Karin Sigloch

Karin Sigloch
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Géoazur

PhD Princeton University 2008

About

139
Publications
40,782
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2,432
Citations
Citations since 2017
59 Research Items
1525 Citations
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Introduction
My primary research interest is in seismic tomography, the science and art of computing three-dimensional maps of the interior of solid bodies -- first and foremost, the earth. I apply the tools of tomography to all spatial scales, but most of my work has focused on the earth's mantle, where we want to understand imaged heterogeneities in terms of geodynamic heat and material flows, and in terms of plate tectonic configurations over geological time. deeptime.earth.ox.ac.uk, www.rhum-rum.net
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - April 2021
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 2013 - July 2019
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 2008 - October 2013
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 2002 - March 2008
Princeton University
Field of study
  • Geosciences

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
Full-text available
The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes--crustal blocks added over the past 200 million years--but the reason for this is unclear. The widely accepted explanation posits that the oceanic Farallon plate acted as a conveyor belt, sweeping terranes into the continental margin while subducting under it. Here we show that this...
Article
Full-text available
In global-scale seismic tomography, teleseismic P and PP waves mainly constrain structures in the upper two thirds of the mantle, whereas core-diffracted waves (Pdiff) constrain the lower third. This study is the first to invert a very large data set of Pdiff waves, up to the highest possible frequencies. This results in tomographic resolution matc...
Article
Full-text available
Plate reconstructions since the breakup of Pangaea are mostly based on the preserved spreading history of ocean basins, within absolute reference frames that are constrained by a combination of age‐progressive hotspot tracks and palaeomagnetic data. The evolution of destructive plate margins is difficult to constrain from surface observations as mu...
Article
Full-text available
Mantle plumes were conceived as thin, vertical conduits in which buoyant, hot rock from the lowermost mantle rises to Earth’s surface, manifesting as hotspot-type volcanism far from plate boundaries. Spatially correlated with hotspots are two vast provinces of slow seismic wave propagation in the lowermost mantle, probably representing the heat res...
Article
Full-text available
On Earth, the velocity at which subducting plates are consumed at their trenches (termed “subduction rate” herein) is typically 3 times higher than trench migration velocities. The subduction rate is also 5 times higher than estimated lower mantle slab sinking rates. Using simple kinematic analyses, we show that if this present‐day “kinematic state...
Preprint
Full-text available
On Earth, the velocity at which subducting plates are consumed at their trenches (termed `subduction rate' herein) is typically 3 times higher than trench migration velocities. The subduction rate is also 5 times higher than estimated lower mantle slab sinking rates. Using simple kinematic analyses, we show that if this present-day ``kinematic stat...
Article
Full-text available
Global variations in the propagation of fundamental-mode and overtone surface waves provide unique constraints on the low-frequency source properties and structure of the Earth’s upper mantle, transition zone and mid mantle. We construct a reference dataset of multi-mode dispersion measurements by reconciling large and diverse catalogs of Love-wave...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary To understand the links between plate tectonics and mantle processes, researchers must determine how tectonic plates have moved with respect the evolving mantle through geological time. To overcome this problem, recent studies use the locations of subducted slabs in the deep mantle to reconstruct plate motions, based on the h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Distributions of slabs within Earth’s mantle are increasingly used to reconstruct past subduction zones, based on first-order assumptions that slabs sink vertically after slab break-off, and thus delineate paleo-trench locations. Non-vertical slab motions, which occur prior to break-off, represent a potentially significant source of error for slab-...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze mantle structure under South America in the DETOX‐P1 seismic tomography model, a global‐scale, multifrequency inversion of teleseismic P waves. DETOX‐P1 inverts the most extensive data set of broadband, waveform‐based traveltime measurements to date, complemented by analyst‐picked traveltimes from the ISC‐EHB catalog. The mantle under So...
Conference Paper
The India-Asia collision is one of the most globally significant tectonic events of the Cenozoic era. It is widely cited as providing a unique natural laboratory for studying collisional tectonics, offering invaluable insights of processes associated with continental collision across a multitude of scales. Yet despite its importance, significant de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alaska is made up of a mosaic of terranes that have enigmatic origins. Several plate restorations for the assembly of Alaska have been proposed, but their validity remains debated, partly due to the removal of vast volumes of oceanic plate material via subduction at the accretionary margins. The position, depth and volume of this subducted lithosph...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that plume arrival at the base of the lithosphere introduces a push force that overwhelms the balance of torques driving plate circuits, leading to plate-tectonic reorganizations. Among the most compelling evidence in support of a “plume-push” mechanism is the apparent coincidence between eruption of the Deccan flood basalts a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The India-Asia collision is one of the most well-studied orogenic events on Earth; it recorded the terminal stages of the central Tethys ocean basins and offers invaluable insight into the geological processes associated with continental collision. In this study, we integrate bedrock datasets, observations of subducted slabs in the mantle, and plat...
Data
This file provides additional information and data sources to supplement and support our summary of Mesozoic to Cenozoic subduction in the south Tibetan crustal block presented in Section 5.1 and Figure 5 of the main article. A database of published geochronology used to build Figure 4 can also be found in Supplementary Materials 04.
Data
Database of geochronology used to build Figure 3 in main article. Sheet 1 displays geological 'Events' displayed in Figure 3. Sheet 2 displays individual data sources used to constrain each 'Event' in Sheet 1. Data sources and 'Events' are linked by catalogue numbers.
Data
Supplementary Materials 02 - ArcGIS files of point, line, polygon and raster layers used in Figures 1, 2, 8, 21, and 23 (follow link in PDF to download).
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we integrate bedrock datasets, observations of subducted slabs in the mantle, and plate kinematic constraints, to constrain models for the India-Asia collision and the central Tethys oceans. To accomplish this, we review: (1) the post-Triassic bedrock record of subduction in Tibet; (2) seismic tomographic imaging of subducted slabs i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in plate-reconstruction modelling allow geological and geophysical datasets to be readily integrated within a plate kinematic framework; this enables development of regional tectonic models that are consistent with the bedrock record, deep mantle structure and global tectonic plate networks. In this study, we evaluate the constraints that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The India-Asia collision is one of the most well-studied orogenic events on Earth; it recorded the terminal stages of the eastern Tethys ocean basins and offers invaluable insight into the geological processes associated with continental collision. A variety of different models to explain the India-Asia collisions are still debated; distinctions be...
Article
Full-text available
Volcanic hotspot islands are thought to be surface manifestations of mantle plumes that rise from the core–mantle boundary. When mantle plumes approach the surface, their mostly vertical rise must be deflected into near-horizontal flow beneath tectonic plates. This creates an opportunity to constrain their dynamics and their interactions with litho...
Article
Full-text available
We use seismic noise cross-correlations to obtain a 3-D tomography model of S V-wave velocities beneath the western Indian Ocean, in the depth range of the oceanic crust and uppermost mantle. The study area covers 2000 × 2000 km2 between Madagascar and the three spreading ridges of the Indian Ocean, centred on the volcanic hotspot of La Réunion. We...
Article
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James Hammond and co-authors report from a BGA meeting on how advances in instrumentation are opening up opportunities for dense, large-scale deployments of seismometers on land and in the oceans.
Article
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It is an exciting time to be a seismologist. In November 2018, the InSight lander touched down on Mars and the first seismometer was deployed on another planet. This incredible feat means planetary seismologists are currently searching for marsquakes and will hopefully soon be providing images of its interior and helping us to understand how rocky...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismic tomography may be used to identify slabs of oceanic lithosphere that have subducted into the upper and lower mantle. Correlation of this information with constraints from the bedrock geological record provides a means to test and develop new and existing paleogeographic and tectonic plate reconstruction models. Here, we present a visual sum...
Article
Full-text available
Many applications in seismology rely on the accurate absolute timing of seismograms. However, both seismological land stations and ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) can be affected by clock errors, which cause the absolute timing of seismograms to deviate from a highly accurate reference time signal, usually provided by GPS satellites. Timing proble...
Article
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The heat driving Yellowstone’s volcanism originates from a depth of at least 700 km, according to images of the mantle created using novel seismic methods.
Article
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We present SubMachine, a collection of web‐based tools for the interactive visualization, analysis, and quantitative comparison of global‐scale data sets of the Earth's interior. SubMachine focuses on making regional and global‐scale seismic tomography models easily accessible to the wider solid Earth community, in order to facilitate collaborative...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to their faint signatures, diffracted wave fields are still largely neglected in attempts to image the earth's crust with active or passive seismic sources. This contrasts with applications in optics, where diffraction represents a key phenomenon. Aside from encoding sub-wavelength information on the scattering geometry or indicating small-scal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Exploration seismology deals with highly coherent wave fields generated by repeatable controlled sources and recorded by dense receiver arrays, whose geometry is tailored to backscattered energy normally neglected in earthquake seismology. Owing to these favorable conditions, stacking and coherence analysis are routinely employed to suppress incohe...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Azores hotspot marks the triple junction between the North American, Eurasian, and African plates, and is responsible for the ~20 Ma Azores plateau, and ongoing, off-axis volcanism today. The dynamics of the interaction between the Azores hotspot and the slow-spreading North Atlantic ridge has led to short wavelength V-shaped bathymetric and ge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
TOMOTECTONIC CONSTRAINTS ON GEODYNAMICS OF THE MESOZOIC NORTH AMERICAN CORDILLERA - TOWARDS A NEW GLOBAL "SLAB TECTONIC" PARADIGM This work is a contribution to the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, November, 2018. Pertinent license granted as follows: © Copyright 2018 The Geological Society of America (GSA), all right...
Poster
We describe a way to adapt the procedure of coherence analysis to dense earthquake data as it was recorded e.g. at the USarray. Following an extension of conventional beam-forming to curved wavefronts, we suggest a variety of useful applications, including but not limited to data enhancement, regularisation, interpolation, wavefield separation, and...
Article
Full-text available
We present obspyDMT, a free, open-source software toolbox for the query, retrieval, processing and management of seismological data sets, including very large, heterogeneous and/or dynamically growing ones. ObspyDMT simplifies and speeds up user interaction with data centers, in more versatile ways than existing tools. The user is shielded from the...
Article
Full-text available
The Earth's hum is the permanent free oscillations of the Earth recorded in the absence of earthquakes, at periods above 30 s. We present the first observations of its fundamental spheroidal eigenmodes on broadband ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the Indian Ocean. At the ocean bottom, the effects of ocean infragravity waves (compliance) and sea...
Article
Full-text available
In the western Indian Ocean, the Réunion hotspot is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Temporal interactions between ridges and plumes have shaped the structure of the zone. This study investigates the mantle structure using data from the RHUM-RUM project, which significantly increased the seismic coverage of the western part of the Indian...
Article
Full-text available
Crustal blocks accreted to North America form two major belts that are separated by a tract of collapsed Jurassic–Cretaceous basins extending from Alaska to Mexico. Evidence of oceanic lithosphere that once underlay these basins is rare at Earth’s surface. Most of the lithosphere was subducted, which accounts for the general difficulty of reconstru...
Article
Full-text available
We present obspyDMT, a free, open source software toolbox for the query, retrieval, processing and management of seismological data sets, including very large, heterogeneous, and/or dynamically growing ones. obspyDMT simplifies and speeds up user-interaction with data centres, in more versatile ways than existing tools. The user is shielded from th...
Poster
The poster gives an Introduction to the seismological RHUM-RUM project, explains the basic concept of SKS splitting measurements, shows our splitting results obtained around the Réunion hotspot, along the Rodrigues Ridge, and along the Southwest and Central Indian Ridge. We propose some ideas for the interpretation.
Chapter
Full-text available
The surface of buildings and monuments is essential for their visual appearance and their protection. Usually the surface is carefully designed and strongly related to the purpose of the object. Moreover it is carrying information on artistic and technical skills of the builders. It is however also prone to weathering and deterioration. A prerequis...
Article
Full-text available
We present two independent, automated methods for estimating the absolute horizontal misorientation of seismic sensors. We apply both methods to 44 free-fall ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) of the RHUM-RUMexperiment (http://www.rhum-rum.net/). The techniques measure the 3-D directions of particle motion of (1) P-waves and (2) Rayleigh waves of ear...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic source inversion, a central task in seismology, is concerned with the estimation of earthquake source parameters and their uncertainties. Estimating uncertainties is particularly challenging because source inversion is a non-linear problem. In a companion paper, Stähler and Sigloch (2014) developed a method of fully Bayesian inference for s...
Article
Full-text available
RHUM-RUM is a German-French seismological experiment based on the sea floor surrounding the island of La Réunion, western Indian Ocean (Barruol and Sigloch, 2013). Its primary objective is to clarify the presence or absence of a mantle plume beneath the Reunion volcanic hotspot. RHUM-RUM's central component is a 13-month deployment (October 2012 to...
Poster
Full-text available
Probabilistic Power Spectral Densities for the whole deployment period, where available. Compared to the earlier version (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2932.0803), response files for a number of stations have been corrected. Also, the horizontal channels of the DEPAS stations were mixed up.
Article
Full-text available
The lower third of the mantle is sampled extensively by body waves that diffract around the earth's core (Pdiff and Sdiff phases), which could deliver highly resolved tomographic images of this poorly understood region. But core-diffracted waves—especially Pdiff waves—are not often used in tomography because they are difficult to model adequately....
Article
We study the application of Bayesian spatial modelling to seismic tomography, a geophysical, high dimensional, linearized inverse problem that infers the three-dimensional structure of the Earth's interior. We develop a spatial dependence model of seismic wave velocity variations in the Earth's mantle based on a Gaussian Matérn field approximation....
Data
Probabilistic Power Spectral Densities for the whole deployment period, where available.