Karalyn Patterson

Karalyn Patterson
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Clinical Neurosciences

About

379
Publications
152,486
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
46,529
Citations
Citations since 2017
50 Research Items
12925 Citations
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,000

Publications

Publications (379)
Preprint
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders featuring primary-language impairments and typically classified into three-variants: semantic, non-fluent and logopenic. Yet their language profiles significantly overlap. Language deficits can also occur in other frontotemporal dementias (FTD) like progressive supranuclear...
Preprint
Objective: Verbal fluency is clinically widely used but its utility in differentiating between neurodegenerative dementias and progressive aphasias, and from healthy controls, remains unclear. We assessed whether the total number of words produced, their psycholinguistic properties, and production order effects could differentiate between Alzheimer...
Article
Frontotemporal dementia is clinically and neuropathologically heterogeneous, but each major phenotype has been associated with both aggregation of misfolded protein and neuroinflammation. We used positron emission tomography, with [ ¹¹ C]PK-11195 to measure activated microglia, and [ ¹⁸ F]AV-1451 to quantify the burden of Tau or TDP-43, in 31 patie...
Conference Paper
Frontotemporal dementia is clinically and neuropathologically heterogeneous, but atrophy, neuroinflammation, and executive dysfunction occur in each of the principal variants. Across the clinical spectrum of frontotemporal dementia, we assessed the predictive value of in vivo neuroimaging measures of grey‐matter volume (from structural MRI) and mic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) affect speech and language as well as motor functions. Clinical and neuropathological data indicate a close relationship between these two disorders and the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). We use the recently developed Mini Linguistic State...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) affect speech and language as well as motor functions. Clinical and neuropathological data indicate a close relationship between these two disorders and the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). We use the recently developed Mini Linguistic State...
Article
Full-text available
Although commonly known as movement disorders, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) may present with changes in speech and language alongside or even before motor symptoms. The differential diagnosis of these two disorders can be challenging, especially in the early stages. Here we review their impact on speech and l...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To test the hypothesis that in syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, behavioural impairment predicts loss of functional independence and motor clinical features predict mortality, irrespective of diagnostic group. Methods We used a transdiagnostic approach to survival in an epidemiological cohort in the UK, testing...
Article
Language assessment is critical in the diagnosis of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in particular those presenting with progressive speech and language impairment such as the primary progressive aphasias (PPA). Current diagnostic criteria identify three main variants of PPA based on clinical and neuroimaging features: semantic variant PPA...
Article
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) change speech and language as well as motor function. Here, we used the new Mini Linguistic State Examination (MLSE), a brief, yet comprehensive language assessment tool, to investigate structural correlates of language impairment in PSP and CBS, alongside patients with the nonflu...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction We report in vivo patterns of neuroinflammation and abnormal protein aggregation in seven cases of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9orf72 genes. Methods Using positron emission tomography (PET), we explored the association of the distribution of activated microglia, as measured by the radioligan...
Preprint
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION We report in vivo patterns of neuroinflammation and abnormal protein aggregation in seven cases of familial frontotemporal dementia with mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9orf72 genes. METHODS Using positron emission tomography (PET), we explored the association of the distribution of activated microglia, as measured by the radioligand [ ¹¹...
Article
Full-text available
The syndromes caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration have highly heterogeneous and overlapping clinical features. There has been great progress in the refinement of clinical diagnostic criteria in the past decade, but we propose that a better understanding of aetiology, pathophysiology and symptomatic treatments can arise from a transdiagnosti...
Article
Full-text available
The clinical syndromes of frontotemporal dementia are clinically and neuropathologically heterogeneous, but processes such as neuroinflammation may be common across the disease spectrum. We investigated how neuroinflammation relates to the localization of tau and TDP-43 pathology, and to the heterogeneity of clinical disease. We used PET in vivo wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective To test the hypothesis that in syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, behavioural impairment predicts loss of functional independence and motor clinical features predict mortality, irrespective of syndrome subtype. Method We used a transdiagnostic approach to survival in an epidemiological cohort, testing the associa...
Article
Full-text available
In the healthy human brain, the processing of language is strongly lateralised, usually to the left hemisphere, while the processing of complex non-linguistic sounds recruits brain regions bilaterally. Here we asked whether the anterior temporal lobes, strongly implicated in semantic processing, are critical to this special treatment of spoken word...
Preprint
Full-text available
The syndromes caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) have highly heterogenous and overlapping clinical features. There has been great progress in the refinement of clinical diagnostic criteria in the last decade, but we propose that a better understanding of aetiology, pathophysiology and symptomatic treatments can arise from a transdia...
Preprint
Full-text available
The clinical syndromes of frontotemporal dementia are clinically and neuropathologically heterogeneous, but processes such as neuroinflammation may be common across the disease spectrum. We investigated how neuroinflammation relates to the aggregation of Tau and TDP-43 in frontotemporal dementia, and to the heterogeneity of clinical disease. We use...
Preprint
In the healthy human brain, the processing of spoken words is strongly left-lateralised, while the processing of complex non-linguistic sounds recruits brain regions bilaterally. Here we asked whether the left anterior temporal lobe, strongly implicated in semantic processing, is critical to this special treatment of linguistic stimuli. Nine patien...
Article
Full-text available
The PET ligand [ 18 F]AV-1451 was developed to bind tau pathology in Alzhei-mer's disease, but increased binding has been shown in both genetic tauopa-thies and in semantic dementia, a disease strongly associated with TDP-43 pathology. Here we assessed [ 18 F]AV-1451 binding in behavioral variant fron-totemporal dementia due to a hexanucleotide rep...
Data
Figure S1. (A) Spearman dissimilarity matrix (1‐correlation) between all individuals. The first row and column, separated by black lines from the other rows and columns, represents the patient. The other thirteen columns represent controls. (B) the average linkage dendrogram produced by hierarchical cluster analysis. The two resultant clusters are...
Data
Table S1. Displaying T‐scores and FDR corrected p‐values for [18F]AV‐1451‐binding potential and for atrophy in each region, ordered by magnitude of [18F]AV‐1451‐binding potential T‐score.
Article
Full-text available
Perception relies on the integration of sensory information and prior expectations. Here we show that selective neurodegeneration of human frontal speech regions results in delayed reconciliation of predictions in temporal cortex. These temporal regions were not atrophic, displayed normal evoked magnetic and electrical power, and preserved neural s...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic dementia (SD) is a condition in which atrophy to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) produces a selective deterioration of conceptual knowledge. As this atrophy is always bilateral but usually asymmetrical, differences in performance of the two SD subgroups-with left > right (L > R) versus right > left (R > L) atrophy-constitute a major sour...
Article
Perception relies on the integration of sensory information and prior expectations. Here we show that selective neurodegeneration of human frontal speech regions results in delayed reconciliation of predictions in temporal cortex. These temporal regions were not atrophic, displayed normal evoked magnetic and electrical power, and preserved neural s...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [18F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar deg...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [(18)F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with non-fluent aphasias display impairments of expressive and receptive grammar. This has been attributed to deficits in processing configurational and hierarchical sequencing relationships. This hypothesis had not been formally tested. It was also controversial whether impairments are specific to language, or reflect domain general defic...
Article
Introduction Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [18F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar deg...
Article
Full-text available
Current diagnostic criteria classify primary progressive aphasia into three variants-semantic (sv), nonfluent (nfv) and logopenic (lv) PPA-though the adequacy of this scheme is debated. This study took a data-driven approach, applying k-means clustering to data from 43 PPA patients. The algorithm grouped patients based on similarities in language,...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with non-fluent aphasias display impairments of expressive and receptive grammar. This has been attributed to deficits in processing configurational and hierarchical sequencing relationships. This hypothesis had not been formally tested. It was also controversial whether impairments are specific to language, or reflect domain general defic...
Article
Full-text available
There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a n...
Chapter
Full-text available
Semantic memory represents our knowledge about the meanings of words, objects, people, and all other verbal and nonverbal stimuli that we encounter in the world. The semantic network in the human brain encodes all of this information, reactivates it rapidly and effortlessly, and generalizes appropriately across different exemplars and situations to...
Article
Progressive non fluent aphasia (PNFA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative aphasia characterised by apraxia of speech and/or agrammatism. It is a frontotemporal dementia in which brain volume loss is subtle, and concentrated in left inferior frontal lobe. In healthy individuals, activity in this area plays a role in predictive mechanisms that integr...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a n...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees....
Poster
Full-text available
Objective: We investigated what diagnostic measures and clinical syndromes remain correlated over time.
Poster
Introduction: The organization of semantic networks in the brain has been a controversial topic in cognitive science for decades. With theories ranging from fully symbolic and amodal to entirely embodied semantic cognition, brain imaging in recent years has provided evidence mostly for theories that take an intermediate position. But it remains to...
Article
Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of f...
Article
Full-text available
This brief paper, inspired by an invitation to acknowledge and celebrate Oscar Marin's great contributions to cognitive neurology and neuropsychology, reviews the case of a patient, T.P., who had significant deficits of naming, reading, and spelling. I first studied and reported this patient 35 years ago, in 1979, when I was significantly influence...
Article
To investigate how basic aspects of perception are shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, we assessed colour perception and cognition in patients with semantic dementia (SD), a disorder that progressively erodes conceptual knowledge. We observed a previously undocumented pattern of impairment to colour perception and cognition characterized...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The presence/absence of agrammatism is critical for the classification of the different subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Its quantitative evaluation is, however, a challenge in clinical practice because there are few brief, reliable, and easy-to-administer tests. Linguistic analysis of connected speech is the gold standard...
Article
Full-text available
We present a case-series comparison of patients with cross-modal semantic impairments consequent on either (a) bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy in semantic dementia (SD) or (b) left-hemisphere fronto-parietal and/or posterior temporal stroke in semantic aphasia (SA). Both groups were assessed on a new test battery designed to measure how pe...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate how basic aspects of perception are shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, we assessed colour perception and cognition in patients with semantic dementia (SD), a disorder that progressively erodes conceptual knowledge. We observed a previously undocumented pattern of impairment to colour perception and cognition characterized...
Article
Full-text available
Exaggerated effects of word length upon reading-aloud performance define pure alexia, but have also been observed in semantic dementia. Some researchers have proposed a reading-specific account, whereby performance in these two disorders reflects the same cause: impaired orthographic processing. In contrast, according to the primary systems view of...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) who do not meet the proposed criteria for any of the recognized subtypes would have the atrophy pattern reported in the past for logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA), in turn suggesting that the PPA of likely Alzheimer disease origin is more variable than that captured i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper begins with a focus on the task of stem inflection, where participants are given a verb stem and asked to produce the verb's past-tense form, which can produce a neuropsychological double dissociation with respect to regular versus irregular verbs. Two differing theoretical interpretations are outlined: one is based on specifically morph...
Article
Full-text available
Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing sp...
Article
Full-text available
Almost one-third of the participants in a neuropsychological study signed the consent form below the given line. The relationship between a signature position on or below the line and participants' cognitive function was investigated. Fifty drug-dependent individuals, 50 of their siblings, and 50 unrelated control participants completed a battery o...
Article
Full-text available
The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to langu...
Article
Full-text available
Although magnetic resonance imaging is a standard investigation in neurodegenerative disease, sensitive and specific markers for the underlying histopathological diagnosis are largely lacking. This report presents evidence to indicate that corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, in particular, might be identifiable at a single...
Article
Semantic dementia (SD) is associated with a progressive, relatively selective, degeneration of semantic memory (both verbal and nonverbal facts and knowledge). Episodic memory, however, is thought to be relatively preserved. This study aimed to further assess the nonverbal, incidental, episodic memory profile associated with SD using deferred imita...
Article
We explored the impact of a degraded semantic system on lexical, morphological and syntactic complexity in language production. We analysed transcripts from connected speech samples from eight patients with semantic dementia (SD) and eight age-matched healthy speakers. The frequency distributions of nouns and verbs were compared for hand-scored dat...
Article
The ‘primary systems’ view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud ‘exception’ words (those...