Kang Lee

Kang Lee
University of Toronto | U of T · Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study

Ph.D.

About

420
Publications
244,342
Reads
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17,206
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2002 - present
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Reseasrcher
July 1999 - June 2002
Queen's University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Position
  • Developmental Psychology

Publications

Publications (420)
Article
Full-text available
Academic cheating is a serious worldwide problem that begins during childhood. However, to date there has been little research on academic cheating with children before high school age. The current study used a naturalistic experimental paradigm to evaluate the possibility that systematically manipulating messages about the difficulty of a test can...
Article
Background: Depression is a mental disorder affecting many people worldwide which has been exacerbated by the current pandemic. There is an urgent need for a reliable yet short scale for individuals to self-assess the risk of depression conveniently and rapidly on a regular basis. Methods: We obtained a dataset of responses to the Depression, An...
Article
The present dataset was reported in a paper entitled “Effects of test difficulty messaging on academic cheating among middle school children”. It reports the findings of an experimental study that used a naturalistic math test-taking paradigm to assess children's academic cheating behavior under different test difficulty messaging conditions. The p...
Article
Academic cheating is a worldwide problem, which is exacerbated by perceived peer cheating. The present review of the literature quantitatively examined this perceived peer cheating effect. This meta-analysis included studies reporting correlations between students' own cheating and their perception of cheating in peers. The sample consisted of 43 e...
Article
Over their first year of life, infants express visual preferences for own- versus other-race faces. This developmental transition has primarily been investigated in monoracial societies where infants have limited personal or societal contact with other races. We investigated whether previously reported visual preferences for race generalize to a mu...
Article
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One of the most significant limitations of oximeters is their performance under poor perfusion conditions. This systematic review examines pulse oximeter model accuracy in adults under poor perfusion conditions. A multiple database search was conducted from inception to December 2020. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) adult participants (...
Article
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The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the effectiveness of contactless vital sign monitors that utilize a consumer-friendly camera versus medical grade instruments. A multiple database search was conducted from inception to September 2020. Inclusion criteria were as follows: studies that used a consumer-grade came...
Article
This paper describes a novel Long to Short approach that uses machine learning to develop efficient and convenient short assessments to approximate a long assessment. This approach is applicable to any assessments used to assess people’s behaviors, opinions, attitudes, mental and physical states, traits, aptitudes, abilities, and mastery of a subje...
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Regular blood pressure (BP) monitoring enables earlier detection of hypertension and reduces cardiovascular disease. Cuff-based BP measurements require equipment that is inconvenient for some individuals and deters regular home-based monitoring. Since smartphones contain sensors such as video cameras that detect arterial pulsations, they could also...
Article
Cheating is a common human behavior but few studies have examined its emergence during early childhood. In three preregistered studies, a challenging math test was administered to 5- to 6-year-old children (total N = 500; 255 girls). An answer key was present as children completed the test, but they were instructed to not peek at it. In Study 1, ma...
Article
The goal of the present research was to assess whether children's first interaction with a single outgroup member can significantly impact their general attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole. In two preregistered studies, 5- to 6-year-old Chinese children (total N = 147) encountered a Black adult from another country for the very first time, and...
Article
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A growing number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have investigated the cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates underlying various forms of visual expertise such as face and word processing. However, it remains poorly understood whether and to what extent the acquisition of one form of expertise would be associated with that of another. Th...
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Self-report research indicates that dishonesty decreases across adulthood; however, behavioral measures of dishonesty have yet to be examined across younger and older adults. The present study examined younger and older adults’ cheating behaviors in relation to their self-reported honesty–humility. Younger ( N = 112) and older adults ( N = 85) comp...
Article
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Parenting by lying—a practice whereby parents lie to their children as a means of emotional or behavioral control—is common throughout the world. This study expands upon the existing, albeit limited, research on parenting by lying by exploring the prevalence and long-term associations of this parenting practice in Turkey. Turkish university student...
Article
The present study assessed how accurate adults are at detecting fraudulent e-mail activity. A total of 100 younger (18–26 years) and 96 older adults (60–90 years) categorized a series of e-mails as legitimate or fraudulent phishing schemes and self-reported their fraud experiences. Younger and older adults did not differ in accuracy rates when cate...
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Introduction: Rate pressure product (the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure) is a measure of cardiac workload. Resting rate pressure product (rRPP) varies from one individual to the next, but its biochemical/cellular phenotype remains unknown. This study determined the degree to which an individual's biochemical/cellular profile as...
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This study examined individual influences on child empathy, the relationship between child and parent empathy, and the relationship between empathy and prosociality across seven countries. A large sample of children (N = 792, 49% female) from the ages of 6–10 years completed a situational empathy task, as well as a dictator game to assess prosocial...
Article
Morality-based interventions designed to promote academic integrity are being used by educational institutions around the world. Although many such approaches have a strong theoretical foundation and are supported by laboratory-based evidence, they often have not been subjected to rigorous empirical evaluation in real-world contexts. In a naturalis...
Article
Prior research has suggested that bilingual children demonstrate reduced social bias relative to their monolingual peers. In particular , they exhibit less implicit bias against racial outgroups. However, the cognitive determinants of racial bias in bilingual children remain unclear. In the current study, relationships between racial bias and three...
Article
Previous research on nudges conducted with adults suggests that the accessibility of behavioral options can influence people's decisions. The present study examined whether accessibility can be used to reduce academic cheating among young children. We gave children a challenging math test in the presence of an answer key they were instructed not to...
Article
Worldwide, the prevalence of diabetes has continued to increase rapidly. This gives rise to concerns regarding appropriate diabetes management to ensure optimal glycemic control. Untreated or uncontrolled diabetes can lead to a host of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases, an increased likelihood of morbidity and mortality (Deshpande, Har...
Article
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Background Waist circumference is becoming recognized as a useful predictor of health risks in clinical research. However, clinical datasets tend to lack this measurement and self-reported values tend to be inaccurate. Predicting waist circumference from standard physical features could be a viable method for generating this information when it is...
Article
Age-related differences in explicit and implicit racial biases in Black Cameroonians (N = 187, 94 females) were investigated using a cross-sectional design. Participants ranged in age from 3 to 30 years, and were from middle-to-high income families in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Biases were assessed by comparing attitudes toward Blacks with those toward Whi...
Article
Scientific research on how children learn to tell lies has existed for more than a century. Earlier studies mainly focused on moral, social, and situational factors contributing to the development of lying. Researchers have only begun to explore the cognitive correlations of children’s lying in the last two decades. Cognitive theories suggest that...
Article
Objective: Serum protein concentrations are diagnostically and prognostically valuable in cancer and other diseases, but their measurement via blood test is uncomfortable, inconvenient, and costly. This study investigates the possibility of predicting albumin, globulin, and albumin-globulin ratio from easily accessible physical characteristics (he...
Article
In this preregistered field study, we examined preschool children’s selective trust in a real-life situation. We investigated whether 3- to 6-year-old children (total N = 240) could be lured to a new location within their school grounds by an unfamiliar adult confederate. In a between-subjects manipulation, the confederate established either a high...
Article
Past studies suggest that monolingual and bilingual infants respond differently to race information in face discrimination and social learning tasks. In particular, bilingual infants have been shown to respond more similarly to own- and other-race individuals, in contrast to monolingual infants, who respond preferentially to own-race individuals. I...
Article
Most prior studies of the other-race categorization advantage have been conducted in predominantly monoracial societies. This limitation has left open the question of whether tendencies to more rapidly and accurately categorize other-race faces reflect social categorization (own-race vs. other-race) or perceptual expertise (frequent exposure vs. in...
Article
Introduction Blood biomarkers are measured for their ability to characterize physiological and disease states. Much is known about linear relations between blood biomarker concentrations and individual vital signs or adiposity indexes (e.g., BMI). Comparatively little is known about non‐linear relations with these easily accessible features, partic...
Article
Significance Dishonest behavior undermines the trust that is required for strong relationships and institutions. The present study offers an approach to discouraging dishonesty that involves a subtle environmental intervention. Specifically, we test the moral barrier hypothesis, which posits that moral violations can be inhibited by the introductio...
Article
Background: The 2017 ACC/AHA (US) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults expanded the definition of hypertension and now considers atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in determining treatment for people with hypertension. US guidelines are influential around the world and...
Article
Starting in early childhood, children are socialized to be honest. However, they are also expected to avoid telling the truth in sensitive situations if doing so could be seen as inappropriate or impolite. Across two studies (total N = 358), the reasoning of 3‐ to 5‐year‐old children in such a scenario was investigated by manipulating whether the i...
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Bilingual children have been shown to differ from monolingual children in several domains of human cognition. Comparatively few studies have investigated social-interactional processes in bilingual populations. Here, we investigated whether monolingual and bilingual children demonstrate similar susceptibility to an aspect of social functioning with...
Article
Humans are social beings, and acts of prosocial behavior may be influenced by social comparisons. To study the development of prosociality and the impact of social comparisons on sharing, we conducted experiments with nearly 2500 children aged 3-12 years across 12 countries across five continents. Children participated in a dictator game where they...
Chapter
A body of research is reviewed that has investigated how infants respond to social category information in faces based on differential experience. Whereas some aspects of behavioral performance (visual preference, discrimination, and scanning) are consistent with traditional models of perceptual development (induction, maintenance, and attunement),...
Article
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Research on moral socialization has largely focused on the role of direct communication and has almost completely ignored a potentially rich source of social influence: evaluative comments that children overhear. We examined for the first time whether overheard comments can shape children's moral behavior. Three- and 5-year-old children (N = 200) p...
Article
Perceptual narrowing occurs in human infants for other-race faces. A paired-comparison task measuring infant looking time was used to investigate the hypothesis that adding emotional expressiveness to other-race faces would help infants break through narrowing and reinstate other-race face recognition. Experiment 1 demonstrated narrowing for White...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review For measurement of blood pressure, using inflatable cuff-based technology can be inconvenient, uncomfortable, and requires special equipment. These issues could be overcome by using a contactless technology that measures blood pressure with the ubiquitous smartphone. Recent Findings In a proof of concept study involving normotens...
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This study explored whether children’s (N=158; 4-9 years-old) nonverbal facial expressions can be used to identify when children are being deceptive. Using a computer vision program to automatically decode children’s facial expressions according to the Facial Action Coding System, this study employed machine learning to determine whether facial exp...
Article
Although there has been extensive research on how children distribute resources with respect to quantity, little is known about how these decisions are affected by resource quality. The current research addressed this question by conducting two preregistered studies in which 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children (total N = 360) made anonymous distributio...
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Full-text available
The present data are reported in the article “Parenting by Lying in Childhood is Associated with Negative Developmental Outcomes in Adulthood” (Setoh et al., in press). Data were collected using online survey. In this dataset, there are 377 responses from young adults from Singapore who reported on their childhood exposure to parenting by lying, th...
Article
Parenting by lying refers to the parenting practice of deception to try to control children's behavioral and affective states. Although the practice is widely observed across cultures, few studies have examined its associations with psychological outcomes in adulthood. The current research fills this gap by sampling 379 young Singaporean adults who...
Article
Background: Cuff-based blood pressure measurement lacks comfort and convenience. Here, we examined whether blood pressure can be determined in a contactless manner using a novel smartphone-based technology called transdermal optical imaging. This technology processes imperceptible facial blood flow changes from videos captured with a smartphone ca...
Article
Background: Stress is a prevalent health problem in modern society. If experienced for long periods of time it can lead to immune dysfunctions. Thus, public health management practices must include the assessment of stress. In health management settings, electrocardiography (ECG) is routinely used to assess cardiovascular health and make inference...
Article
reasoning has typically been characterized by a “relational shift,” in which children initially focus on object features but increasingly come to interpret similarity in terms of structured relations. An alternative possibility is that this shift reflects a learned bias, rather than a typical waypoint along a universal developmental trajectory. If...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the developmental courses of both implicit and explicit racial biases in relation to the perceived social status of outgroups. We did so by assessing these biases among Chinese participants (N = 200, age range from 4- to 19-year-olds) toward 2 different other-race groups that differ in terms of perceived social status (i.e., Whites...
Article
This article examines relationships between children and youths’ judgments and their justifications of truth telling and verbal deception, in situational and cultural contexts. Han Chinese, Euro-Canadians and Chinese-Canadians, seven- to 17-years of age were presented competitive scenarios in which protagonists told either lies to protect, or truth...
Article
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The present study examined the effectiveness of a Modified-Comparison Questions Technique, used in conjunction with the polygraph, to differentiate between common travelers, drug traffickers, and terrorists at transportation hubs. Two experiments were conducted using a mock crime paradigm. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned 78 participants to ei...
Article
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Prior reviews of infant face processing have emphasized how infants respond to faces in general. This review highlights how infants come to respond differentially to social categories of faces based on differential experience, with a focus on race and gender. We examine six different behaviors: preference, recognition, scanning, category formation,...
Article
Millions of dollars are lost yearly to financial fraud and older adults may be uniquely vulnerable to these crimes (Burnes et al., 2017). North American and international research which suggests that a variety of social and cognitive factors impact fraud vulnerability (Deevy, Lucich, & Beals, 2012; Judges, Gallant, Yang, & Lee, 2017). However, fina...
Article
Older adults are the fastest growing group of technology adopters (Anderson & Perrin, 2017). While this can open doors to many exciting opportunities, it also comes with security concerns. According to the Federal Trade Commission, internet scams are now more common than those that take place through any other type of modality (Anderson, 2013). Fra...
Article
The current research examined whether young children engage in unethical behavior to a greater extent when they have a prosocial justification for doing so. Participants (3- and 5-year-olds, N = 240) played a guessing game in which they were tempted to cheat to win a prize after promising not to do so. In Study 1, children were randomly assigned to...
Article
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A concern for fairness is a fundamental and universal element of morality. To examine the extent to which cultural norms are integrated into fairness cognitions and influence social preferences regarding equality and equity, a large sample of children (N 2,163) aged 4–11 were tested in 13 diverse countries. Children participated in three versions o...
Article
Recent evolutionary, cultural, and economic theories have postulated strong connections between human sociality and complex cognition. One prediction derived from this work is that deception should confer cognitive benefits on children. The current research tests this possibility by examining whether learning to deceive during early childhood promo...
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Human cardiovascular activities are important indicators of a variety of physiological and psychological activities in human neuroscience research. The present proof-of-concept study aimed to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns of cardiovascular activities from the dynamic changes in hemoglobin concentrations in the face. We first recorded the dynam...
Article
When people let others know about their accomplishments they can improve their social standing, but doing so may also have a cost, especially within social environments in which there is great emphasis on the value of modesty. One particular downside of self‐promotion, the risk of being seen as untrustworthy, was examined among children in China. A...
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Full-text available
Own-race faces are recognized more effectively than other-race faces. This phenomenon is referred to as other-race effect (ORE). Existing behavioral evidence suggests that one of the possible causes of ORE is that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces. However, little is known about whether such differences in process...