Kari Bø

Kari Bø
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH) · Department of Sports Medicine

About

275
Publications
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Publications

Publications (275)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesis To date there has been scant knowledge on the natural recovery of the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) after childbirth. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether PFM variables at 6 and 12 months postpartum had returned to mid-pregnancy levels and assess risk factors for reduced recovery at 12 months postpartu...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesis This manuscript from Chapter 3 of the International Urogynecology Consultation (IUC) on Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) describes the current evidence and suggests future directions for research on the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in prevention and treatment of POP. Methods An international group of four ph...
Data
*Lifelong Learning Standard (LLL) definition describes the essential, knowledge, skills, responsibility and autonomy written as Learning Outcomes, required to work in the European Fitness and Physical Activity Sector as a professional qualified in the relevant field e.g. pregnancy and postpartum exercise. Qualification against a Lifelong Learning S...
Preprint
Objectives To study effects of physiotherapist-guided pelvic floor muscle training on pelvic organ prolapse (POP) early postpartum period. Design Assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Setting Physiotherapy Clinic, Reykjavik. Sample Eighty-four primiparous women with a singleton delivery. Methods Participants were screened for eligibility 6...
Article
Background Despite the strong association between vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor dysfunction, genetic factors, pregnancy, advancing age, and lifestyle also play a role. The pelvic floor undergoes substantial changes during pregnancy which may contribute to pelvic floor dysfunction. On the other hand, these changes may be favorable to allow for...
Article
Context Female lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common presentation in urological practice. Thus far, only a limited number of female LUTS conditions have been included in the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines compendium. The new non-neurogenic female LUTS guideline expands the remit to include these symptoms and conditions....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background/aim: Several epidemiological studies have found a high prevalence of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD) among female athletes. However, according to several authors, these data could even be underestimated, both in research and clinical practice. Screening for potential PFD is often delayed and risk factors are not often evaluated. As a cons...
Article
Question In women who are unable to contract their pelvic floor muscles voluntarily, what is the effect of an intravaginal electrical stimulation regimen on their ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles and on self-reported urinary incontinence? Design Randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors and intention-to-t...
Article
Aim: To perform a systematic review of available mHealth apps for menstrual cycle monitoring in Brazil. Methods: A search for menstrual cycle mHealth apps from the Google Play Store and AppStore in Brazil was performed by two independent reviewers on October 2020, and the quality of eligible mHealth apps was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Sca...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) affects a significant number of women in the postpartum period. Objective To systematically review whether abdominal and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) exercise programs are effective in the treatment of DRA postpartum. Methods Electronic search was conducted from inception to March 2020. Randomized controlle...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis: Vaginal surface electromyography (sEMG) is commonly used to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function and dysfunction but there is a lack of studies regarding the assessment properties. The aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that sEMG has good test-retest intratester reliability, good criterion validity and is...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis: To study the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction and related bother in primiparous women 6-10 weeks postpartum, comparing vaginal and cesarean delivery. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 721 mothers with singleton births in Reykjavik, Iceland, 2015 to 2017, using an electronic questionnaire. Information on urinary...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Pre-pregnancy obesity and suboptimal gestational weight gain are on the rise globally and are independently associated with several maternal and neonatal complications. A healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, may improve health and reduce these complications, but many women are less active and willing to engage in phys...
Article
Introduction The terminology for female and male pelvic floor muscle (PFM) assessment has expanded considerably since the first PFM function and dysfunction standardization of terminology document in 2005. New terms have entered assessment reports, and new investigations to measure PFM function and dysfunction have been developed. An update of this...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesis Urinary incontinence (UI) is common in women who exercise. We aimed to investigate new onset UI in formerly inactive, overweight or obese women (BMI > 25) participating in three different strength training modalities compared with a non-exercising control group. Methods This was a secondary analysis of an assessor blind...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesis Artistic gymnastics, team gymnastics and cheerleading are sports including high-impact activities. It is presumed that the athletes’ pelvic floor must be functioning well to prevent urinary (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) during sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for UI and A...
Article
Aims To investigate the intrarater reliability of visual inspection and digital palpation to classify women's ability to perform a voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction and the association between the two methods. Methods This was a test–retest clinical study including 44 women. The ability to perform a PFM voluntary contraction was eval...
Article
Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is a serious condition for which often times insufficient non-surgical treatment options are provided or sought. Mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) offer potential to assist with the self-management of UI. Objective To perform a systematic review of available mHealth apps for UI in Brazil. Methods A s...
Chapter
Biofeedback has been defined as “a group of experimental procedures where an external sensor is used to give an indication on bodily processes, usually for the purpose of changing the measured quality.” Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) can be conducted with and without biofeedback. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of randomized con...
Chapter
This chapter describes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published on the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to treat anatomic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and symptoms of prolapse. Eleven RCTs have been found and the results show a significant effect of PFMT on both stage of prolapse and symptoms. One research group used ultrasound to...
Article
Skaug, KL, Bø, K, Engh, ME, and Frawley, H. Prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction, bother, and risk factors and knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles in Norwegian male and female powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Strenuous exercise has been suggested as a risk factor of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD)....
Conference Paper
Hypothesis/ aims of study: It is estimated that 30% of women are unable to perform a voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction [1]. Many women, even after careful instruction about the anatomy and function of the PFM will not be able to distinguish the contraction of the PFM from the contractions of other muscles, such as the rectus abdominis...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeHigh-repetition, low-load resistance exercise in group class settings has gained popularity in recent years, with BodyPump as a prime example. For individuals using exercise for body-weight management, the energy expenditure during exercise is of interest. Therefore, we herein aimed to estimate the energy expenditure during a session of Body...
Article
Objective: There is limited knowledge on how exercise impacts the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) postpartum. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether early onset of general exercise postpartum negatively affects the PFM and/or increases the risk of SUI and...
Article
Objectives Today all pregnant women are recommended to participate in moderate intensity aerobic and resistance-based physical activity/exercise ≥150 min/week. However, there are still controversies and scant knowledge on the role of regular exercise on delivery outcomes, including mode of delivery and length of active labour. In addition, nutritio...
Article
Objective: There is a lack of consensus on which abdominal or pelvic floor muscle (PFM) exercises to recommend for the treatment of diastasis recti abdominis (DRA). The objective of this study is to investigate the immediate effect of abdominal and PFM exercises on interrecti distance (IRD) in women with DRA who are parous. Methods: In this cros...
Article
Introduction: The present study aimed first to investigate the change in prevalence of major levator ani muscle (LAM) defects, also called avulsions, from six weeks to one year postpartum, and second to assess maternal and obstetric risk factors for having persistent major LAM defects/avulsions at one year postpartum. Material and methods: This...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionThe aims of the present study were to report longitudinal data on the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in a fitness club setting and to investigate whether gym members are educated about and exercise their pelvic floor muscles.Methods New members (125 women) from 25 fitness clubs in Oslo, Norway, filled in a 25-min online questio...
Article
Full-text available
More women participate in sports than ever before and the proportion of women athletes at the Olympic Games is nearly 50%. The pelvic floor in women may be the only area of the body where the positive effect of physical activity has been questioned. The aim of this narrative review is to present two widely held opposing hypotheses on the effect of...
Chapter
In this chapter a review of randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or in combinations with electrical stimulation was conducted. Four RCTs (six publications) were found in patients after stoke and eight RCTs in MS patients. Some effect of PFMT with and without biofeedback and wi...
Article
Full-text available
Question: In women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), what is the average effect of the addition of perioperative pelvic floor muscle training on pelvic organ prolapse symptoms, pelvic floor muscle strength, quality of life, sexual function and perceived improvement after surgery? Design: Randomised controlled trial with conceal...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To assess women's self-perception of their pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction and its agreement with an assessed PFM contraction. Further, to assess a possible correlation between women's self-perception and reports of urinary incontinence (UI) and between PFM contraction and severity of UI. Methods: A cross-sectional observational stud...
Article
Introduction: Despite the associations between delayed childbearing and poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes, little is known about these issues in regular exercisers and in women with healthy lifestyles. The aims of the present study were: 1) compare lifestyle variables and exercise, pregnancy and birth outcomes in women ≥35 years and women <35...
Article
Background: Pelvic floor dysfunction, including urinary and anal incontinence, is a common postpartum complaint and likely to reduce quality of life. Objectives: To study the effects of individualized physical therapist-guided pelvic floor muscle training in the early postpartum period on urinary and anal incontinence and related bother, as well...
Article
Background: Growing evidence supports that physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is favorable for the mother, with persisting benefits in the postpartum period. However, there is scant knowledge of the effect of a prenatal exercise program on long-term health and lifestyle habits. Objectives: This 6-year follow-up study of a randomized co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent and disabling condition in women that may be associated with reduced quality of life and impairment of physical functioning. Aim: To investigate whether women with PVD have different motor functions, posture and breathing patterns, and whether they perceive their physical health differentl...
Article
Background Overweight and obesity are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly in the female population. However, regular resistance training may positively affect these complaints. Objective The present study aimed to investigate between group differences in musculoskeletal pain in previously inactive women, allocated to three different...
Book
This clinically and practice oriented, multidisciplinary book is intended to fill the gap between evidence-based knowledge on the benefits of physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the implementation of exercise programmes and related health promotion measures in pregnant women. It will provide medical, sports, and fitness professional...
Chapter
Physical activity during pregnancy is recommended and has been shown to benefit most women. However, some modification to exercise routines may be necessary due to normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Therefore, knowledge about the systemic changes of pregnancy should be taken into account when counseling women who wish t...
Chapter
Pregnancy and childbirth bring along several changes to a woman’s body, especially to the musculoskeletal system. Pregnancy represents a window of opportunity for the adoption of an active and healthy lifestyle, but it is also a risk period for musculoskeletal disorders, impairments, and other discomforts. This chapter addresses the evidence-based...
Article
Aims The aim of this study is to assess whether contraction of muscles other than the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) would be of sufficient magnitude to provide a “training” effect for the pelvic floor. Methods Women were recruited via advertisement from a convenience sample of pelvic floor physiotherapists. A thin flexible array of pressure sensors (...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesis There seems to be little knowledge about pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) in the general population; however, literature confirming this assertion is scarce, especially in developing countries. The present study hypothesized a low level of knowledge about PFMs in a sample of Brazilian women and a positive relationship between...
Article
In order to investigate the potential impact of physical activity (PA) on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function, a cross-sectional study was made to analyse the association between PA level and vaginal resting pressure (VRP) and PFM strength and endurance. Thirty-eight continent women and 20 women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) aged 19 to 49 y...
Article
Objective Previous studies have suggested that female athletes might be at higher risk of experiencing complications such as caesarean sections and perineal tears during labour than non-athletes. Our aim was to study delivery outcomes, including emergency caesarean section rates, length of the first and second stages of labour and severe perineal t...
Article
Full-text available
Question: Are there differences in the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training on pelvic floor muscle strength and urinary incontinence symptoms in postmenopausal women who are and are not using hormone therapy? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors, and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to identify risk factors for postpartum anatomic pelvic organ prolapse (aPOP) by comparing women with and without aPOP at 6 weeks postpartum with regard to pelvic floor measurements antepartum and obstetrical characteristics. Methods: We carried out a prospective observational cohort study including...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis: The purpose of the present study was to assess whether attempts at a maximal voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction can reduce vaginal resting pressure (VRP) and surface EMG activity in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Method: An assessor blinded comparison study included 35 women with a...
Article
Full-text available
Question: Does an educational program with instructions for performing 'the Knack' improve voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, reduce reports of urinary incontinence, improve sexual function, and promote women's knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-trea...
Article
Study design: Longitudinal descriptive exploratory study. Objectives: Evaluate the normal width of the linea alba in first-time pregnant women during pregnancy and postpartum. Background: There are normative values on the width of the linea alba for nulliparous women, but limited knowledge about the normal width of the inter-rectus distance (I...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diastasis recti abdominis affects a significant number of women during the prenatal and postnatal period. Objective The objective was to evaluate the effect of a postpartum training program on prevalence of diastasis recti abdominis. Design The design was a secondary analysis of an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial. Methods...
Chapter
Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) or increased inter-rectus distance (IRD) is characterized by the separation of the rectus abdominis muscles. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. The reliability of the instruments used to assess this condition is unclear. There is scant knowledge on the prevalence and risk fact...
Article
Background: Several treatment options are available for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), including pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), drug therapy and surgery. Problems exist such as adherence to PFMT regimens, side effects linked to drug therapy and the risks associated with surgery. We have evaluated an alternative treatment, electrical stim...
Article
Background: Today, all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 min of aerobic activity on most days of the week, in addition to perform strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week, and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, howev...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Moderate to heavy load resistance training (RT) is advocated for overweight and obese individuals. One of the beneficial effects of RT is increased resting metabolic rate (RMR), which typically makes up the majority of the total daily energy expenditure. It is, however, unclear if low to moderate load RT affects RMR. Hence, the present...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as the coexistence of anatomical POP and relevant symptoms. Vaginal bulge is the symptom most closely associated with the anatomical condition in nonpregnant women. Even if childbearing is a major risk factor for the development of POP, there is scant knowledge on the prevalence o...
Chapter
Background Female sexual dysfunction has been classified as sexual desire/interest disorder, arousal disorder, orgasmic disorder, and sexual pain disorder. It is complex but some of the symptoms are thought to be linked to the pelvic floor musculature. Physical therapy is suggested as one treatment option, but it is not known whether or how this ma...
Article
Objectives: Overweight and obese individuals are recommended to perform regular resistance training, and the health- and fitness industry offer several exercise programs with purpose to improve muscle strength and body composition. This randomised controlled trial aimed to compare 12 weeks (45-60min, 3 sessions/weeks) of popular exercise programs,...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis: Manometry is commonly used to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function. Aims of the study were to assess intra- and interrater reliability and agreement of vaginal resting pressure, PFM strength, and muscular endurance using a high-precision pressure transducer. Methods: A convenient sample of 23 women was included....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesisThe prevalence of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women is high. Theoretically pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength could influence sexual function, but to date there is scant evidence on this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PFM strength and sexual function in postmenopausal women....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and hypothesisThere has been an increasing need for the terminology on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction to be collated in a clinically based consensus report. Methods This Report combines the input of members and elected nominees of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organi...
Chapter
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices, alone or in combination with other treatment, in the management of stress urinary incontinence or stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence in women.