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Karim El-Basyouny

Karim El-Basyouny
University of Alberta | UAlberta · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

Ph.D., P.Eng.

About

126
Publications
20,521
Reads
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2,317
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2011 - present
University of Alberta
Position
  • City of Edmonton Assistant Professor of Urban Traffic Safety
Description
  • Dr. Karim El-Basyouny is an Assistant Professor and inaugural City of Edmonton’s Research Chair in Urban Traffic Safety at the University of Alberta.

Publications

Publications (126)
Article
Background Cell phone use while driving is a significant safety problem all around the world. It is considered one of the main factors contributing to road crashes among young drivers. Aim To address this problem, it is important to determine how young drivers perceive the risk of using a cell phone while driving and to understand whether the perc...
Article
Pavement friction has been widely recognized as an important winter road maintenance performance indicator for objectively assessing the level of service required to maintain safe driving conditions during inclement weather events. Despite significant efforts being put forth by road agencies, prevailing road surface conditions during snowstorms can...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic volume information has long played an important role in many transportation related works, such as traffic operations, roadway design, air quality control, and policy making. However, monitoring traffic volumes over a large spatial area is not an easy task due to the significant amount of time and manpower required to collect such large-sca...
Article
The widespread use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data provides a promising source for the automatic detection and inventory of roadside assets. One of the essential elements in roadside furniture is light poles. There is limited research on the mapping of light poles using point-cloud data on rural highways. In this environment, the placem...
Article
Full-text available
Fatalities and serious injuries still represent a significant portion of run-off-the-road (ROR) collisions on highways in North America. In order to address this issue and design safer and more forgiving roadside areas, more empirical evidence is required to understand the association between roadside elements and safety. The inability to gather th...
Article
Providing sufficient Available Sight Distance (ASD) that meets the minimum design requirements is crucial for highway safety. Previous work on sight distance assessment focused on Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) with little attention given to Passing Sight Distance (PSD). Insufficient PSD could lead to severe collisions such as head-on and sideswipe...
Article
The concept of redesigning public spaces to encourage physical distancing amid the COVID-19 pandemic is being tested around the world. In Canada, municipalities are reallocating underutilized road lanes for active modes of transportation, such as walking and cycling. We evaluated the usage and benefit of these shared spaces to ensure redesign effor...
Article
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The majority of previous studies on reliability-based highway design focussed on assessing the risk associated with only one mode of non-compliance (i.e. insufficient sight distance on horizontal curves using 2 D sight distance calculations). Only a handful number of studies established a link between risk levels and collisions. This paper calibrat...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a new computer-aided framework for virtually analyzing urban road visibility using mobile laser scanning (MLS) data. The proposed framework compromises three main parts: 1) based on the data reorganization procedure, the 3D U-net is successfully introduced to tackle the issue of non-stationary noises that significantly hinders a...
Data
This is a short demo of virtual scanning method (VSM) proposed in the article ' Virtual Analysis of Urban Road Visibility Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data and Deep Learning'.
Article
Density of point cloud data varies depending on several different factors. Nonetheless, the extent to which changes in density could impact the accuracy of extracting roadway geometric features from the data is unknown. This paper investigates the impacts of point density reduction on the extraction of four critical geometric features. The density...
Article
Several highway design elements are presently determined based on constraints due to human drivers. Autonomous vehicles (AV) are expected to replace human drivers with an expectation of having differing driving characteristics. It is, therefore, imperative that current infrastructure is reassessed for AV scenarios. This paper proposes a raycasting...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a fully automated approach to map and assess roadside clearance parameters using mobile Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data on rural highways. Compared with traditional manual surveying methods, lidar data could provide a more efficient and cost-effective source to extract roadside information. This study proposes a novel v...
Article
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Automatic recognition of traffic signs in complex, real-world environments has become a pressing research concern with rapid improvements of smart technologies. Hence, this study leveraged an industry-grade object detection and classification algorithm (You-Only-Look-Once, YOLO) to develop an automatic traffic sign recognition system that can ident...
Article
This study proposes a framework that accounts for mental workload and available sight distances to estimate advisory speed limits on horizontal curves. To achieve this goal, automated scripts were used to extract data on horizontal curve elements (i.e., the degree of curvature and the deflection angle), to detect crest vertical curves, and to compu...
Article
Full-text available
Reliability analysis has been advocated as a robust methodology to quantify the risk (known as the probability of non-compliance, Pnc) associated with design limitations such as insufficient sight distance on horizontal curves. This risk represents the probability that the current design (e.g., available sight distance) would fail to meet the requi...
Article
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are anticipated to supersede human drivers with an expectation of improved safety and operation. Since current infrastructure is designed based on the constraints caused by human drivers, it must be reassessed for autonomous driving compatibility. Recently, representatives from the infrastructure owners/operators (IOOs), a...
Article
Full-text available
Driver feedback signs (DFSs) are being adopted increasingly by municipalities around the world, as they have been proven to be a cost-effective countermeasure that improves road safety. However, research is still needed on developing a location-allocation framework to determine the optimal implementation strategies for DFS placement. Hence, the mai...
Article
Maintaining an up-to-date repository of horizontal curve attributes is extremely important due to the role curves play in the safe operation of highways. Such attributes are typically collected using traditional surveying techniques which have been shown to be time-consuming, traffic disruptive, and potentially unsafe methods. This burden is furthe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a reliability-based framework to address the risk associated with limitations in the Available Sight Distance (ASD) on curved highway segments considering a three-dimensional (3D) sight distance computation approach. To facilitate this assessment, the ASD on horizontal curves was evaluated and an accurate inventory of curve attr...
Article
This study proposes an addition to the architecture of the context-aware Driver Assistance Systems (DASs) by introducing a context identification layer to the reasoning subsystem. The proposed layer contains two algorithms that work in sequence: the infrastructure detection algorithm and the driver classification algorithm, respectively. The infras...
Article
Full-text available
Many road authorities in Canada have been contemplating the use of wider longitudinal pavement markings (LPMs) to enhance road safety and driver comfort. However, conclusive evidence on the safety impacts of wider LPMs has not been available. To address this gap in the literature, this study was conducted to investigate the safety impacts of wider...
Article
The generic nature of road design is indiscriminate to age, race, or gender, as it is implicitly assumed that there are few behavioral differences between drivers while traversing various alignment elements (e.g., horizontal curves, tangential segments, etc.). For instance, the perception reaction time required, which is based on an 85th percentile...
Article
Ensuring that the available sight distance (ASD) on highways meets the minimum requirements of geometric design standards is crucial for safe and efficient operation of highways. Current practices of ASD assessment using design software or through site visits are labor intensive, time consuming, and traffic disruptive. Thus, this paper introduces a...
Article
Full-text available
Speeding is a leading factor that contributes to approximately one-third of all fatal collisions. Over the past decades, various passive/active countermeasures have been adopted to improve drivers’ compliance to posted speed limits to improve traffic safety. The driver feedback sign (DFS) is considered a low-cost innovative intervention that is bei...
Article
Full-text available
The City of Edmonton has invested in the installation of Driver Feedback Signs (DFSs) throughout the city starting from 2011. DFSs are dynamic speed display signs aimed at providing positive guidance to drivers with the goal of improving compliance to posted speed limits. Given the city’s extensive history with DFS installation, the goal of this st...
Article
Canadian municipalities are increasingly choosing to achieve bare pavement (BP) for snow and ice control during fall/winter seasons. When a snowstorm event is forecasted, one strategy is to apply anti-icing chemicals to the pavement surface to prevent the snow and ice from forming a bond with the road surface. Such an approach facilitates a more ef...
Article
Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) is the distance defined in most highway design guides as the distance required by drivers to safely come to a complete stop in case of an emergency. Accordingly, design guides define theoretical values for SSD and recommend that these requirements are satisfied at all points along a highway corridor. SSD is estimated a...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the car-following behavior during braking at intersections and segments. Car-following events were extracted from a naturalistic driving dataset, mapped using ArcGIS, and analyzed to differentiate between the intersection- and segment-related events. The intersection-related events were identified according to an intersectio...
Article
The majority of vehicle collisions occur because of human error; in fact, studies have shown that approximately 95% of collisions are caused, at least in part, as a result of human mistakes. Therefore, it is important to study the main causes of human mistakes and develop mitigation strategies to reduce, if not eliminate, these errors from occurrin...
Article
Managers of mobile photo enforcement (MPE)programs must account for several road safety goals when deploying operators. However, there is no MPE design structure to systematically connect deployment decisions back to preset goals. We propose a method to aid MPE managers in using goals directly in the efficient allocation of limited program resource...
Article
Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) are regression models used to predict the expected number of collisions as a function of various traffic and geometric characteristics. One of the integral components in developing SPFs is the availability of accurate exposure factors, that is, annual average daily traffic (AADT). However, AADTs are not often ava...
Article
Datasets collected using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology often consist of dense point clouds. However, the density of the point cloud could vary depending on several different factors including the capabilities of the data collection equipment, the conditions in which data are collected, and other features such as range and angle of...
Article
Agencies that manage mobile photo enforcement (MPE) programmes must decide where and when to send their limited resources to monitor compliance with speed limits. Usually, the goal is to select locations based on a number of concerns (i.e., high collision sites, high speed violation sites, school zones, etc.), which, in most cases, is conflicting....
Article
Assessing vertical clearance at bridges is a preliminary step in most routine bridge inspections. This information is critical when assessing the structural integrity of bridges. Furthermore, clearance information at bridges and other overhead assets on a highway network is also extremely important when routing oversized vehicles on a highway netwo...
Article
Full-text available
A novel intervention model that analyzes time-series crash data was recently introduced in the road safety statistical field. The model allows the computation of components related to direct and indirect treatment effects using a linearized time-series intervention model. The isolation of a component corresponding to the direct treatment effects, k...
Article
The number of light poles and their position (in terms of density and offset off the roadside) have significant impacts on the safe operation of highways. In current practice, inventory of such information is performed in periodic site visits, which are tedious and time consuming. This makes inventory and health monitoring of poles at a network lev...
Article
This research conducted a two-stage assessment to investigate sun glare effects on road safety in Edmonton. The first stage developed a methodology to model sun glare occurrence, aiming to identify when and where drivers are most likely to be exposed to sun glare. Safety risks at those identified locations during sun glare periods were assessed in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims at quantifying and comparing drivers' following behavior during braking at intersections and midblock road segments (i.e., non-intersection) using Naturalistic Driving Data (NDS) data. The quantification of driver behavior was based on exploring the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of two parameters (i.e., minimum following dista...
Article
Rear-end collisions represent a quarter to one-third of the total number of collisions occurring on North American roads. Consequently, Forward Collision Warning (FCW) algorithms have been developed to mitigate this type of critical collision by warning drivers about an impending rear-end event. The algorithms are typically tested to ensure their e...
Article
Full-text available
Commercial vehicles on highway networks are only permitted to use routes that are designed to accommodate their sizes and weights. When issuing an over-height permit, agencies consider vertical clearances on all route options on a highway network before directing a vehicle to the optimal route. Inefficient routing of commercial vehicles could cause...
Article
Horizontal curves are designed to provide a safe and smooth transition between straight segments on a highway network. Although curves are often designed to meet very stringent standards, imperfections during construction and high operating speeds mean that they are still prone to collisions. Therefore, it is essential that attributes of curves are...
Article
An important element of highway design is ensuring that the available sight distance (ASD) on a highway meets driver needs. For instance, if the ASD at any point on a highway is less than the distance required to come to a complete stop after seeing a hazard (i.e. Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)), the driver will not be able to stop in time to avoid...
Article
Excessive speeding is a major traffic safety concern consequently, numerous countermeasures have been considered to mitigate this problem. Excessive speeding, street racing and stunt driving activities subject all road users to extreme risk. To address this problem, three Canadian provinces introduced severe sanctions against drivers who exceed spe...
Article
Traffic signs are integral elements of any transportation network; however, keeping records of those signs and their condition is a tedious, time-consuming, and labor-intensive process. As a result, many agencies worldwide have been working toward automating the process. One form of automation uses remote sensing techniques to extract traffic sign...
Article
Information about operating speeds is essential to design better roads, model traffic emissions, and ensure design consistency while efficient and safe operations on roads are maintained. Therefore, understanding how different factors affect operating speeds and developing operating speed prediction models are critical research issues. Many studies...
Article
The safety of locations operating under high-speed conditions could significantly differ from that of locations operating under low-speed conditions. Therefore, different approaches must be adopted when speed and safety are analyzed and managed at locations operating under different regimes. However, it is necessary first to understand the factors...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the distance halo effects of mobile photo enforcement (MPE) on urban roads in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Speed data were recorded at various distances upstream and downstream of nine locations during four MPE site visits and at the corresponding times in 4 days without enforcement. Data collection was performed during the su...
Article
This paper investigates the time halo effects of mobile photo enforcement (MPE) on urban arterial and collector roads. Speed data were continuously recorded at nine locations for five consecutive weeks during the summer months of 2015 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Each location was enforced according to a predefined deployment plan related to the r...
Technical Report
The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) introduces in part C a procedure to use safety prediction models which is also known as Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). These functions are used throughout the safety management process to assess the performance of a transportation facility. The Strategy and Policy Branch at Alberta Transportation (AT) is intere...
Article
Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of othe...
Article
The City of Edmonton began its intersection safety device (ISD) program in 2009 with the installation of 50 cameras throughout the city. The ISDs are approach-specific and combine automated enforcement of red-light running and speed violations during the red and green phases of the intersection control. The goal of this study is to evaluate the saf...
Article
Road safety is influenced by many factors; these factors include characteristics of the road, climate, traffic and, most importantly, vehicle speeds. Previous research shows that increases in speed are typically associated with an increased collision risk. Moreover, previous studies have also found relationships between road and traffic characteris...
Article
Road geometry, vehicle characteristics, and weather conditions are all factors that impact a driver's perception of a safe or credible speed and, consequently, the driver's decision on whether or not to comply with the posted speed limit. In fact, the role a road's environment plays in a driver's perception of a credible speed limit is a topic that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study introduces a Vehicle-To-Infrastructure (V2I) architecture to enhance driver awareness at signalized intersections. The main objectives are to (i) provide a proof-of-concept field experiment on the use of V2I communication architecture at a signalized intersection and (ii) evaluate the impact of V2I communication on improving driver perfo...
Article
Mobile photo enforcement (MPE) programs are commonly implemented to regulate speed and improve road safety. However, most previous research focuses mainly on validating the safety effects of MPE, with very minimal discussion on the enforcement performance indicators (EPIs). Therefore, the goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of t...
Article
This paper introduces a systematic, data-driven framework by which to operate a mobile photo radar enforcement (MPRE) program, consisting broadly of site choice, enforcement resource allocation and scheduling, and evaluation. The overall goal is provide a framework for operating an MPRE program that is well-defined and replicable, in order to impro...
Article
Automated speed enforcement (ASE) guidelines are designed to guide enforcement agencies in operating ASE programs that are effective in improving traffic safety. Given that appropriate deployment decisions are essential to a program’s effectiveness, a number of deployment priorities are generally included in most ASE guidelines. However, when imple...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have addressed spatial correlation in traffic collision modeling. It has been generally concluded that the inclusion of spatial correlation improves model goodness of fit and the precision of parameter estimates. However, the application in before–after safety evaluation has rarely been documented in the traffic safety literature. The...
Article
Full-text available
The present study introduces a new technique for multivariate identification and ranking of hot spots based on the Mahalanobis distance. This approach aims to extend the univariate potential for safety improvement to cases in which multiple response variables are modeled jointly. Because the literature shows that ranking techniques based on Bayesia...
Article
Analyzing before-after speed data is often limited to a standard comparison of various speed parameters. Although a few studies have used a model-based approach, various limitations exist in terms of both data and methodology. The aim of this paper was to examine the applicability of using multilevel models to analyze before-after speed data and to...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of before-after speed data to evaluate the effectiveness of safety interventions is often limited to a non-model-based comparison of speed-related indicators. Moreover, modeling of speed data often does not take into account the nested nature of the data. The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of posted speed limit (PSL)...
Article
Speeding is a leading factor in road collisions and is found to contribute to approximately one-third of all fatal collisions. Speed enforcement is one of the most common countermeasures used to reduce speed. However, a gap exists in the literature regarding the effectiveness of automated mobile photo enforcement on urban arterial roads. This study...
Article
This study investigated the effects of including spatial heterogeneity in multivariate random parameters models and their influence on different collision severity levels. The models were developed for severe (injury and fatal) and no-injury collisions using three years of collision data from the city of Vancouver. Three different modeling formulat...
Article
Full Bayesian (FB) before–after evaluation is a newer approach than the empirical Bayesian (EB) evaluation in traffic safety research. While a number of earlier studies have conducted univariate and multivariate FB before–after safety evaluations and compared the results with the EB method, often contradictory conclusions have been drawn. To this e...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the impact of various road elements on collision frequencies for urban residential collector roads. Negative binomial safety performance functions were developed for total collision occurrence and severity using 4 years of data from the City of Edmonton. The proposed models were estimated using the maximum likelihood estimat...