Karel Kleisner

Karel Kleisner
Charles University in Prague | CUNI · Department of Philosophy and History of Science

Doctor of Philosophy

About

150
Publications
130,289
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1,228
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2004 - present
Charles University in Prague
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (150)
Preprint
This paper comments on Caton et al's (2022) direct replication of Třebický et al (2013) . In this commentary, we provide our reflections on several points raised by this direct replication. Specifically, we focus on three main areas: i) a critique of the stimuli used, ii) analytic decisions taken in the original study, and iii) shape analysis of th...
Article
The intricate appearances produced by various lineages of biota have long been viewed as calling for a rational explanation. Biologists are capable of interpreting still just a relatively small part of the overall range of organismal forms and patterns. In fact, we can explain only those for which we find a functional role. Kalevi Kull’s current in...
Article
Full-text available
The recent changes in COVID-19 symptoms suggest convergent evolution of respiratory diseases. This process is analogous to the emergence of animal mimetic complexes and complements previously identified types of mimicry. A novel pathogen might go unnoticed or insufficiently counteracted if it resembles a disease that the host already faced on multi...
Article
Full-text available
Biosocial impact of facial dominance and sex-typicality is well-evidenced in various human groups. It remains unclear, though, whether perceived sex-typicality and dominance can be consistently predicted from sexually dimorphic facial features across populations. Using a combination of multidimensional Bayesian approach and geometric morphometrics,...
Article
Full-text available
Ultraviolet (UV) means ‘beyond violet’ (from Latin ‘ultra’, meaning ‘beyond’), whereby violet is the colour with the highest frequencies in the ‘visible’ light spectrum. By ‘visible’ we mean human vision, but, in comparison to many other organisms, human visual perception is rather limited in terms of the wavelengths it can perceive. Still, this is...
Article
Full-text available
Paternal age at birth, a potential proxy of mutation load transmitted to the offspring, has previously been related to the offspring's health, biological condition and reproductive potential. As higher facial asymmetry and distinctiveness serve as putative markers of the lower genetic quality of an individual, we hypothesize that more advanced pate...
Article
The human voice carries information about a vocalizer's physical strength that listeners can perceive and that may influence mate choice and intrasexual competition. Yet, reliable acoustic correlates of strength in human speech remain unclear. Compared to speech, aggressive nonverbal vocalizations (roars) may function to maximize perceived strength...
Article
Full-text available
Facial symmetry, averageness, and the level of sex-typical development of dimorphic traits are traditionally associated with various biological quality indicators and should be, therefore, preferred in mate choice. The aim of this study is to propose a concept of morphological uniqueness and uncover its possible associations to putative phenotypic...
Article
Full-text available
Apart from morphological differences, male and female faces also vary in color, especially in overall lightness and facial contrast, i.e., the contrast between the luminance and color of facial features (eyes, lips, or brows) and luminance and color of the surrounding skin. In many populations, it has been demonstrated that women tend to be lighter...
Data
This document contains all code, and step by step explanations for all analyses, figures and tables (including supplementary figures and tables) for: Kleisner K et al. 2021 Predicting strength from aggressive vocalizations versus speech in African bushland and urban communities. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 376, 20200403. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2020.0403). Da...
Article
Full-text available
The present research focused on how environmental harshness may affect heterosexual women's preferences of potential male mates’ facial characteristics, namely masculinity-femininity. The evidence on this issue is mixed and mostly from Western samples. We aimed to provide causal evidence using a sample of Turkish women and Turkish male faces. A vid...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mírná imunitní reakce na intelektualní lokajství, vědecký provoz, soutěživost, evaluační modlářství, a na otravné zapojení do úřednicko-výkaznického kartelu; plus pár obecných poznámek k povaze organizovaných systémů...a hlavně upřímná gratulace Jiřímu Michálkovi k významnému životnímu jubileu
Article
Full-text available
Despite intensive research, evolutionary psychology has not yet reached a consensus regarding the association between sexual dimorphism and attractiveness. This study examines associations between perceived and morphological facial sexual dimorphism and perceived attractiveness in samples from five distant countries (Cameroon, Colombia, Czechia, Ir...
Preprint
Full-text available
Historically, multiple coronavirus strains had spread in human populations. They tend to cause symptoms usually described as the common cold. Other serologically different pathogens are known for causing similar symptoms, for instance, various rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and several sources of bacterial sinusitis....
Article
Full-text available
The current research aimed to examine the reasons people are single, that is, not in an intimate relationship, across eight different countries-Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, India, Japan, and the UK. We asked a large cross-cultural sample of single participants (N = 6,822) to rate 92 different possible reasons for being single. Th...
Article
We provide a formal account of an interface that bridges two different levels of dynamic processes manifested by mimicry: prey–prey interactions and predators' perception. Mimicry is a coevolutionary process between an animate selective agent and at least two similar organisms selected by agent's perception-driven actions. Attractor field model exp...
Poster
Full-text available
Men look different than women, well that is not a big surprise, but we wanted to study the phenomena of sexual dimorphism of human faces more thoroughly. Every human face can be represented as a position in a 144-dimensional space. That is a start. We collected face shapes in 8 different cultures, In Cameroon, Namibia, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Repub...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual selection, including mate choice and intrasexual competition, is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborated and sexually dimorphic traits in animals. Although there is sexual dimorphism in the shape of human faces, it is not clear whether this is similarly due to mate choice, or whether mate choice affects only part of the...
Article
Full-text available
Entomologie je dnes širokým vědním oborem přesahující původní oblast faunistiky a ta-xonomických zkoumání. Nacházíme interdisciplinární přesahy do ekologie, zoogeografie, evoluční biologie, vývojové genetiky, ale i do aplikací. Takto našlo znalectví hmyzu využití v zemědělství nebo v lesnictví (užitá entomologie), medicínských oborech a parazitolog...
Article
Full-text available
It has been demonstrated that sociocultural environment has a significant impact on human behavior. This contribution focuses on differences in the perception of attractiveness of European (Czech) faces as rated by Czechs of European origin, Vietnamese persons living in the Czech Republic and Vietnamese who permanently reside in Vietnam. We investi...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived facial attractiveness, a putative marker of high biological fitness, is costly to maintain throughout a lifetime and may cause higher oxidative stress (OS). We investigated the association between the facial features of 97 postmenopausal women and their levels of OS biomarkers 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), superoxide dismutase (Cu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research of ultraviolet pattern was in the past relatively neglected due to technical limitations in this field. Nowadays, this topic receives greater attention, mainly thanks to technological advances in the methods of image capture and image analysis. UV photography is one of the methods which provide the possibility of capturing quantitative and...
Article
Full-text available
The horizontal size of the exposed depigmented sclera in Caucasians has been previously suggested to be sexually dimorphic, and the significance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we build on a previous study and extend it by (i) examining sex differences in other measures of ocular morphology and (ii) exploring the link between eye morpholog...
Preprint
Full-text available
It has been hypothesised that the strength of association between sex typicality and attractiveness follows an adaptive pattern across cultures. Such pattern allows for adjustment of individual preferences for facial cues associated with direct (parenting) and indirect (biological quality) benefits from mating with a potential mate according to env...
Preprint
It has been demonstrated that sociocultural environment has a significant impact on human behavior. This contribution focuses on differences in the perception of attractiveness of European (Czech) faces as rated by Vietnamese persons living in the Czech Republic and Vietnamese who permanently reside in Vietnam. We investigated whether attractivenes...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual selection, including mate choice and intrasexual competition, is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborated and sexually dimorphic traits in animals. Although there is clear sexual dimorphism in the shape of human faces, it is not clear whether this is similarly due to mate choice, or whether mate choice affects only part o...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the perception of faces typically assumes that there are some universal values of attractiveness which are shared across individuals and cultures. The perception of attractiveness may, however, vary across cultures due to local differences in both facial morphology and standards of beauty. To examine cross-cultural consensus in the rati...
Article
Femininity-masculinity affects perceived attractiveness and indicates biosocial qualities. Physiological and morphological femininity-masculinity is primarily influenced by reproductive hormones; however, its perception is mediated biopsychosocially, and it is not clear if self- and other-rated femininity-masculinity is associated. We examined poss...
Article
Full-text available
Animal body coloration is a complex trait resulting from the interplay of multiple mechanisms. While many studies address the functions of animal coloration, the mechanisms of colour production still remain unknown in most taxa. Here we compare reflectance spectra, cellular, ultra- and nano-structure of colour-producing elements, and pigment types...
Article
Objectives The Sahel/Savannah belt is a region where two sympatric human subsistence strategies—nomadic pastoralism and sedentary farming—have been coexisting for millennia. While earlier studies focused on estimating population differentiation and genetic structure of this ecologically remarkable region's inhabitants, less effort has been expended...
Article
Full-text available
Mimicry is often cited as a compelling demonstration of the power of natural selection. By adopting signs of a protected model, mimics usually gain a reproductive advantage by minimising the likelihood of being preyed upon. Yet while natural selection plays a role in the evolution of mimicry, it can be doubted whether it fully explains it. Mimicry...
Article
Multicomponent stimuli improve information reception. In women, perceived facial and vocal femininity-masculinity (FM)are concordant; however, mixed results are found for men. Some feminine and masculine traits are related to sex hormone action and can indicate reproductive qualities. However, most of the current research about human mate choice fo...
Article
Full-text available
Why dedicate a special issue of Biosemiotics to mimicry? Is there anything new one could say about mimicry that was not said elsewhere? Given the size of mimicry studies, one could argue that almost everything worth saying has been already said. But in some cases, it was a long time ago, in other cases, it was overshadowed by the mainstream opinion...
Preprint
Full-text available
Animal body coloration is a complex trait resulting from the interplay of multiple colour-producing mechanisms. Increasing knowledge of the functional role of animal coloration stresses the need to study the proximate causes of colour production. Here we present a description of colour and colour producing mechanisms in two non-avian archelosaurs,...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that structural ultraviolet (UV) patches on the wings of butterflies play a role in sexual selection. UV patches may be condition-dependent signals of mate quality. In the current study, we investigated associations between the morphological properties of two male wing patterns (one signalling and one non-signalling trait) and...
Article
Full-text available
In mate choice, individuals consider a wide pool of potential partners. It has been found that people have certain preferences, but intraindividual stability of mate choice over time remains little explored. We tested individual consistency of mate choice with respect to a number of demographic, physical, and personality characteristics. Only mothe...
Article
Full-text available
In the present research, we took advantage of geometric morphometrics to propose a data-driven method for estimating the individual degree of facial typicality/distinctiveness for cross-cultural (and other cross-group) comparisons. Looking like a stranger in one’s home culture may be somewhat stressful. The same facial appearance, however, might be...
Article
Full-text available
Facial perception plays a key role in various social interactions, including formidability assessments. People make relatively accurate inferences about men's physical strength, aggressiveness, and success in physical confrontations based on facial cues. The physical factors related to the perception of fighting ability and their relative contribut...
Data
Dataset for Athletes measurements.
Data
Dataset for formidability rating.
Data
Sample of 360° head rotation.
Data
Factor analysis; Exploratory correlation matrix.
Chapter
In this chapter, we use the example of colouration of animal surfaces to show how processes based on interactions of the individual parts enter, as units, into processes on other levels and how this processual scaffolding leads to the emergence of ‘meaning’ on the level of communication between individuals. We review recent understanding of colour...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in social perception traditionally use as stimuli frontal portrait photographs. It turns out, however, that 2D frontal depiction may not fully capture the entire morphological diversity of facial features. Recently, 3D images started to become increasingly popular, but whether their perception differs from the perception of 2D has not been...
Preprint
In present research, we took advantage of geometric morphometrics to propose a data-driven method for estimating the individual degree of facial typicality/distinctiveness for cross-cultural (and other cross-group) comparisons. Looking like a stranger in one’s home culture may be somewhat stressful. The same facial appearance, however, might become...
Article
Objectives Facial averageness and sexual dimorphism are extensively studied attractiveness markers, which are viewed as possible indicators of biological quality. Both are complex morphological traits, and both can be easily assessed from frontal and lateral projection of a human face. Interestingly, examination of mutual relations between the fron...
Article
Full-text available
Ultraviolet patterns in butterflies have been recognized and studied for many years. They are frequently involved in both intraspecific and interspecific interactions. Only a handful of studies, however, have investigated possible links between ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and ecological properties in some genera of the Lepidoptera as a whole. This...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this contribution is to investigate certain selected parts of the extended evolutionary synthesis which all have a common denominator, namely evolution by meaning attribution. We start by arguing that living organisms can manipulate and interpret their genetic script via epigenetic modifications in a semiotic manner, that is, by meaning...
Article
Partner preferences are formed by several mechanisms, including an imprinting-like effect (parent-similarity) and homogamy (self-similarity). It is still unknown, however, whether these preferences remain stable throughout an individual's lifetime. We have therefore tested the consistency of mate choice in eye and hair colour both in a shortand lon...
Article
Full-text available
Research into face processing consistently shows an outgroup disadvantage in areas such as recognition memory and emotional identification. Potential ingroup advantage with respect to inferences regarding personality and behavioural outcomes, on the other hand, has not yet been studied. In the present study, we used the faces of male professional m...
Article
Whether there are objective differences in facial morphology among individuals of differing political conviction is largely unknown. Due to its relation to dominance, which is a component of conservative ideology, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) could be related to political views of face-bearers. We test several hypotheses regarding the re...
Article
Full-text available
Many sets of human facial photographs produced in Western cultures are available for scientific research. We report here on the development of a face database of Turkish undergraduate student targets. High-resolution standardized photographs were taken and supported by the following materials: (a) basic demographic and appearance-related informatio...
Data
BFD v1 agreement form. The form that must be signed for requesting access to the database. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Facial averageness and sexual dimorphism are extensively studied attractiveness markers, which are viewed as possible indicators of biological quality. Both are complex morphological traits and both can be easily assessed from frontal and lateral projection of a human face. Interestingly, examination of mutual relations between the front...
Article
Majority of research on attractiveness is restricted to faces of European origin. The perception of attractiveness may, however, vary across communities due to variations in both facial morphology and local standards of beauty. We investigated the relative contribution of four facial markers of attractiveness based on 100 female facial portraits (s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Red hair is associated with pain sensitivity, and more so in women than in men. Hair redness may thus interact with a female-specific factor. We tested this hypothesis on a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents. They were asked about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental...
Article
Full-text available
Robust evidence shows that voice quality affects various social interactions, including mate preferences. Previous research found that male voices perceived as attractive are characterized by low voice pitch, lower or sexually typical formants and relatively high breathiness. These features tend to be seen as markers of an individual's quality as a...
Poster
Full-text available
It was previously suggested that people prefer and choose romantic partners with self-similar (homogamy) and/or their parents-similar (imprinting-like effect) eye and hair colour. Effect of both mechanisms might differ to some degree according to mating context (i.e. long-term and short-term mating). However, are people even consistent in their mat...
Poster
Full-text available
Previous investigations showed relationship between relative facial width (fWHR) and certain behavioural measures of intra-sexual competition such as aggressiveness, formidability or number of penalties in ice hockey and soccer players. However, due to the complex nature of these measures it is not clear which of their components primarily affect t...