Karen Campbell

Karen Campbell
Brock University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

71
Publications
12,273
Reads
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2,226
Citations
Introduction
Karen Campbell currently works at the Department of Psychology, Brock University. Karen does research on the Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging.
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - November 2012
University of Toronto
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Brain function is thought to become less specialized with age. However, this view is largely based on findings of increased activation during tasks that fail to separate task-related processes (e.g., attention, decision making) from the cognitive process under examination. Here we take a systems-level approach to separate processes spe...
Article
Recent work suggests that most older adults who volunteer to take part in cognitive experiments are more motivated to do well than are undergraduate students. This empirical evidence is echoed by the impressions of cognitive aging researchers. We surveyed a large group (N = 88) of researchers asking about their perceptions of younger and older adul...
Article
Naturalistic stimuli (e.g., movies) provide the opportunity to study lifelike experiences in the lab. While young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized manner (as indexed by intersubject correlations [ISC] in their neural activity), older adults respond more idiosyncratically. Here, we examine whether eye movement synchrony (eye-...
Article
Full-text available
Both the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) appear to be critical for episodic future simulation. Damage to either structure affects one's ability to remember the past and imagine the future, and both structures are commonly activated as part of a wider core network during future simulation. However, the precise role played by e...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental aspect of human experience is that it is segmented into discrete events. This may be underpinned by transitions between distinct neural states. Using an innovative data-driven state segmentation method, we investigate how neural states are organized across the cortical hierarchy and where in the cortex neural state boundaries and perc...
Article
Event boundaries impose structure on how events are stored in long-term memory. Research with young adults has shown that associations within events are stronger than those that cross event boundaries. Recently, this effect was observed in both young and old adults using movie stimuli (Davis, Chemnitz, et al., 2021). Here, we test whether this effe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Working memory is critical to higher-order executive processes and declines throughout the adult lifespan. However, our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying this decline is limited. Recent work suggests that functional connectivity between frontal control and posterior visual regions may be critical, but examinations of age differences...
Article
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Recently, cognitive neuroscience has experienced unprecedented growth in the availability of large-scale datasets. These developments hold great methodological and theoretical promise: they allow increased statistical power, the use of nonparametric and generative models, the examination of individual differences, and more. Nevertheless, unlike mos...
Article
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A common finding in the aging literature is that of the brain's decreased within‐ and increased between‐network functional connectivity. However, it remains unclear what is causing this shift in network organization with age. Given the essential role of the ascending arousal system (ARAS) in cortical activation and previous findings of disrupted AR...
Article
Recent work suggests that while voluntary episodic memory declines with age, involuntary episodic memory, which comes to mind spontaneously without intention, remains relatively intact. However, the neurophysiology underlying these differences has yet to be established. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate voluntary an...
Preprint
Full-text available
A fundamental aspect of human experience is that it is segmented into discrete events. This may be underpinned by transitions between distinct neural states. Using an innovative data-driven state segmentation method, we investigate how neural states are organized across the cortical hierarchy and where in cortex neural state and perceived event bou...
Preprint
Full-text available
Naturalistic stimuli (e.g., movies) provide the opportunity to study lifelike experiences in the lab. While young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized manner (as indexed by intersubject correlations [ISC] in their neural activity), older adults respond more idiosyncratically. Here, we examine whether eye movement synchrony (eye-...
Article
Full-text available
Visual working memory (VWM) resources have been shown to be flexibly distributed according to item priority. This flexible allocation of resources may depend on attentional control, an executive function known to decline with age. In this study, we sought to determine how age differences in attentional control affect VWM performance when attention...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibitory theory suggests that a major determinant of individual differences in cognitive performance (including differences that are typically observed with increasing age) is the ability to dampen down goal-irrelevant stimuli, thoughts, and actions. While this theory has garnered a lot of support over the years, it has also seen several challeng...
Article
In this study, we use a novel, implicit memory paradigm to test forhyper-binding, or older adults’ tendency to form non-target associations. Participants viewed pictures of objects superimposed with text and made speeded categorization judgments about the objects across three blocks varying in binding demand. During the no- and some-binding blocks,...
Article
Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Aging - edited by Ayanna K. Thomas
Article
There is mixed evidence on the impact of delay task difficulty on prospective memory (PM) performance and little research has examined this among older adults. The present study examined younger (N = 60) and older (N = 57) adults’ prospective memory (PM) performance after completing an easy or difficult Raven’s matrices task. To assess whether dela...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity has positive effects on brain health and cognitive function throughout the life span. Thus far, few studies have examined the effects of physical activity on white matter microstructure and psychomotor speed within the same, population-based sample (critical if conclusions are to extend to the wider population). Here, using diffus...
Article
We know how age affects the brain during lab-based tasks, but what about situations truer to everyday life, such as watching movies? We measured functional magnetic resonance imaging activity while participants (N = 577) from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (www.cam-can.com) watched a movie. Watching the same movie induces signific...
Article
Full-text available
While a long history of neuropsychological research places language function within a primarily left-lateralized frontotemporal system, recent neuroimaging work has extended this language network to include a number of regions traditionally thought of as 'domain-general'. These include dorsal frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobe regions know...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical activity has positive effects on brain health and cognitive function throughout the lifespan. Thus far, few studies have examined the effects of physical activity on white matter (WM) microstructure and psychomotor speed within the same, population-based sample (critical if conclusions are to extend to the wider population). Here, using di...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously shown that older adults hyper-bind, or form more extraneous associations than younger adults. In this study, we aimed to both replicate the original implicit transfer effect and to test whether younger adults show evidence of hyper-binding when informed about the relevance of past information. Our results suggest that regardless...
Article
Full-text available
Slowing is a common feature of ageing, yet a direct relationship between neural slowing and brain atrophy is yet to be established in healthy humans. We combine magnetoencephalo-graphic (MEG) measures of neural processing speed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of white and grey matter in a large population-derived cohort to investigat...
Data
Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Tables, Supplementary Methods and Supplementary References
Article
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Healthy ageing has disparate effects on different cognitive domains. The neural basis of these differences, however, is largely unknown. We investigated this question by using Independent Components Analysis to obtain functional brain components from 98 healthy participants aged 23-87 years from the population-based Cam-CAN cohort. Participants per...
Article
Full-text available
Healthy ageing has disparate effects on different cognitive domains. The neural basis of these differences, however, is largely unknown. We investigated this question by using Independent Components Analysis to obtain functional brain components from 98 healthy participants aged 23-87 years from the population-based Cam-CAN cohort. Participants per...
Article
Remembering the past and imagining the future both involve the retrieval of details stored in episodic memory and rely on the same core network of brain regions. Given these parallels, one might expect similar component processes to be involved in remembering and imagining. While a strong case can be made for the role of inhibition in memory retrie...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive control, the ability to limit attention to goal-relevant information, aids performance on a wide range of laboratory tasks. However, there are many day-to-day functions which require little to no control and others which even benefit from reduced control. We review behavioral and neuroimaging evidence demonstrating that reduced control ca...
Article
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Testing older adults in the morning generally improves behavioral performance relative to afternoon testing. Morning testing is also associated with brain activity similar to that of young adults. Here, we used graph theory to explore how time of day (TOD) affects the organization of brain networks in older adults across rest and task states. We us...
Article
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Memory problems are among the most common complaints as people grow older. Using structural equation modeling of commensurate scores of anterograde memory from a large (N = 315), population-derived sample (www.cam-can.org), we provide evidence for three memory factors that are supported by distinct brain regions and show differential sensitivity to...
Article
Full-text available
Memory problems are among the most common complaints as people grow older. Using structural equation modeling of commensurate scores of anterograde memory from a large (N = 315), population-derived sample (www.cam-can.org), we provide evidence for three memory factors that are supported by distinct brain regions and show differential sensitivity to...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years have seen the rise in popularity of the resting-state approach to neurocognitive ageing, with many studies examining age differences in functional connectivity at rest and relating these differences to cognitive performance outside the scanner. There are many advantages to the resting state that likely contribute to its popularity and...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults show decrements in the ability to ignore or suppress distraction relative to younger adults. However, age differences in the neural correlates of distraction control and the role of large-scale network interaction in regulating distractors are scarcely examined. In the current study, we investigated age differences in how the anticorre...
Article
Full-text available
Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Y...
Article
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Behavioral evidence suggests that the attention-based ability to regulate distraction varies across the day in synchrony with a circadian arousal rhythm that changes across the life span. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed whether neural activity in an attention control network also varies across the day and with behavi...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work suggests that the default mode network (DMN) includes two core regions, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and several unique subsystems that are functionally distinct. These include a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, active during remembering and future projection, and a dorsomedial prefrontal...
Article
Full-text available
Difficulty with memory retrieval is a salient feature of cognitive aging and may be related to a reduction in the ability to suppress items that compete for retrieval. To test this hypothesis directly, we presented a series of words for shallow coding that included pairs of orthographically similar words (e.g., ALLERGY and ANALOGY). After a delay,...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults show hyper- (or excessive) binding effects for simultaneously and sequentially presented distraction. Here, we addressed the potential role of hyper-binding in paired-associate learning. Older and younger adults learned a list of word pairs and then received an associative recognition task in which rearranged pairs were formed from ite...
Article
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In three experiments, we assessed whether older adults' generally greater tendency to process distracting information can be used to minimize widely reported age-related differences in forgetting. Younger and older adults studied and recalled a list of words on an initial test and again on a surprise test after a 15-min delay. In the middle (Experi...
Article
Introduction: Degraded social function, disinhibition, and stereotypy are defining characteristics of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), manifesting in both the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and semantic dementia (SD) subtypes. Recent neuroimaging research also associates FTD with alterations in the brain's intrinsic connectivi...
Article
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Objectives: Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Method: Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that wer...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has shown that older adults' lessened inhibitory control leads them to inadvertently bind co-occurring targets and distractors. Although this hyper-binding effect may lead to the formation of more superfluous associations, and thus greater interference at retrieval for older adults, it may also lead to a greater knowledge of information...
Article
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Interference from competing material at retrieval is a major cause of memory failure. We tested the hypothesis that such interference can be overcome by suppressing competing responses. In a three-phase task, participants in the critical interference condition first performed a vowel-counting task (Phase 1) that included pairs of orthographically s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is considerable evidence that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information declines as people grow older. In the present research we investigated whether such an inhibitory deficit extends to the systems responsible for the control of saccadic eye movements. Participants made saccades to a visual target that appeared concurrently with a dist...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has shown that older adults encode lexical and semantic information about verbal distractors and use that information to facilitate performance on subsequent tasks. In this study, we investigated whether older adults also form associations between distractors and co-occurring targets. In two experiments, participants performed a 1-bac...