. The sample included 924 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls) 12-14 years of age whose addresses were matched with 1990 census block groups. Six neighborhood types were identified through a...
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This study determined the shape of trajectories from ages 13 to 19 of 4 types of dating abuse perpetration and examined whether the demographic characteristics of sex, minority status, socioeconomic status, and family structure systematically explained variation in the trajectories. The data are from 5 waves of data collected from 973 adolescents p...
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A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by soc...
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This study examines variation in the associations between cigarette smoking by mother or father and adolescent cigarette smoking by selected sociodemographic characteristics. The study data are from nationally representative samples of adolescents aged 12 to 17 living with their mothers (n=4734) and/or fathers (n=3176). Mother cigarette smoking was...
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This study estimated percentages of adolescents living with a mother or father with serious psychological distress (SPD), and examined moderation and mediation of the relationships between mother or father SPD and adolescent substance use. We analyzed data from nationally representative samples of adolescents interviewed with their mothers (n = 473...
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To identify intrapersonal and contextual factors that mediate associations between demographic variables (minority status, socioeconomic status, family structure, gender, and neighborhood disadvantage) and trajectories of moderate and severe physical dating violence perpetration from ages 13-19 years. Multi-wave data from 959 adolescents were analy...
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Peer attributes other than smoking have received little attention in the research on adolescent smoking, even though the developmental literature suggests the importance of multiple dimensions of adolescent friendships and peer relations. Social network analysis was used to measure the structure of peer relations (i.e., indicators of having friends...
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We compared the prevalence of serious psychological distress among parenting adults with the prevalence among nonparenting adults and the sociodemographic correlates of serious psychological distress between these 2 populations. We drew data from 14240 parenting adults and 19224 nonparenting adults who responded to the 2002 National Survey on Drug...
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Acts scales, the most common way of measuring partner violence, have been criticized for being too simplistic to capture the complexities of partner violence. An alternative measurement approach is to use typologies that consider various aspects of context. In this study, the authors identified typologies of dating violence perpetration by adolesce...
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We tested biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in grades 6 and 8. Models including the...
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This research examines whether adding information about adolescent friendships (feeling of closeness to friend, visits to friend's home, interaction outside school, and parent involvement in the friendship) to social network measures increases associations with adolescent substance use. In 2002, friendship nominations were obtained from more than 4...
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Prior to the present study, the proposal by sexual socialization theorists that there is a relationship between gender stereotyping and adolescent sexual behavior had never been empirically tested. The purposes of this paper were (a) to test the relationship between gender stereotyping and adolescent sexual behavior and (b) to determine the directi...
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The expected consequences of behavior are basic to many modern theories of behavior and to programs designed to influence behavior. In this research, 52 consequences expected from smoking cigarettes were measured in a panel study of 1,406 adolescents. Six factors were identified through factor analysis of these consequences. Multivariate analyses g...
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The relationship between subjective expected utility (SEU) for intercourse and sexual behavior was examined in a 3-year panel study of adolescents. Linear structural equation models were used to evaluate the causal priority of these variables for 225 junior high school students. Panel data allowed this examination, which is not possible in more com...
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The importance of friend influence as a determinant of adolescent behavior has primarily been inferred from research that has repeatedly demonstrated the behavior of friends to be similar. Homogeneity among peers, however, could also be due to a selection process whereby adolescents choose and keep friends whose behavior is similar to their own. Mo...
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A classic social psychological model is that external variables influence behavior through their impact on subjective expected utility, the extent to which more good or harm is expected from behavior. The purpose of this research was to determine whether subjective expected utility is a major intervening variable that links external variables and t...
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Although a fundamental assumption of behavior decision theory is that individuals must generally believe they can control their fate if their behavior is to be influenced by subjective expected utility (SEU), the hypothesis that the positive relationship between SEU and behavior is stronger for those with internal locus of control had not been dire...
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To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for...
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The Safe Dates Project is a randomized trial for evaluating a school-based adolescent dating violence prevention program. Five waves of data were used to examine the effects of Safe Dates over time including primary and secondary prevention effects, moderators, and mediators of program effects. Using random coefficients models, with multiple imputa...
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The influence of neighborhoods on adolescent behaviors has received increasing research attention. In the present study, we use structural equation models to specify pathways from neighborhoods to adolescent cigarette and alcohol use through parental closeness, parental monitoring, parent substance use, and peer substance use. We use a national sam...
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This study identifies potentially modifiable risk factors for the onset of and chronic victimization from serious physical and sexual dating violence. One thousand two hundred ninety-one 8th and 9th graders from a county in North Carolina were assessed annually for 5 and 4 years, respectively. For males, having been hit by an adult with the intenti...
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This study determined 4-year postintervention effects of Safe Dates on dating violence, booster effects, and moderators of the program effects. We gathered baseline data in 10 schools that were randomly allocated to a treatment condition. We collected follow-up data 1 month after the program and then yearly thereafter for 4 years. Between the 2- an...
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This research examined the validity of self-reports of adolescent smoking and explored factors that may influence agreement between self-reported smoking and biological indicators. Data were obtained from 1,881 adolescents as part of a household probability study in the southeastern United States. Adolescents aged 12-14 years reported their tobacco...
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Better understanding of the cognitive framework for decision making among legislators is important for advocacy of health-promoting legislation. In 1994, the authors surveyed state legislators from North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont concerning their beliefs and intentions related to voting for a hypothetical measure to enforce legislation preventin...
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Reducing the prevalence of adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are public health goals of the United States. Although families have strong influence on their children, few randomized studies have examined whether family-directed programs influence those behaviors in general universal populations. This paper reports findings from an ev...
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Family Matters is a universal intervention designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use through involvement of family members and by targeting family risk factors for tobacco and alcohol use. Previously reported findings suggest that the program reduced the prevalence of both adolescent smoking and drinking in the 12 months after program...
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This study examined correlates of program initiation and completion in a family-directed program that involved families of adolescents throughout the United States. Correlates varied by whether program initiation, program completion, or the number of activities completed was the indicator of participation. In final regression models, participation...
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A common characterization of adolescence is that parent influence decreases and friend influence increases as adolescents age. From that, we hypothesized that the association between parent and adolescent smoking decreases and the association between friend and adolescent smoking increases as adolescents become older. The hypothesis is tested with...
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This study examined a family-directed program's effectiveness in preventing adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in a general population. Adolescents aged 12 to 14 years and their families were identified by random-digit dialing throughout the contiguous United States. After providing baseline data by telephone interviews, they were randomly allocate...
Article
Parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol use is assumed to be critical to child use of these substances, but it rarely has been systematically described and related to adolescent use. This study included a national sample of 537 adolescent-parent pairs interviewed by telephone at baseline and again 1 year later. Factor analysis of paren...
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Programs to reduce adolescent cigarette or alcohol use by users in general populations have only recently been evaluated. Moreover, in spite of the substantial influence families have on their children, few family-directed programs designed to reduce the prevalence of adolescent smoking and drinking have been rigorously evaluated. This paper report...
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This article describes a program for families that is intended to reduce adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The program, featuring mailed booklets and follow-up telephone contacts by health educators, is directed toward general populations and is being evaluated with a randomized experiment involving families throughout the contiguous states of th...
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This article focuses on affectionate behaviors of adolescent mothers with their infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Hypotheses derived from behavioral science theory posited the direct influence of social support and perceived stress on affectionate behaviors, the statistical interaction of social support and perceived stress on affec...
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An earlier report described desirable 1-month follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program on psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Mediators of the program-behavior relationship also were identified. The present report describes the 1-year follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program. Fourteen schools were in the randomized experiment...
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The most recent major U.S. trials that evaluated community-level programs to influence risk factors and health behaviors identified secular trends in the risk factors and health behaviors among the factors that might have limited community-level effects. The research reported in this paper uses data from one of the trials to examine the secular tre...
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This study empirically examines why exposure to family violence and adolescent dating violence are associated. Data are from self-administered questionnaires completed in schools by 1,965 eighth- and ninth-grade students. Exposure to family violence was positively associated with dating violence. For both genders, this relationship was mediated by...
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This paper describes two studies that had three purposes: (a) to modify a parent-child interaction tool used previously in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); (b) to demonstrate interrater reliability, Chronbach's Alpha reliability, and construct validity of the tool with adolescent mothers, and (c) to determine the ability of nurses engaged in...
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This study analyzed influences on state legislators' decisions about cigarette tax increase votes using a research strategy based on political science and social-psychological models. Legislators from three states representing a spectrum of tobacco interests participated in personal interviews concerned with tobacco control legislation (n = 444). M...
Article
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This study assessed the effects of the Safe Dates program on the primary and secondary prevention of adolescent dating violence. Fourteen schools were randomly allocated to treatment conditions. Eighty percent (n=1886) of the eighth and ninth graders in a rural county completed baseline questionnaires, and 1700 (90%) completed follow-up questionnai...
Article
Reducing infant mortality in the United States is a national priority. States' infant mortality rates vary substantially. Public health researchers, practitioners, and leaders have long argued that social and other structural factors must be addressed if health outcomes are to be improved. A knowledge of which structural variables are most strongly...
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The main threats to adolescents' health are the risk behaviors they choose. How their social context shapes their behaviors is poorly understood. To identify risk and protective factors at the family, school, and individual levels as they relate to 4 domains of adolescent health and morbidity: emotional health, violence, substance use, and sexualit...
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This study describes state legislators' knowledge, attitudes, and voting intentions with regard to tobacco-related issues. A cross-sectional survey of state legislators was conducted in North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont in 1994. Most legislators agreed that secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers, and a majority believed that smokers...
Article
The predictive validity of state legislators' behavioral intentions in relation to their votes on tobacco control legislation was assessed by using the theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1991). Intentions to vote for cigarette tax increases were measured through interviews in the summer of 1994. A bill containing cigarette tax increases was cons...
Article
Studies of the effects of passive smoking on lower respiratory illness (LRI) have relied on questionnaires to measure exposure. We studied the association between two measures of passive smoking and the incidence of acute LRI in infants. We analyzed data from a community-based cohort study of respiratory illness during the first year of life in Nor...
Article
Studies of the effects of passive smoking on lower respiratory illness (LRI) have relied on questionnaires to measure exposure. We studied the association between two measures of passive smoking and the incidence of acute LRI in infants. We analyzed data from a community-based cohort study of respiratory illness during the first year of life in Nor...
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This paper describes the magnitude of effects for family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs. Studies that used true experimental designs to evaluate family planning programs were identified and their results subjected to meta-analysis. For the 14 studies with the information needed to calculate effect size, the Pearson r bet...
Article
Peer relationships are considered to be a dominant feature of adolescence, but systematically formed social networks rarely have been studied. A social network analysis was used to describe adolescent friendship patterns and to compare them across schools and time. Ninth graders (n = 1030) atfive high schools identified their friends at Wave 1 and...
Article
Peer influence is generally believed to be a major cause of adolescent drug behavior. This paper reviews research findings on friend selection and projection to suggest that the magnitude of friend influence may be overestimated. This paper also observes that, although adolescent drug use is assumed to begin in response to peer group influence, pee...
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The relative effectiveness of three common strategies to increase participation in worksite health promotion programs was assessed. The interventions, designed for low income employees, were (1) written information, (2) written information and an informational meeting, and (3) written information, an information meeting and a group contest. Thirty...
Article
Peer influence is generally believed to be a major cause of adolescent drug behavior. This paper reviews research findings on friend selection and projection to suggest that the magnitude of friend influence may be overestimated. This paper also observes that, although adolescent drug use is assumed to begin in response to peer group influence, pee...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the relative strength of the associations of a set of structural (social, economic, and political) variables and a set of health services variables with state-level infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality. It also examined whether health services mediate the relationships between structural variables and state-level infant,...
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Understanding the homogeneity of peer groups requires identification of peer groups and consideration of influence and selection processes. Few studies have identified adolescent peer groups, however, or examined how they become homogeneous. This study used social network analysis to identify peer groups (cliques), clique liaisons, and isolates amo...
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Empirical support for the assumption that peers are major determinants of adolescent drug use derives largely from the frequent finding that adolescents who said that their friends used drugs were at increased likelihood of using drugs themselves. It is suggested that the strong and consistent correlation in drug use by friends is at least partiall...
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True experiments can provide the strongest evidence for inferences about family planning program effects but other types of research designs are used far more often in program evaluations. The authors identify and critically examine problems attributed to the use of true experimental designs for family planning program evaluation considering why tr...
Article
Norplant is highly effective for long-term pregnancy prevention. Norplant users might not use condoms, and they may acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases as a consequence. The goal of this study was to assess condom use among Norplant users at risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Telephone interviews...
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We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a home-based intervention program could reduce infant passive smoking and lower respiratory illness. The intervention consisted of four nurse home visits during the first 6 months of life, designed to assist families to reduce the infant's exposure to tobacco smoke. Among the 121 infan...
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Research has consistently shown that adolescent smoking is related to friends' smoking, yet smoking in the context of adolescent peer groups (friendship cliques) has been little studied. Formal network analysis was used to identify 87 adolescent friendship cliques in a sample of 1,092 ninth graders at five schools. There was intraclique homogeneity...
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Previous studies concluded that Black adolescents use tobacco and other drugs less than White adolescents. The Black-White differences typically were attributed to variations in background and life-style. The objective of the research reported in this paper was to determine whether the presumed difference in tobacco use is due to Black-White differ...
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Parental attachment is central to many theories of development but has received little attention in studies of adolescent problem behaviors. This study tests two models of how parental attachment may influence adolescent cigarette smoking, both based on the Hirschi control theory. Each model specifies a different causal ordering among three variabl...
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Social network theory and analysis are applied to examine whether adolescents who fill various social positions that characterize peer group structure differ in prevalence of current smoking. One thousand and ninety-two (1,092) ninth graders in one school system named their three best friends, allowing the identification of each adolescent as cliqu...
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of a theoretical framework in an intervention program designed to reduce infants' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The content of a nurse-based intervention focused on two psychosocial constructs: expectations of outcomes which may result from behaviors associated with ETS exposure and...
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Normative expectations for cigarette smoking are considered in the context of the smoking behavior which 854 adolescents in Grade 7 ascribe to their friends and parents.
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Infants from families of low socioeconomic status are said to suffer higher rates of lower respiratory illness, but this assertion has not been carefully examined. We studied the frequency and determinants of lower respiratory illness in infants of different socioeconomic status (n = 393) by analyzing data from a community-based cohort study of res...
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This article considers the interaction of social and biological factors in the context of adolescent cigarette smoking. Parent and peer smoking are the sociological variables and testosterone is the biological indicator. The subjects are 212 males and females 12-14 years of age. The findings support the interaction model, suggesting that both socio...
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Three bonds are at the core of Hirschi's control theory: attachment to parents, commitment to conventional activities, and belief in the conventional rules of society. Control theory does not include parental and peer attitudes and behaviors, variables that frequently are implicated in adolescent behavior. This study examines whether parental and p...
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The authors report levels of intercommunity variation in rates of cigarette smoking observed during the course of an evaluation of the influence of three mass media campaigns on the initi ation of adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite careful design and statistical adjustment for a set of 10 known sociodemographic and personality correlates of adol...
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Social learning theory suggests that parents and peers influence adolescent drinking directly by providing social reinforcement and models for imitation, and indirectly by first influencing various expectations adolescents form about drinking. In this study, longitudinal data were used to investigate several mediators that could account for the rel...
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Full-text available
A description of passive smoking during the first year of life might assist planning preventive efforts. Changes in the ecology of passive smoking were investigated in a sample of infants in central North Carolina followed from birth to one year of age. The prevalence of tobacco smoke absorption, indicated by excretion of cotinine, increased from 5...
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Studies of adolescent smoking suggest that the causes of smoking initiation may differ for Blacks and Whites. Correlates of smoking initiation were examined among 1,277 nonsmokers, ages 12-14, who completed questionnaires in their homes. The analyses examined relationships between smoking initiation and 11 explanatory variables using logistic regre...