Kari Kalliokoski

Kari Kalliokoski
University of Turku | UTU · Turku PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Centre

PhD, MSc

About

204
Publications
29,187
Reads
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4,994
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
University of Turku
Position
  • Project Manager
September 2016 - October 2017
University of Turku
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 2011 - August 2016
University of Turku
Position
  • Academy Research Fellow

Publications

Publications (204)
Article
Full-text available
Exercise improves health and well-being across diverse organ systems, and elucidating mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise can lead to new therapies. Here, we show that transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is secreted from adipose tissue in response to exercise and improves glucose tolerance in mice. We identify TGF-β2 as an e...
Article
Full-text available
The endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system regulates motivational and hedonic processing. We tested directly whether individual differences in MOR are associated with neural reward responses to food pictures in humans. We scanned 33 non-obese individuals with positron emission tomography (PET) using the MOR-specific radioligand [11C]carfentanil....
Article
Full-text available
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced myocardial glucose uptake (GU) and increased free fatty acid uptake (FFAU). Sprint interval training (SIT) improves physical exercise capacity and metabolic biomarkers, but effects of SIT on cardiac function and energy substrate metabolism in diabetic subjects are unknown. We tested the hyp...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate‐intensity continuous training (MICT) on glucose uptake (GU) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and fatty acid uptake (FAU) at fasting state in thigh and arm muscles in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or prediabetes. Twenty‐six patients (age 49, SD 4; 10 women) were...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of sprint interval training (SIT) on intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular (EMCL) lipid accumulation are unclear. We tested the effects of SIT and moderate‐intensity continuous training (MICT) on IMCL and EMCL accumulation in a randomized controlled setting in two different study populations; healthy untrained men (n 28) and subj...
Article
Objectives The aim was to investigate if reducing sedentary behavior (SB) improves cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Sixty-four sedentary middle-aged adults with MetS were randomized into intervention (INT; n = 33) and control (CON; n = 31) groups. INT was guided to li...
Article
Purpose: The muscle perfusion response to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is not well understood. We examined the effects of graded post-exercise CWI upon global and regional quadriceps femoris muscle perfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and [15O]H2O. Methods: Using a matched-group design, 30 healthy men performed cycle er...
Article
Introduction: Central μ-opioid receptors (MORs) modulate affective responses to physical exercise. Individuals with higher aerobic fitness report greater exercise-induced mood improvements than those with lower fitness, but the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and the MOR system remains unresolved. Here we tested whether maximal oxygen uptak...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity is a pressing public health concern worldwide. Novel pharmacological means are urgently needed to combat the increase of obesity and accompanying type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although fully established obesity is associated with neuromolecular alterations and insulin resistance in the brain, potential obesity-promoting mechanisms in th...
Article
Background: This study evaluated tracer uptake and lesion detectability with the novel radiopharmaceutical 18F-radiohybrid (rh)PSMA-7.3 in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: Ten patients (three with high-risk primary localized PCa [Cohort A], three with hormone-sensitive metastatic PCa [Cohort B], and four with castration-r...
Article
Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been inversely associated with insulin resistance and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese individuals. However, most previous studies have scaled CRF by body mass (BM) possibly inflating the association between CRF and cardiometabolic health. We investigated the asso...
Article
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Purpose This phase 1 open-label study evaluated the uptake kinetics of a novel theranostic PET radiopharmaceutical, ¹⁸ F-rhPSMA-7.3, to optimise its use for imaging of prostate cancer. Methods Nine men, three with high-risk localised prostate cancer, three with treatment-naïve hormone-sensitive metastatic disease and three with castration-resistan...
Article
Full-text available
Eating behavior varies greatly between individuals, but the neurobiological basis of these trait-like differences in feeding remains poorly understood. Central μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) regulate energy balance via multiple neural pathways, promoting food intake and reward. Because obesity and eating disorders hav...
Article
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Objectives To determine how components of accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), and fitness are associated with insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods Target population was middle-aged (40-65 years) sedentary adults with metabolic syndrome. SB, breaks in SB, stan...
Article
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Accelerometry is a commonly used method to determine physical activity in clinical studies, but the duration and timing of measurement have seldom been addressed. We aimed to evaluate possible changes in the measured outcomes and associations with insulin resistance during four weeks of accelerometry data collection. This study included 143 partici...
Article
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Short-term exercise training programs that consist of moderate intensity endurance training or high intensity interval training have become popular choices for healthy lifestyle modifications, with as little as two weeks of training being shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and whole-body glucose metabolism. An emerging concept in exercise b...
Article
Objective To study the pathophysiological cascade of pressure ulcer (PU) development consisting of tissue deformation, inflammation and hypoxia. Method In this crossover study, deformation was measured with computerised tomography (CT) linked with contact area reflecting immersion and envelopment. Inflammation and hypoxia were measured using subep...
Article
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Seasonal rhythms influence emotion and sociability. The brain μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system modulates a multitude of seasonally varying socioemotional functions, but its seasonal variation remains elusive with no previously reported in vivo evidence. Here, we first conducted a cross-sectional study with previously acquired human [11C]carfentanil P...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eating behavior varies greatly between healthy individuals, but the neurobiological basis of these trait-like differences in feeding remains unknown. Central mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and cannabinoid CB1-receptors (CB1R) regulate energy balance via multiple neural pathways, promoting food intake and reward. Because obesity and eating disorders have...
Preprint
Full-text available
Central μ-opioid receptors (MORs) modulate affective responses to physical exercise. Individuals with higher aerobic fitness report greater exercise-induced mood improvements than those with lower fitness, but the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and the MOR system remains unresolved. Here we tested whether maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the associations of cardiometabolic health markers with device-measured sedentary behavior (SB) duration and different intensities of physical activity (PA) among overweight working-aged adults with low self-reported PA levels. This cross-sectional analysis included 144 subjects (42 men) with mean age of 57 (SD...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Rac1 and its downstream target PAK1 are novel regulators of insulin and exercise-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. However, it is not yet understood how different training intensities affect the expression of these proteins. Therefore, we studied the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity contin...
Article
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This first-in-humans study investigated the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a novel 18F-labeled radiohybrid prostate-specific membrane antigen (rhPSMA) PET imaging agent, 18F-rhPSMA-7.3. Methods: Six healthy volunteers (3 men, 3 women) underwent multiple whole-body PET acquisitions at scheduled time points up to 248 min after th...
Article
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Context Exercise training improves bone mineral density, but little is known about the effects of training on bone marrow (BM) metabolism. BM insulin sensitivity has been suggested to play an important role in bone health and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Objective To study the effects of exercise training on BM metabolism. Design Randomized co...
Article
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Introduction We investigated the effects of a supervised progressive sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on adipocyte morphology and adipose tissue metabolism and function; we also tested whether the responses were similar regardless of baseline glucose tolerance and sex. Research design and methods 26...
Article
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Background and Aims Computed tomography (CT)-derived adipose tissue radiodensity represents a potential noninvasive surrogate marker for lipid deposition and obesity-related metabolic disease risk. We studied the effects of bariatric surgery CT-derived adipose radiodensities in abdominal and femoral areas and their relationships to circulating meta...
Article
Major depressive disorder is associated with lowered mood, anxiety, anhedonia, sleep problems, and cognitive impairments. Many of these functions are regulated by μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system. Preclinical, in vivo, and post-mortem studies have however yielded inconclusive results regarding the role of the MOR in depression and anxiety. Moreover,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seasonal rhythms influence mood and sociability. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) system modulates a multitude of seasonally varying socioemotional functions, but seasonal variation in the MOR system remains elusive. We used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [11C]carfentanil, a high affinity MOR radioligand, to repeatedly measure in vivo...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in the brain’s μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system have been associated with several neuropsychiatric diseases. Also healthy individuals vary considerably in MOR availability. Multiple epidemiological factors have been proposed to influence MOR system, but due to small sample sizes the magnitude of their influence remains inconclusive. We co...
Article
We examined the influence of graded cold-water immersion (CWI) on global and regional quadriceps muscle perfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ ¹⁵ O]H 2 O. In thirty healthy males (33±8 yrs; 81±10 kg; 184±5 cm; percentage body fat: 13±5%; V̇O 2peak : 47±8 mL·kg ⁻¹ ·min ⁻¹ ) quadriceps perfusion, thigh and calf cutaneous vascular co...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Abnormal lipoprotein and amino acid profiles are associated with insulin resistance and may help to identify this condition. The aim of this study was to create models estimating skeletal muscle and whole-body insulin sensitivity using fasting metabolite profiles and common clinical and laboratory measures. Material and methods The cross-s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The brain's mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are involved in analgesia, reward and mood regulation. Several neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with dysfunctional MOR system, and there is also considerable variation in receptor density among healthy individuals. Sex, age, body mass and smoking have been proposed to influence the MOR system, bu...
Article
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Inrtroduction: Intestinal metabolism and microbiota profiles are impaired in obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, dysbiotic gut microbiota has been suggested to promote systemic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance through the release of endotoxins particularly lipopolysaccharides. We have previously shown that exercise training impr...
Article
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Aims: Simultaneous measurement of right (RV) and left ventricle (LV) myocardial blood flow (MBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and oxygen consumption (MVO2) non-invasively in humans would provide new possibilities to understand cardiac physiology and different patho-physiological states. Methods: We developed and tested an optimized novel meth...
Article
Objective Skeletal muscle is unique among organs in that its blood flow, thus oxygen supply that is critical for muscular function, can change over a remarkably large range. Compared to the rest, muscle blood flow can increase over 20-fold during intense exercise. Positron emission tomography (PET) and [15O]-H2O tracer provide a unique tool for the...
Article
Human bone marrow is a metabolically active tissue that responds to acute low intensity exercise by having increased glucose uptake. Here we studied whether bone marrow glucose uptake increases more with increased exercise intensities. Femoral bone marrow glucose uptake was measured using positron emission tomography and 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose in...
Article
Full-text available
Intrinsic factors related to muscle metabolism may explain the differences in mechanical efficiency (ME) during exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle metabolism and ME. Totally 17 healthy recreationally active male participants were recruited and divided into efficient (EF; n = 8) and inefficient (IE;...
Article
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Aims/hypothesis: Pancreatic fat accumulation may contribute to the development of beta cell dysfunction. Exercise training improves whole-body insulin sensitivity, but its effects on pancreatic fat content and beta cell dysfunction are unclear. The aim of this parallel-group randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of exercise train...
Article
Physical exercise modulates food reward and helps control body weight. The endogenous µ‐opioid receptor (MOR) system is involved in rewarding aspects of both food and physical exercise, yet interaction between endogenous opioid release following exercise and anticipatory food reward remains unresolved. Here we tested whether exercise‐induced opioid...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Insulin resistance is reflected by the rates of reduced glucose uptake (GU) into the key insulin-sensitive tissues, skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. It is unclear whether insulin resistance occurs simultaneously in all these tissues or whether insulin resistance is tissue specific. Design and methods: We measured GU in skele...
Article
Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of bariatric surgery on lipid metabolism in supraclavicular brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese women. We hypothesized that lipid metabolism improves after surgery-induced weight loss. Materials and methods: Twenty-three morbidly obese women (BMI 42.1 ± 4.2 kg/m2 ; age 43.8 ± 9.8 years) were studied bef...
Article
The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis...
Article
Full-text available
Brain insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) is increased in obese and insulin resistant subjects but normalizes after weight loss along with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study whether short-term exercise training (moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) or sprint interval training (SIT)) alters substrates for brain...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate affective responses to repeated sessions of sprint interval training (SIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in insulin resistant subjects. Methods: Twenty-six insulin resistant adults (age: 49 (4) years, 10 women) were randomized into SIT (n=13) or MICT (n=13)...
Article
Central opioidergic mechanisms may modulate the positive effects of physical exercise such as mood elevation and stress reduction. How exercise intensity and concomitant affective changes affect central opioidergic responses is unknown. We studied the effects of acute physical exercise on the cerebral μ-opioid receptors (MOR) of 22 healthy recreati...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Animal studies suggest that the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) affects blood flow differently in different skeletal muscles according to their muscle fibre type composition (oxidative vs glycolytic). Quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle consists of four different muscle parts: vastus intermedius (VI), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medi...
Article
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Aims: Little is known about the effects of exercise training on brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism in humans. We tested the hypothesis that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) improve BAT insulin sensitivity. Materials and methods: Healthy middle-aged men (n = 18, age 47 [CI: 49, 43] years...
Article
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Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT)...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in heal...
Article
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Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. H...