Kano Fumihiro

Kano Fumihiro
Kyoto University | Kyodai · Kumamoto Sanctuary

PhD Science

About

61
Publications
14,452
Reads
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1,512
Citations
Citations since 2016
37 Research Items
1286 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Additional affiliations
April 2012 - present
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Full-text available
Using a motion-capture system and custom head-calibration methods, we reconstructed the head-centric view of freely behaving pigeons and examined how they orient their head when presented with various types of attention-getting objects at various relative locations. Pigeons predominantly employed their retinal specializations to view a visual targe...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term memory is implicated in a range of cognitive abilities and is critical for understanding primate cognitive evolution. To investigate the effects of phylogeny, ecology and sociality on short-term memory, we tested the largest and most diverse primate sample to date (421 non-human primates across 41 species) in an experimental delayed-resp...
Article
The human eye characteristically has exposed and uniformly white sclera, which is hypothesized to have evolved to enhance eye-gaze signaling for conspecific communication. Although recent studies have put this hypothesis into question, current morphological and experimental evidence supports its key premise, albeit with recommendations for critical...
Article
Oxytocin has attracted research attention due to its role in promoting social bonding. In bonobos and chimpanzees, the two species most closely related to humans, urinary oxytocin is known to correlate with key behaviours related to social bonding such as social grooming in chimpanzees and female-female sexual behaviour in bonobos. However, no stud...
Article
Full-text available
Visual attention to facial features is an important way that group-living primate species gain knowledge about others. However, where this attention is focused on the face is influenced by contextual and social features, and emerging evidence in Pan species suggests that oxytocin, a hormone involved in forming and maintaining affiliative bonds amon...
Chapter
Most tracking data encompasses humans, the availability of annotated tracking data for animals is limited, especially for multiple objects. To overcome this obstacle, we present I-MuPPET, a system to estimate and track 2D keypoints of multiple pigeons at interactive speed. We train a Keypoint R-CNN on single pigeons in a fully supervised manner and...
Article
Previous research has found that oxytocin (OT) is associated with intergroup behaviour in humans as well as wild chimpanzees, and that exogenous OT affects Pan social attention. The two Pan species, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ drastically from one another in their intensity of intergroup competition, with lethal intergroup aggression often led...
Article
Recent technological advances made it possible to record postural changes of moving animals in behavior/cognition research. Although several technologies are available for this purpose, one underexplored possibility is the use of an infrared motion-capture system, which excels at tracking subtle and rapid 3D movements of animals. We explored this p...
Article
Full-text available
Hallmark social activities of humans, such as cooperation and cultural learning, involve eye-gaze signaling through joint attentional interaction and ostensive communication. The gaze-signaling and related cooperative-eye hypotheses posit that humans evolved unique external eye morphologies, including uniformly white sclera (the whites of the eye),...
Preprint
Oxytocin has attracted research attention due to its role in promoting social bonding. One notable recent hypothesis is the biobehavioral feedback loop, which posits that the oxytocin system has evolved to support the formation and maintenance of social bonds through a positive feedback loop, where oxytocin promotes social behaviours which then cau...
Article
Calls of several species of nonhuman animals are considered to be functionally referential. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying audience behaviors remain unclear. This study used an audiovisual cross-modal preferential-looking paradigm to examine whether captive chimpanzees spontaneously associated a conspecific call with images of a corre...
Article
The gaze-signaling hypothesis and the related cooperative-eye hypothesis posit that humans have evolved special external eye morphology, including exposed white sclera (the white of the eye), to enhance the visibility of eye-gaze direction and thereby facilitate conspecific communication through joint-attentional interaction and ostensive communica...
Article
Recent findings from anticipatory-looking false-belief tests have shown that nonhuman great apes and macaques anticipate that an agent will go to the location where the agent falsely believed an object to be. Phillips et al.'s claim that nonhuman primates attribute knowledge but not belief should thus be reconsidered. We propose that both knowledge...
Article
Environmental enrichment is essential for the well-being of zoo animals. Recent advances in sensor and video technologies may contribute to improvements in enrichment in terms of their flexibilities and time constraints. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether interactive movie art can be used as a form of environmental enrichment. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hallmark social activities of humans, such as cooperation and cultural learning, involve eye-gaze signaling through joint attentional interaction and ostensive communication. The gaze-signaling and related cooperative-eye hypotheses posit that humans evolved unique external eye morphology, including exposed white sclera (the white of the eye), to e...
Preprint
The gaze-signaling hypothesis and the related cooperative-eye hypothesis posit that humans have evolved special external eye morphology, including exposed white sclera (the white of the eye), to enhance the visibility of eye-gaze direction and thereby facilitate conspecific communication through joint-attentional interaction and ostensive communica...
Article
Social animals must carefully track consequential events and opportunities for social learning. However, the competing demands of the social world produce trade-offs in social attention, defined as directed visual attention towards conspecifics. A key question is how socioecology shapes these biases in social attention over evolution and developmen...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a unique art-science collaboration project organized by contemporary artists and comparative psychologists at Kyoto City Zoo in 2019. The objectives of this project were to evaluate how chimpanzees and humans respond to movies created by professional artists and to contribute to an outreach event at the zoo by demonstrating the entire...
Article
Full-text available
Chimpanzees help conspecifics achieve their goals in instrumental situations, but neither their immediate motivation nor the evolutionary basis of their motivation is clear. In the current study, we gave chimpanzees the opportunity to instrumentally help a conspecific to obtain food. Following recent studies with human children, we measured their p...
Article
Oxytocin has drawn significant research attention for its role in modulating mammalian social behavior. Despite generally conserved roles, oxytocin can function differently even in closely related species. Previous studies have shown that bonobos and chimpanzees, humans’ two closest relatives, demonstrate considerable behavioral differences, includ...
Article
Over the past 50 years there has been a strong interest in applying eye-tracking techniques to study a myriad of questions related to human and nonhuman primate psychological processes. Eye movements and fixations can provide qualitative and quantitative insights into cognitive processes of nonverbal populations such as nonhuman primates, clarifyin...
Article
Significance Many unique features of human communication, cooperation, and culture depend on theory of mind, the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others. But is theory of mind uniquely human? Nonhuman animals, such as humans’ closest ape relatives, have succeeded in some theory-of-mind tasks; however, it remains disputed whether th...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that humans experience negative emotions when seeing contextual cues of others’ pain, such as injury (i.e., empathic pain), even without observing behavioral expressions of distress. However, this phenomenon has not been examined in nonhuman primates. We tested six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to experimentally examine...
Article
Birds and primates typically attend to an object of interest using sensitive spots in the retina (i.e. the fovea). Therefore, the direction of their gaze indicates their focus of attention. Recent technological advances in miniature wearable devices allow us to examine birds' gaze behaviors in detail when they are freely moving, and even when they...
Article
Full-text available
The previous studies have shown that human infants and domestic dogs follow the gaze of a human agent only when the agent has addressed them ostensively-e.g., by making eye contact, or calling their name. This evidence is interpreted as showing that they expect ostensive signals to precede referential information. The present study tested chimpanze...
Article
Full-text available
When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models’ eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differe...
Data
Supporting Tables, Figures, and Movie links. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Much debate concerns whether any nonhuman animals share with humans the ability to infer others' mental states, such as desires and beliefs. In a recent eye-tracking false-belief task, we showed that great apes correctly anticipated that a human actor would search for a goal object where he had last seen it, even though the apes themselves knew tha...
Chapter
Recent advances in infrared eye-tracking technology have allowed researchers to examine social attention in great apes in great detail. In this chapter we summarize our recent findings in this area. Great apes, like humans, exhibit spontaneous interest in naturalistic pictures and movies and selectively attend to socially significant elements such...
Article
Full-text available
Using a novel eye-tracking test, we recently showed that great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. This finding suggests that, like humans, great apes understand others' false beliefs, at least in an implicit way. One key question raised by our study is why apes have passed our tests but not previous ones. In...
Article
Apes understand false beliefs We humans tend to believe that our cognitive skills are unique, not only in degree, but also in kind. The more closely we look at other species, however, the clearer it becomes that the difference is one of degree. Krupenye et al. show that three different species of apes are able to anticipate that others may have mis...
Article
Everyday life poses a continuous challenge for individuals to encode ongoing events, retrieve past events, and predict impending events [1-4]. Attention and eye movements reflect such online cognitive and memory processes [5, 6], especially through "anticipatory looks" [7-10]. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of nonhuman animals to re...
Article
Full-text available
Humans' two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bono-bos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bono...
Article
Full-text available
To examine great apes’ on-line prediction of other individuals’ actions, we used an eye-tracking technique and an experimental paradigm previously used to test human infants. Twenty-two great apes, including bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, were familiarized to movie clips of a human hand reaching to grasp one of two objects. Then the objects’...
Article
Although previous studies have shown that many species follow gaze, few have directly compared closely related species, and thus its cross-species variation remains largely unclear. In this study, we compared three great ape species (bonobos, Pan paniscus, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, orang-utans, Pongo abelii) and humans (12-month-olds and adults...
Article
Full-text available
This study offers a new method for examining the bodily, manual, and eye movements of a chimpanzee at the micro-level. A female chimpanzee wore a lightweight head-mounted eye tracker (60 Hz) on her head while engaging in daily interactions with the human experimenter. The eye tracker recorded her eye movements accurately while the chimpanzee freely...
Data
Calibration procedure. Cross mark indicates point-of-regard (POR) after the calibration procedure, which suggests the accuracy of POR. (WMV)
Data
Scene-camera image with point-of-regard (POR; cross mark). The first half of image was recorded during the greeting phase, and the latter half was recorded during the task phase. (WMV)
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of eye movement analysis in comparative and cognitive studies, the eye movements of great apes have not been examined until recently using the eye-tracking method. This is due to the lack of a noninvasive, unrestrained eye-tracking method, which is appropriate for great apes. In this review, I first show how a recent user-fri...
Article
Full-text available
Because the faces and eyes of primates convey a rich array of social information, the way in which primates view faces and eyes reflects species-specific strategies for facial communication. How are humans and closely related species such as great apes similar and different in their viewing patterns for faces and eyes? Following previous studies co...
Article
Full-text available
The problem with attempts to improve the well-being of captive chimpanzees is that even the best efforts at environmental enrichment do not ensure immediate, clear-cut outcomes due to the complex nature of chimpanzee society and cognition. Additionally, multiple alternative measures are necessary for outcome evaluation because well-being cannot be...
Article
Although an extensive body of literature exists on the cognitive underpinnings of gaze movements in macaques and humans, few studies have investigated this topic from a broader evolutionary perspective. This study used the gap-overlap paradigm to examine the timing of the gaze movements by four hominid species: humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and or...
Article
Full-text available
How do humans and their closest relatives, chimpanzees, differ in their fundamental abilities for seeing the visual world? In this study, we directly compared the gaze movements of humans and the closest species, chimpanzees, using an eye-tracking system. During free viewing of a naturalistic scene, chimpanzees made more fixations per second (up to...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies comparing eye movements between humans and their closest relatives, chimpanzees, have revealed similarities and differences between the species in terms of where individuals fixate their gaze during free viewing of a naturalistic scene, including social stimuli (e.g. body and face). However, those results were somewhat confounded b...
Article
Full-text available
Real-life situations provide rich sets of cues that viewers evaluate in terms of their emotional significance. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) viewed a movie depicting naturalistic scenes involving the whole-body expressions of conspecifics to examine how nonhuman primates perceived the combination of these cues and how each cue contri...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that a variety of animals including humans are sensitive to social cues from others and shift their attention to the same objects attended to by others. However, little is known about how animals process conspecifics' and another species' actions, although primates recognize conspecific faces better than those of another...
Article
How do chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, the species with the closest evolutionary connection to humans, view faces? This study is the first to use the eye-tracking method to perform direct comparisons between humans and chimpanzees with regard to face scanning. Members of both species viewed the same sets of photographs representing conspecific and no...
Article
Full-text available
Surprisingly little is known about the eye movements of chimpanzees, despite the potential contribution of such knowledge to comparative cognition studies. Here, we present the first examination of eye tracking in chimpanzees. We recorded the eye movements of chimpanzees as they viewed naturalistic pictures containing a full-body image of a chimpan...
Article
Full-text available
Humans often have a better memory of emotional events than neutral events. From the comparative-cognitive perspective, we explored the enhancement of recognition memory by emotion in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using a serial probe recognition task. In this task, we sequentially presented a list of pictures to subjects and then tested their recog...

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