Karel Martens

Karel Martens
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | technion · Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning

PhD

About

124
Publications
54,508
Reads
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3,260
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - June 2016
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2015 - November 2015
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2006 - present
Radboud University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (124)
Article
Using the Ethical Delphi method, this research seeks to understand how professionals relate to ethical socio-spatial implications of possible widespread autonomous vehicle (AV) deployment in cities and societies, and to distil values that can shape AV futures. First, we sought to understand whether professionals engage in ethical thinking and reaso...
Article
The use of Informal Public Transport (IPT; i.e., minibuses, motorcycles, and tricycles) for activity participation in Dar es Salaam is associated with mobility difficulties, e.g., traffic congestion, unscheduled services, and lack of safety of the journey. The introduction of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in May 2016 aimed at reducing mobility diffic...
Article
Recent transport equity literature suggests that accessibility analyses should move beyond mapping of the uneven patterns of access to opportunities. Instead, this literature proposes a sufficientarian approach, according to which all individuals are entitled to a minimum level of accessibility. In line with this approach, in this paper we ask: “Wh...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report has been written within the framework of COST Action CA16222: Wider Impact and Scenario Evaluation of Autonomous and Connected Transport (WISE-ACT), which has been co-funded by the European Commission H2020program. The ‘action’ encompassed five working groups, each addressing different issues and themes related to autonomous and connect...
Article
Full-text available
With shared mobility services becoming increasingly popular and vehicle automation technology advancing fast, there is an increasing interest in analysing the impacts of large-scale deployment of shared automated vehicles. In this study, a large fleet of shared automated vehicles providing private rides to passengers is introduced to an agent-based...
Article
The Capability Approach, developed by Sen and Nussbaum, has recently gained increasing attention in the transport literature. This paper adds to this growing body of literature by investigating how the approach can generate consistent evaluative approaches to inform (urban) transport planning. The paper reviews the mobility literature that has inve...
Article
The use of Informal Public Transport (IPT) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, has been associated with mobility difficulties, i.e. traffic congestion, unscheduled service and lack of safety and security. The introduction of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was therefore considered as a powerful intervention for these mobility difficulties. In May 2016,...
Article
Full-text available
With the anticipated introduction of self-driving vehicles, new challenges arise for urban transport- and planning authorities. This study contributes to the efforts of formulating the potential opportunities and threats stemming from the introduction of larger fleets of self-driving vehicles to our cities, and what action could be taken by transpo...
Article
Transport planning is inescapably a normative activity that should raise equity concerns. Yet, equity has remained a marginal issue in both research and practice. In this article, three different perspectives on equity and transport planning are discussed. They do not only differ in the extent to which they address the three dimensions of equity: d...
Article
Full-text available
Equity considerations in transportation planning literature have received increasingly more attention in the previous decades. While there have been theoretical suggestions to base transportation planning methods on the philosophical principle of “sufficientarianism” (whereby everyone is entitled to a minimum level of a good or service), the propos...
Article
This paper seeks to understand participation in out-of-home activities by inhabitants in Dar es Salaam, and their perceptions toward informal public transport (IPT) and bus rapid transit (BRT) in supporting these activities. Without fixed schedules, IPT (e.g., minibuses, motorcycles, and tricycles) is used as a means of transport for different trip...
Article
Full-text available
New forms of shared mobility such as free-floating car-sharing services and shared automated vehicles have the potential to change urban travel behaviour. In this paper, we identify potential user classes for these new modes. For this, a stated choice experiment on mode choice among a sample of the Dutch urban population has been conducted, which f...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a justice perspective to transport and health. It is well understood that the health benefits and burdens related to transport are not distributed evenly over the population. This holds for exposure to transport-related air pollution, for traffic risks, for access to healthy foods, for opportunities for active travel, and so o...
Article
The ageing of the population poses mobility-related challenges worldwide. The emergence of new transport services that utilise technological innovations allows for new, more convenient ways to provide demand-responsive transport services in areas with limited or no regular public transport service. The question is how the features of these new serv...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ageing of the population poses mobility-related challenges worldwide. The emergence of new transport services that utilise technological innovations allows for new, more convenient ways to provide demand-responsive transport services in areas with limited or no regular public transport service. The question is how the features of these new serv...
Book
Full-text available
Explores the measurement of transport equity and demonstrates the distributional and social consequences of transport decision-making. • Written by a collection of top researchers and upcoming scholars in the transport field. • Shows how to apply transport equity measurement ideas in the real world through case study examples. • Covers emerging tra...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this article is to deepen the concept of emerging urban mobility technology. Drawing on philosophical everyday and urban aesthetics, as well as the postphenomenological strand in the philosophy of technology, we explicate the relation between everyday aesthetic experience and urban mobility commoning. Thus, we shed light on the central...
Article
A range of mega-cities in the Global South have started to invest in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, as a complement or replacement for informal paratransit services, in an effort to improve the mobility and accessibility in the city. Yet, few studies have tried to analyse the impact of such systems on the mobility patterns of cities' residents, i...
Article
Moss, Jeremy. 2015: Climate Change and Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 253 pp. 12 chapters. £84.75 (Hardcover). ISBN 978-1-107-09375–1
Chapter
In this chapter, we recommend that the development of equity indicators should account for three components: (i) the benefits and burdens of interest, (ii) the population groups over which they are distributed; and (iii) a clear conception of what a "morally proper distribution" of benefit or burden should be. We present a simple framework of how t...
Article
The prediction of travel demand is a key step in transport planning and is a topic of intense discussion of the literature. This paper adds to the debate about the accuracy of travel demand prediction by addressing the ‘technical’ problem of spatial autocorrelation. This paper aims to systematically assess the predictive performance of spatially ex...
Article
Full-text available
As communities around the globe contemplate the future of their transport portfolio, bicycling's role has increasingly cropped up as a key discussion point. Up until a few years ago, bicycling's value was largely fueled by a loyal advocacy base. Its potential was littered with unsupported claims and bicycling struggled to obtain legitimate status,...
Article
Full-text available
The US Department of Transportation requires metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) to consider social equity in their plans and projects in accordance with civil rights–related laws. In this paper, we suggest four interpretations of directives’ distributional standards in relation to accessibility. Employing this framework, we review the equit...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter looks at the role of transportation resources and services in shaping social justice through its delivery of access to services and daily activities and also the negative influences of road traffic and pollution on people's right to a healthy environment.
Article
Full-text available
The ageing of the population in many countries suggests that transport systems will have to be adapted to the needs of an increasing number of persons experiencing travel-related impairments. This development underscores the importance of a more fundamental challenge for transport planning: providing all persons with accessibility to key destinatio...
Conference Paper
This paper explores group travel behaviour (GTB), which is defined as two or more persons intentionally traveling together during (part of) a trip. Most travel behaviour studies are based on the assumption of isolated individuals and ignore interpersonal relationships between travellers. Here the authors propose a smart card data-based method to id...
Article
Most analyses of travel patterns are based on the assumption of isolated individuals and ignore interpersonal relationships between travelers. In this paper, we develop a straightforward method to identify group travel behavior (GTB), defined as two or more persons intentionally traveling together from a single origin to a single destination, with...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have analyzed the possible impacts of bottom-up parking information or parking reservation systems on parking dynamics in abstract simulation environments. In this paper, we take these efforts one step further by investigating the impacts of these systems in a real-life context: the center of the city of Antwerp, Belgium. In our...
Article
Most analyses of travel patterns are based on the assumption of isolated individuals and ignore interpersonal relationships between travelers. In this paper, we develop a straightforward method to identify group travel behavior (GTB), defined as two or more persons intentionally traveling together from a single origin to a single destination, with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The introduction of taxi-like transit services operated by shared automated vehicles comes into sight with the development of vehicle automation. In this paper, the operation of such a service is simulated for a generic grid network in order to determine the impact of different relocation strategies for idle vehicles on passenger waiting time, empt...
Article
While it is well known that ignoring spatial dependence often results in misspecification of models, travel demand models almost never account for this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to empirically demonstrate the importance of accounting for potential spatial dependence between observations in the specification of spatial interaction models....
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the conceptual essence of a number of justice theories and their possible consequences for transport project appraisal. In this paper, we discuss three alternative philosophical approaches to the still-dominant approach of utilitarianism: Rawls’s approach, Walzer’s approach, and the capability approach (CA), as th...
Article
Full-text available
The growing interest in the equity dimensions of transport planning has resulted in increasing criticism on the dominant assessment methodology of transport projects: cost–benefit analysis (CBA). In this paper, we focus on travel time savings, given their importance in the assessment of transport projects and the sometimes fierce equity-related cit...
Book
Full-text available
Transport Justice develops a new paradigm for transportation planning based on principles of justice. Author Karel Martens starts from the observation that for the last fifty years the focus of transportation planning and policy has been on the performance of the transport system and ways to improve it, without much attention being paid to the pers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New forms of shared mobility such as Free-Floating Carsharing services and Shared Autonomous Vehicles have the potential to change urban travel behaviour. In this paper a stated choice experiment on mode choice among a sample of the Dutch urban population is presented, in which the particular features of free-floating carsharing and shared autonomo...
Conference Paper
While cycling is promoted as a sustainable and active mode of transportation, its use is limited to short intra-urban distances and as a feeder mode to access public transit. A limitation that potentially could be conquered through the provision of unobstructed cycling infrastructures. An example of such is the fast cycling route connecting the twi...
Article
Full-text available
Culp, Julian. 2014: Global Justice and Development. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. 215 pp. 7 chapters. £63, ISBN 978–1-137–38992–3 (hardcover). £47.99, ISBN 978–1-137–38993–0 (eBook).
Chapter
Full-text available
Please refer to this book chapter as follows: Martens, K. (in press) Why accessibility measurement is not merely an option, but an absolute necessity. In: N. Punto and A. Hull (eds.) Accessibility tools and their applications, Routledge. Abstract: Many authors and advocates have argued over the past decades that the traditional mobility-centered a...
Article
The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of bottom-up information provision about on-street parking places on parking dynamics under heterogeneous conditions. Using an agent-based simulation model, performance is compared between a bottom-up vehicle-to-vehicle communication strategy and a strategy that combines parking sensors and vehicle-to-v...
Article
The European Commission (EC) introduced the concept of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) as a new planning paradigm with a focus on people's needs – Planning for people. This represents a change from traditional planning approaches centred on motorized road traffic/infrastructure provision and a shift towards more sustainable transport optio...
Article
Full-text available
While planners have long been aware that the world they act upon is complex, there is now growing interest in using concepts from the complexity sciences - such as self-organisation - To explain cities and urban change. Agent-based models (ABMs) can be invaluable tools in this quest, but they are often met with mistrust, and face some valid objecti...
Article
Full-text available
Local economic development is a much used tool for the regeneration of urban areas. Although the designation and effectiveness of local economic development policies has been studied extensively in existing literature, the question as to whether these policies are aimed at the areas that are most in need of these policies remains relatively underst...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, I present a framework to simultaneously assess the accessibility provided by a transport-land use system and the potential mobility provided by the transport system. This framework provides a novel approach to identify ‘the’ transport problem in modern societies. It thus provides a framework that could serve as the basis for transpor...
Article
Full-text available
Citizen participation is a cornerstone of urban planning. One common criticism is that the process can be cumbersome and slow. However, in the face of recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICT), those problems can be easily overcome, making it possible to extend public participation to a wider sphere of urban planning matte...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have shown that up to thirty percent of all traffic in crowded urban areas can be cruising for parking. Information provision to drivers can potentially decrease cruising time for individual drivers and subsequently improve the performance of the overall system. While most cities provide drivers with information on the occupancy rates of of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This research continues the development of a computation tool to examine accessibility in a metropolitan area at high spatial resolution –that of the individual building. We use this tool to examine the issue of equity in transportation infrastructure. Our measure of accessibility is relative – it looks at different modes of mobility, particularly...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a pilot project consisting of a substantial increase in the number of carshare vehicles in a neighborhood in the city of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The goal was to explore, first, the impact on the demand for carshare services and, second, the impact on the socio-economic composition of the new carshare members. The results sho...
Article
The factors that influence transit ridership are explored at the level of individual transit stops for the local and regional bus transit system in the region of Arnhem-Nijmegen in the Netherlands. Direct transit ridership modeling was used to explore simultaneously the influence of spatial, population, and network characteristics on bus stop-level...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the impact of bicycle lessons for immigrant and refugee women on bicycle use and activity participation, from an equity perspective. Especially non-Western immigrant and refugee women have been identified as one of the population groups most likely to experience accessibility problems and, subsequently, transport-related social...
Article
Full-text available
Hedonic price modelling is a widely used technique to explain the value of different types of individual property. Following the notion that areas within the city can suffer from devaluation, the question arises what factors influence the value of urban areas. In this paper, we use hedonic price analysis to answer this question for a specific type...
Article
Full-text available
Information is highly contested in virtually all decision-making processes on large infrastructure projects, leading to the delay or cancellation of projects. Contested information has two characteristics: uncertainty and ambiguity. The uncertainty of information refers to the lack of reliable knowledge about the characteristics and future effects...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A car trip is over only when the driver parks near the destination. Urban traffic models focus on vehicles driving from origins to destinations, but take it for granted that the driver would eventually park. This is not always easy. Parking is a critical component of a trip and the lack of parking, or non-balanced pricing can be the reason of co...
Article
This article proposes two models to analyse parking search: an analytical model called PARKANALYST and a geosimulation model, termed PARKAGENT, which explicitly accounts for street network and drivers' parking-related decisions. We employ both models to analyse the impact of occupancy rate and demand-to-supply ratio on cruising for parking and to c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to provide a theoretical basis for a distributive approach to transport. Using the theory developed by Michael Walzer in his ‘Spheres of Justice’ (1983), I argue that the transport good, defined as accessibility, should be distributed in a so-called separate sphere, i.e. independent from the way in which other key goods, like money...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Urban decline is a much-researched topic in both urban and real estate literature. Yet, there is no generally accepted measurable indicator for decline. This paper starts to fill this void. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to better understand the process of decline of one particular urban area, industrial estates; based on that, t...
Article
Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s “Spheres of Justice” approach to define the benefits of transportation, access,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of the paper is to critically discuss, from an equity perspective, the various financial flows in the transport domain, through a comparison with the domain of health care. We show that in both domains three main types of actors can be distinguished (service financiers, service providers and end users) and six monetary flows between t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Because of the ageing of the population, over the coming decades the transportation system will have to be adapted to the needs of an increasing number of persons with travel impairments. More than acknowledged in the past, this underlines the key challenge for transportation planning to design a transportation system that guarantees access for all...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Netherlands is well known for its large share of bicycle use and for its relatively compact cities; these conditions suggest that transport poverty may be less of a problem than in other developed countries. This paper explores the role of the bicycle in the avoidance of transport poverty on the basis of two exploratory studies. The first study...
Chapter
Full-text available
Accessibility is a concept central to integrated transport and land use planning. The goal of improving accessibility for all modes, for all people, has made its way into mainstream transport policy and planning in communities worldwide. This unique and fascinating book introduces new accessibility approaches to transport planning across Europe and...
Conference Paper
Deze paper is gericht op de parkeerproblemen op bedrijventerreinen die zijn ontstaan door een te lage capaciteit in verhouding tot het alsmaar toenemende autogebruik. Om deze parkeerproblemen te ondervangen werken locale overheden met parkeernormen en strikt beleid, die vervolgens hebben geleid tot het overmatig aanbieden van parkeerplaatsen. De pa...
Article
Full-text available
While distributive aspects have been a topic of discussion in relation to cost-benefit analysis (CBA), little systematic thought has been given in the CBA literature to the focus of such an equity analysis in evaluating transport projects. The goal of the paper is to provide an overview of the various directions an equity analysis, carried out with...
Article
Full-text available
Transport demand models play a crucial role in the distribution of transport facilities, and hence accessibility, over population groups. The goal of this article is to assess the distributive impacts of the widely-used four-step, demand-based, transport model. This article starts from the hypothesis that the consecutive application of the four-ste...