Kankar Bhattacharya

Kankar Bhattacharya
University of Waterloo | UWaterloo · Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

PhD, P.Eng.

About

206
Publications
27,105
Reads
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8,171
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Professor
March 1998 - December 2002
Chalmers University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 1993 - March 1998
Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (206)
Article
This paper presents a detailed methodology to develop Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS) curves, which can be used to optimally determine the appropriate substitution of traditional regulation signals with fast regulation signals, considering different Energy Storage System (ESS) technologies and discharging times, scenarios, and season...
Article
Small-scale PV generation has become popular with residential customers in several jurisdictions with high solar radiation, as an alternative to improve their carbon footprint and reduce their electricity bills. However, massive deployment of such distributed generation is creating a particular and undesirable shape in the net demand, which deepens...
Article
This paper proposes a transmission-system-level aggregated model of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) distributed through Active Distribution Networks (ADNs), to study the dynamic performance and services provided by these systems to power grids. ADNs comprise intelligent loads, local generation, particularly solar PV, and BESSs, which can pro...
Conference Paper
With increasing penetration of renewable energy resources and uncertainty in electricity market prices, Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can play an important role by providing the Distribution System Operator (DSO) with Demand Response (DR) and flexibility services. This work proposes a bilevel optimization approach to determine the incentives for DR...
Preprint
Energy storage systems (ESSs) can improve energy management in distribution grids, especially with the increasing penetration of home energy management systems (HEMSs) that schedule household appliances and render them as smart loads. A large number of uncoordinated HEMSs can result in significant changes to the aggregated load profile of the distr...
Article
In this paper, a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) dynamic model is presented, which considers average models of both Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and bidirectional buck-boost converter (dc-to-dc), for charging and discharging modes of operation. The dynamic BESS model comprises a simplified representation of the battery cells, which allows to...
Article
This paper discusses the implementation of a transient stability model of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems in a power system analysis package. A block-diagram based model of a two-machine CAES system is proposed, including specific controls for active power, reactive power, and State of Charge (SoC), which consider limits associated wit...
Article
Recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 841 requires that Independent System Operators (ISOs) facilitate the participation of energy storage systems (ESSs) in energy, ancillary services, and capacity markets, by including ESS bidding parameters that represent the physical and operational characteristics. However, in the existing ma...
Article
In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of the diabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system and a simplified version are proposed, considering independent generators/motors as interfaces with the grid. The models can be used for power system steady-state and dynamic analyses. The models include those of the compressor, synchronous moto...
Article
One of the main advantages of smart grids is the presence of advanced communication technologies that facilitate grid operators and local distribution companies (LDCs) to communicate directly with customers. While at one end, the end-use customers seek to optimize their energy consumption by deploying Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), the LDCs...
Article
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) can be very beneficial to power systems and microgrids for various applications. With increasing sales of electric vehicles (EV), the availability of used EV batteries (EVBs) is on the rise, which has received significant attention in recent years. The retired EVBs, after re-purposing, can serve as an alternat...
Article
Oil refining facility is an energy intensive industry that is often equipped with different types of distributed generation (DG) resources. Optimal energy management of the refinery's load and its DG resources, under dynamic electricity pricing, improves electricity consumption behavior of the facility and hence reduce its energy costs. An EMS mode...
Article
This paper presents practical Energy Management System (EMS) models which consider the operational constraints of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), active-reactive power balance, unbalanced system configuration and loading, and voltage dependent loads. A novel linearization approach is proposed and validated based on the fact that, for isolated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy management in isolated microgrids is an important task since they have limited generation capacity and are expected to rely on various uncontrollable supply resources to match and balance the demand. While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) present a promising solution to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, their increasing penetration impa...
Article
This paper presents a new mathematical model to design a fast charging facility (FCF) equipped with distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide flexibility services in wind integrated power grids. Two different ownership structures of the FCF and wind generation facility (WGF) are considered. The DER options considered for FCF design are solar p...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a novel approach is presented to solve large-scale Dynamic Optimal Power Flow (DOPF) problems associated with power grids containing Energy Storage Systems (ESSs), using a distributed computing architecture, referred to as a Smart Grid Communication Middleware (SGCM) system. The problem is solved by splitting the time horizon into sh...
Article
Demand Response (DR) is an important tool for Independent System Operators (ISO) for reliable operation of electricity markets, and there has been considerable interest from load-side market participants to offer their services for DR provisions. In this environment, the ISO needs to develop effective mathematical models for procurement of DR so as...
Article
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) present a promising solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions but on the other hand, their increased penetration can impact power system operation, particularly so in an isolated microgrid. Similarly, demand response (DR) has the potential to provide significant flexibility in the operation of an isolated microg...
Article
State estimation in power distribution systems is a key component for increased reliability and optimal system performance. Well understood in transmission systems, state estimation is now an area of active research in distribution networks. While several snapshot-based approaches have been used to solve this problem, few solutions have been propos...
Article
With increasing environmental concerns the penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is expected to increase in the future. Such electrification of the transportation sector will impact the distribution grid adversely; however, PEV smart charging strategies can help mitigate the impacts. In this paper, a PEV smart charging approach is propose...
Article
In this paper, the impact of Electric Thermal Storage (ETS) systems on the operation of Northern Communities’ microgrids is analyzed. A mathematical model of the ETS system is developed and integrated into an Energy Management System (EMS) for isolated microgrids, in which the problem is divided into Unit Commitment (UC) and Optimal Power Flow (OPF...
Article
Driven by global environmental emission issues, energy access in remote communities, and tighter requirements for system resilience and reliability, electricity production is shifting from a centralized paradigm to a decentralized one. In this context, renewable energy sources (RESs) have proliferated over the past decade, exhibiting a steadily inc...
Article
With the increasing importance of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in microgrids, accurate modeling plays a key role in understanding their behaviour. This paper investigates and compares the performance of BESS models with different depths of detail. Specifically, several models are examined: an average model represented by voltage sources; a...
Article
A novel stochastic planning framework is proposed to determine the optimal battery energy storage system (BESS) capacity and year of installation in an isolated microgrid using a new representation of the BESS energy diagram. The BESS enhances microgrid operation via load leveling and reserve provisions in conjunction with the spinning reserve from...
Article
This paper presents the development of a controlled load estimator (CLE) for a water pumping system (WPS) using the data generated from a PSCAD simulation model. A neural network (NN) is trained, using the generated data, to estimate the power demand of the WPS as a function of the control variables. This NN-based load model is then incorporated in...
Article
This paper presents a distributed computing architecture for solving a Distribution Optimal Power Flow (DOPF) model based on a Smart Grid Communication Middleware (SGCM) system. The system is modeled as an unbalanced threephase distribution system, which includes different kind of loads and various components of distribution systems. In this study,...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the equivalent CO <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">2</sub> emission models for fossil-fuel-based distributed generator units are developed considering their individual emission characteristic and fuel consumption. These models are then integrated within a microgrid energy...
Article
With deregulation of the power industry, environmental policy changes, advancements in technology, and the transformation to smart grid, the distribution planning paradigm has gone through significant changes in recent years. Concurrently, with increase in gas prices, driven by a foreseeable fossil fuel depletion in the future, developments in the...
Chapter
In remote microgrids, the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) is essential to meet the demand in conjunction with the dispatchable fuel-based generation units. The need to facilitate RES efficiently and the very high cost of fuel transportation in these areas make installing battery energy storage system (BESS) an appealing solution. Howe...
Article
In this paper the optimal design of an Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) with the goal of minimizing the lifecycle cost, while taking into account environmental emissions, is presented. Different energy sources such as renewable energy technology based and diesel generation are considered, with realistic inputs on their physical, operating a...
Article
This paper presents a mathematical model of frequency control in isolated microgrids, which is integrated into the Unit Commitment (UC) problem. In conventional UC formulations, power outputs are considered fixed between two periods, yielding a staircase pattern with respect to the energy balance of the generation and demand for a typical dispatch...
Article
Due to environmental concerns and depletion of fossil fuel resources, the penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is expected to increase in the near future. However, such electrification of the transportation sector is expected to impact the distribution grid adversely. This paper presents a novel framework to determine the appropriate lev...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a planning model for distribution systems considering various energy supply options such as distributed generation (DG), substations, and feeders. In addition, the impact of Plug-in-Electric Vehicle (PEV) uncontrolled and smart charging loads on the plan outcome is evaluated. A new optimal power flow (OPF) based optimization mod...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel framework for designing an electric vehicle charging facility (EVCF) as a smart energy microhub from the perspectives of both an investor and a local distribution company. The proposed framework includes a Vehicle Decision Tree, a Queuing Model, a Distribution Margin Assessment Model, a Distributed Generation (DG) Penetr...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a new approach using queuing analysis to determine the best location of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations considering the resulting charging load and their impact on distribution system operations. A large database of mobility statistics available from Waterloo Region Transportation Tomorrow Survey (TTS) is used t...
Conference Paper
Electrifying the transportation sector will undoubtedly influence power systems in various aspects from network losses and cost of operation to system reliability. This paper presents a novel framework to evaluate the impact of PEV charging loads on composite power system reliability. An optimal power flow (OPF) based model combined with a minimum...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a novel voltage-based controller for frequency control in inverter-based isolated microgrids through load voltage regulation. The proposed controller, described here in detail, makes use of the load sensitivity to operating voltage to regulate load consumption. The performance of the controller is evaluated and validated through...
Article
This paper presents a mathematical model for representing the total charging load at an electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) in terms of controllable parameters; the load model developed using a queuing model followed by a neural network (NN). The queuing model constructs a data set of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging parameters which ar...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes an integrated energy management system (IEMS) for isolated microgrids considering demand response, fossil-fuel-based and renewable-based distributed generators (DGs), and energy storage systems (ESS). In the proposed approach, the unit commitment (UC) and optimal power flow (OPF) constraints are jointly included in the IEMS mode...
Article
This paper presents a queuing analysis based method for modeling the 24-hour charging load profile of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station. The queuing model considers the arrival of PEVs as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with different arrival rates over the day. The first PEV charging load profile assumes customer convenience as t...
Article
Electric power systems are facing major challenges because of the increase in penetration of energy resources (ERs). This paper focuses on composite system reliability based planning for ERs, and presents novel clustering techniques based approaches to determine the optimal location, size and year of installation of ERs in the system. The K-means c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) present a promising solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions but on the other hand, their increased penetration can impact power system operation, particularly so in an isolated microgrid. Similarly, demand response (DR) has the potential to provide significant flexibility in the operation of an isolated microgr...
Conference Paper
Involving end-users in Demand Side Management (DSM) programs with home energy management systems (HEMS) is an important requirement in realizing the smart grid. In smart grids, advanced communication technologies provide an opportunity to communicate with customers expeditiously. Optimizing the demand side consumption yields economical benefits to...
Article
This paper presents a frequency control mechanism for an isolated/islanded microgrid through voltage regulation. The proposed scheme makes use of the load voltage sensitivity to operating voltages and can be easily adopted for various types of isolated microgrids. The proposed controller offers various advantages, such as allowing the integration o...
Conference Paper
Distribution systems have been gradually improved with new technologies. They have been upgraded from the traditional system with low-level control to a smart-grid system with high-level control. In the present work, a mathematical model of an unbalanced three-phase distribution system, including ZIP loads and other components of distribution syste...
Article
Environmental concerns and depletion of fossil fuel resources have led to increased penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in recent times. However, such electrification of the transportation sector is expected to impact the distribution grid adversely. These effects will require local distribution companies (LDCs) to accurately assess the...
Article
This paper presents a novel framework for planning and investment studies pertaining to the implementation of system-wide conservation voltage reduction (CVR). In the CVR paradigm, optimal voltage profiles at the load buses are determined so as to yield load reductions and hence energy conservation. The system modifications required to operate at s...
Article
Reliability evaluation plays an important role in system analysis, design, upgrades, and operations, especially in composite power systems. This paper presents a reliability assessment method for composite power system using the minimal cut set calculations. The objective is to to detect critical components in order to help planners to make economi...
Conference Paper
The paper proposes a hybrid architecture for electricity price forecasting. The proposed architecture combines the advantages of the easy-to-use and relatively easy-to-tune Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and the approximation power of local learning techniques. The architecture is robust and more accurate than the individua...
Article
This paper presents a novel hierarchical control approach and new mathematical optimization models of greenhouses, which can be readily incorporated into energy hub management systems (EHMSs) in the context of smart grids to optimize the operation of their energy systems. In greenhouses, artificial lighting, CO2 production, and climate control syst...
Article
This paper presents a new modeling framework for analysis of impact and scheduling of price-responsive as well as controllable loads in a three-phase unbalanced distribution system. The price-responsive loads are assumed to be linearly or exponentially dependent on price, i.e., demand reduces as price increases and vice versa. The effect of such un...
Article
Balancing the energy demand in isolated micro grids is a critical issue especially in presence of intermittent energy sources. Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) can be installed in such circumstances to supply the demand and support the reserve requirements of the isolated micro grid. However, due to the high installation costs of BESS, there i...
Article
In this paper, a demand elasticity model is developed and tested for the dispatch of microgrids. The price obtained from dispatching the network in a base-case scenario is used as input to a demand elasticity model; this demand model is then used to determine the price-responsive demand for the next iteration, assuming that the load schedule is def...
Article
A self-validated computing (SVC) method, based on affine arithmetic (AA) is proposed in this paper to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) problem for microgrids with renewable sources of variable generation. In the AA-based OPF formulation, all the state and control variables are presented in affine form, to represent the variable load, and wind and...
Article
This paper presents mathematical optimization models of produce storage facilities to optimize the operation of their energy systems in the context of smart grids. In the storage facilities, climate control of the storage rooms consumes considerable energy; thus, in this paper, a mathematical model of storage facilities appropriate for their optima...
Article
This paper presents a mathematical model of smart loads in demand response (DR) schemes, which is integrated into centralized unit commitment (UC) with optimal power flow coupled energy management systems for isolated microgrids for optimal generation and peak load dispatch. The smart loads are modeled with a neural network (NN) load estimator as a...
Article
This paper presents the development of a generic optimal industrial load management (OILM) model, which can be readily incorporated into energy hub management systems (EHMSs) for industrial customers, in interaction with local distribution companies (LDCs), for automated and optimal scheduling of their processes. The mathematical models comprise an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reliably integrating high levels of renewable energy (RE) resources requires a high degree of flexibility in power system operations. The operation of energy storage systems (ESS) and demand response (DR) can be coordinated into a micro grid to increase its flexibility. The paper investigates the potential for accommodating high levels of renewable...
Article
An affine arithmetic (AA) method is proposed in this paper to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) problem with uncertain generation sources. In the AA-based OPF problem, all the state and control variables are treated in affine form, comprising a center value and the corresponding noise magnitudes, to represent forecast, model error, and other sourc...
Article
This paper presents a comprehensive distribution system planning model considering the plug-in electric vehicle (PEVs) charging demand accrued in the system over a long-term framework. A new probabilistic model for estimating PEV charging demand considering Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity prices is presented. The proposed distribution planning framew...
Article
Environmental concerns arising from fossil-fuel-based generation have propelled the integration of less-polluting energy sources in the generation portfolio and simultaneously have motivated increased energy conservation programs. In today’s deregulated electricity market, most participants [e.g., GENCOs and local distribution companies (LDCs)] foc...
Article
There are many technical aspects and challenges in distributed generation (DG) that have not been properly understood and addressed so far. Distribution systems cannot be considered as balanced three-phase systems, because these are inherently unbalanced in steady-state operation. A full characterization of the unbalanced system with respect to sys...
Conference Paper
Charging stations are critical infrastructure for the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the future distribution systems. With a steadily increasing PEV penetration level, the PEV charging demands of charging stations are expected to constitute a significant portion of the total electric power demands. An accurate estimation of PEV...
Article
This paper presents a novel modeling framework for the analysis of Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging in unbalanced, residential, distribution systems. A Smart Distribution Power Flow (SDPF) framework is proposed to determine the controlled or smart charging schedules and hence address the shortcomings of uncontrolled charging. The effect of p...
Article
Distribution system planning is undergoing a change in paradigm in the context of deregulation and with penetration of distributed generation (DG) sources into distribution networks. This study presents a new heuristic approach based on a back-propagation algorithm combined with cost-benefit analysis to comprehensive multi-year distribution system...
Article
This paper presents a novel method based on affine arithmetic (AA) for voltage stability assessment of power systems considering uncertainties associated with operating conditions, which may be attributed to intermittent generation sources, such as wind and solar. The proposed AA-based method reduces the computational burden as compared to Monte Ca...
Article
A novel optimisation-based model of the power flow (PF) problem is proposed using complementarity conditions to properly represent generator bus voltage controls, including reactive power limits and voltage recovery processes. This model is then used to prove that the Newton-Raphson (NR) solution method for solving the PF problem is basically a ste...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a mathematical model for optimal sizing of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in an unbalanced distribution system. The vanadium radox (VR) and sodium sulfur (NaS) based batteries are considered in this study. Detailed life-cycle cost analysis is carried out to first identify the long-term cost of the batteries, which is then...
Conference Paper
Expansion of wind generation capacity requires a close examination of the location and quality of wind resources and a detailed understanding of its operational impact on the transmission grid. In this paper, a transmission network model is developed for Ontario, with their planned enhancements for three specific years under study-2010, 2015 and 20...
Conference Paper
This paper presents novel methods based on Affine Arithmetic (AA) for voltage and transient stability assessment of power systems, considering uncertainties of power injections from intermittent generation sources such as wind and solar. These methods, which are an alternative to the well-known sampling and probabilistic based approaches, are able...