Kamalrulnizam Abu Bakar

Kamalrulnizam Abu Bakar
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia | UTM · Department of Computer Systems and Communication

PhD

About

162
Publications
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2,662
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Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Full-text available
Due to fast development in digital systems, the traditional network architecture is becoming inadequate for the requirements of new technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Bring Your Own Device and for the expansion of internet services. These technologies and services need large-scale computing, high resource availability, dynami...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play a significant role in providing an extraordinary infrastructure for monitoring environmental variations such as climate change, volcanoes, and other natural disasters. In a hostile environment, sensors’ energy is one of the crucial concerns in collecting and analyzing accurate data. However, various environmenta...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are considered producers of large amounts of rich data. Four types of data-driven models that correspond with various applications are identified as WSNs: query-driven, event-driven, time-driven, and hybrid-driven. The aim of the classification of data-driven models is to get real-time applications of specific data....
Article
In an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN), the location of the sensor nodes plays a significant role in the localization process. The location information is obtained by using the known positions of anchor nodes. For underwater environments, instead of using various static anchor nodes, mobile anchor nodes are more efficient and cost-effectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have drawn incredible interest in both academic and industrial sectors due to their potential applications and services. Vehicles’ position plays a significant role in many location-based applications and services such as public emergency, vehicles tracking, resource discovery, traffic monitoring and position-base...
Article
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Recent growth in transport and wireless communication technologies has aided the evolution of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The ITS is based on different types of transportation modes like road, rail, ocean and aviation. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a technology that considers moving vehicles as nodes in a network to create a wir...
Article
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Blockchain provides a distributed digital ledger platform for not only cryptocurrencies but also many other distributed applications. Blockchain platforms work flow and performance are controlled by the used consensus algorithms. Although many studies evaluated cryptocurrency from the Shariah perspective, they focused only on the cryptocurrency con...
Article
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Cryptocurrency has emerged as the most promising digital asset, which serves as a medium of exchange with distributed control and highly secured financial system. This lead to an increase in stakeholders’ interest in digital currency investment. The cryptocurrencies majorly involve two phases including Initial Coin Offering (ICO) and blockchain cre...
Article
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—Todays’ Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications majorly depended on either limited neighbouring traffic data or crowd sourced stale traffic data. Enabling big traffic data analytics in ITS environments is a step closer towards utilizing significant traffic patterns and trends for making more precise, and intelligent decision particula...
Article
Opportunistic Networks exploit portable handheld devices to collect delay-tolerant data from sensors to gateways for realizing various Smart City applications. To obtain knowledge for determining suitable routing paths as users go about their daily routine, nodes maintain history of every encounter and exchange the information through summary vecto...
Article
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Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) is deployed in delay-sensitive application scenarios where providing Quality-of-Service (QoS) is utmost important. The QoS-aware routing protocol not only discovers a route from source to destination but also satisfies QoS requirements in heavily loaded wireless networks. Emergency / critical data packets must re...
Article
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with the fast development of wireless communication and semiconductor devices, home networking has gained considerable attention in the past few years. In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Sensing coverage is known as one of the most important standards in evaluating the performance of WSNs. The sensor nodes may have failures due to energy depletion...
Article
Due to limited power supplies, the sensor nodes exhaust their energy eventually. Accordingly, data transmission mechanisms between nodes and their destinations need to be designed based on energy efficiency. Most of the existing cluster based schemes adopt direct data transmission manner for intra-cluster communication, which leads to the unbalance...
Article
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The Linear Sensor Networks (LSNs) have gained much attention of the researchers due to their several positive aspects including easy deployment for linear structures and robustness in various environments. Although, such types of LSNs are suitable for many applications and scenarios but considered ideal for oil, gas, and water pipeline monitoring....
Article
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The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing proto...
Article
Full-text available
The deployment of Linear Wireless Sensor Network (LWSN) in underwater environment has attracted several research studies in the underwater data collection research domain. One of the major issues in underwater data collection is the lack of robust structure in the deployment of sensor nodes. The challenge is more obvious when considering a linear p...
Article
Due to limited resources of the sensor nodes energy efficiency is an important performance metric to evaluate the wireless sensor networks (WSN). In cluster-based WSNs, the cluster heads (CH) located around base station (BS) consume more energy and exhaust their energy supplies faster than other ones which leads to energy hole problem and premature...
Article
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During the last two decades, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of MANETs, not only due to the development of the technology but also due to their high flexibility. MANETs have challenges and limitations and among the major challenge is the routing process because of high dynamic topology and distributed nature. This is the main reason f...
Article
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Wireless sensor networks are often utilized in different kinds of applications like healthcare, military operations, border security, road and pipeline monitoring etc. The majority of these applications use fixed network topology and place sensors in a linear form defined as a linear sensor network (LSN). The Linear sensor networks have gained much...
Article
Full-text available
During the last two decades, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of MANETs, not only due to the development of the technology but also due to their high flexibility. MANETs have challenges and limitations and among the major challenge is the routing process because of high dynamic topology and distributed nature. This is the main reason f...
Article
This paper explores a novel type of attack in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) - Stealth Jamming (SJAM), in which malicious nodes periodically generate bogus traffic in order to trigger false route breakages. More precisely, they target a relatively unexplored weakness inherent in the route maintenance mechanism of ad-hoc protocols used by trust awa...
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have grown excessively due to their various applications and low installation cost. One of the design challenges of WSNs is to balance the energy consumption among sensor nodes, which results in enhanced network lifetime. In the past few years, several Mobile Sink (MS) based schemes exclusively focus on determining t...
Conference Paper
One of the major issues in current routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is to develop a routing protocol that can satisfy different applications’ needs and optimize routing paths to cope with protocol topology changes. Thus, developing a new routing protocol to optimize routing paths based on dynamic topology changes is a challengi...
Article
Nowadays, providing reliable vehicle to vehicle communications in vehicular ad hoc networks is essential to serve the emerging intelligent transportation systems. Traffic aware routing is considered a promising approach for delivering data packets between geographically separated vehicles. However, most of the existing traffic aware routing protoco...
Article
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The intelligent transportation system (ITS) concept was introduced to increase road safety, manage traffic efficiently, and preserve our green environment. Nowadays, ITS applications are becoming more data-intensive and their data are described using the “5Vs of Big Data“. Thus, to fully utilize such data, big data analytics need to be applied. The...
Article
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Sensor networks have gained tremendous appreciation in recent years and have been successfully tested in various application scenarios such as disaster management, pipeline monitoring, and environmental monitoring, as well as different military and security-based applications. In order to protect pipelines from leakage and corrosion, various conven...
Article
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Vast sums of big data is a consequence of the data from different diversity. Conventional data computational frameworks and platforms are incapable to compute complex big data sets and process it at a fast pace. Cloud data centers having massive virtual and physical resources and computing platforms can provide support to big data processing. In ad...
Article
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Opportunistic networks (OppNets) provide a scalable solution for collecting delay‑tolerant data from sensors for their respective gateways. Portable handheld user devices contribute significantly to the scalability of OppNets since their number increases according to user population and they closely follow human movement patterns. Hence, OppNets fo...
Article
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Widely deploying sensors in the environment and embedding them in physical objects is a crucial step towards realizing smart and sustainable cities. To cope with rising resource demands and limited budgets, opportunistic networks (OppNets) offer a scalable backhaul option for collecting delay-tolerant data from sensors to gateways in order to enabl...
Article
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Usually, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) operates in a wide range of untrustworthy environments that are de-ployed in an ad-hoc approach. Although different clus-ter-based schemes have been proposed for improving net-work lifetime, however, most of the existing solutions incur probabilistic methods, which result in non-uniform energy consumption and...
Article
Wireless sensor technologies, especially Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) or Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN), have gone beyond the fine-grained continuous monitoring platforms and became one of the enabling technologies that provide many successful applications in medical and non-medical fields. The physiological monitoring systems are...
Data
The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data from sensors to their respective gateways for providing vari...
Article
Full-text available
The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data from sensors to their respective gateways for providing vari...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have grown excessively due to their various applications and low installation cost. In WSN, the main concern is to reduce energy consumption among nodes while maintaining timely and reliable data forwarding. However, most of the existing energy aware routing protocols incur unbalanced energy consumption, which result...
Article
Full-text available
Network lifetime and energy efficiency are crucial performance metrics used to evaluate wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Decreasing and balancing the energy consumption of nodes can be employed to increase network lifetime. In cluster-based WSNs, one objective of applying clustering is to decrease the energy consumption of the network. In fact, the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Pocket Switched Network (PSN) is formed by users carrying portable handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets, which store messages, carry them from one point to another via physical movement, and forwards them when a communication opportunity arises. The success of the network thereby depends on the willingness of users to participate. PSN...
Article
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In Underwater Linear Sensor Networks (UW-LSN) routing process, nodes without proper address make it difficult to determine relative sensor details specially the position of the node. In addition, it effects to determine the exact leakage position with minimized delay for long range underwater pipeline monitoring. Several studies have been made to o...
Article
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered as a useful alternative to provide prompt communication services in post disaster relief operations where field information is exchanged with first responders and nearby emergency centers. However, such application environments expose the nodes to physical capture, damage and misbehaviour attacks. In addi...
Article
Enough attention has not been paid to the client nodes in the wireless mesh networks (WMNs) architecture which tend to improve quality of service of the networks if well managed with a cluster structure. In this paper, a fuzzy logic control clustering algorithm (FLCCA) is proposed for client nodes in WMNs. A detailed process for the fuzzification o...
Article
Background: Secondary dengue infection (SDI), in the form of two sequential infections by different serotypes, will lead to severe dengue. Concomitant organ failure in particular cardiovascular (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) carries further rise in the mortality rate. Case report: We report a confirmed SDI in a 27-year-old man who presented...
Article
Sensor Nodes (SNs) in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) sense and forward data towards Body Network Coordinator (BNC). Sensed data in WBAN contains information related to human physiological signals and vital signs. Other than sensed data, control packets are also forwarded among Senosr Nodes (SNs) and commonly known as Hello packets which announce...
Article
Standalone street lighting as a preferred application for road lighting faces two important issues: supply performance and energy cost. According to past research, optimization of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) in street light supply seems the best known approach to deal with these issues. However, the complex design of street light supply w...
Article
In recent decades, cluster-based schemes have emerged as viable solutions for energy conservation problem in wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, most of the existing solutions incur imbalanced energy consumption and high network overheads. In addition, existing cluster-based solutions do not optimize route discovery based on the restricted res...
Article
Information and Communication Technologies consume about 3% of the worldwide energy. Therefore, developing green communication systems is necessary for all sectors of technologies. In addition, as other wireless devices might inter-communicate with Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), power constraints for such devices have to be considered. Moreove...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater Wireless Linear Sensor Networks (UW-LSNs) possess unique features for the pipeline monitoring as compared to the terrestrial sensor networks. Other than long propagation delays for long range underwater pipelines and high error probability, homogeneous node deployment also makes it harder to detect and locate the pipeline leakage efficie...
Data
A pocket switched network (PSN) is dynamically formed by people who carry portable handheld devices. Interest in PSNs is driven by the increasing number of handheld devices, the several wireless interfaces they possess, as well as their ability to store, carry and forward data. The lack of fixed network topology distinguishes PSNs from traditional...
Conference Paper
The current Internet design falls short in scenarios characterized by intermittent connectivity and absence of supporting infrastructure. Pocket switched networking allows communication between portable handheld user devices in such environments through the store-carry-forward paradigm. This involves storing data in device memory, exploiting user m...
Article
Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of several tiny devices that are dispersed randomly for gathering network field. Clustering mechanism divides the WSN into different sub-regions called clusters. Individual cluster is consisting of cluster head (CH) and member nodes. The main research challenges behind clustering mechanism are to optimize netw...
Article
Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of several tiny devices that are dispersed randomly for gathering network field. Clustering mechanism divides the WSN into different sub-regions called clusters. Individual cluster is consisting of cluster head (CH) and member nodes. The main research challenges behind clustering mechanism are to optimize netw...
Article
A pocket switched network (PSN) is dynamically formed by people who carry portable handheld devices. Interest in PSNs is driven by the increasing number of handheld devices, the several wireless interfaces they possess, as well as their ability to store, carry and forward data. The lack of fixed network topology distinguishes PSNs from traditional...
Article
One of the important characteristics of VANETs is the multi-hop communications, which provides Vehicle-to-Vehicle(V2V) communication for many applications. In order to adapt to mobility in high speeds and limited-time communication links, traffic aware routing was proposed in many research works. As a type of position based routing protocols, traff...
Article
Full-text available
Nodes in most of the deployments of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) remain un-administered and exposed to variety of security attacks. Characterized by constrained resources and dynamically changing behavior of sensor nodes, reliable data delivery in WSNs is nontrivial. To counter node misbehavior attacks, traditional cryptographic and authenticati...
Article
In most of the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), nodes operate in unattended environments and are, therefore, vulnerable to variety of attacks. Due to dynamic and unpredictable changing behavior of nodes, the reliable data delivery is a challenging task. For WSNs, the traditional cryptographic and authentication-based solutions canno...
Article
The reliable data delivery is a challenging task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to dynamic and unpredictable changing behaviors of nodes. The traditional cryptographic and authentication based schemes can’t be adopted due to their associated cost and incapability to counter nodes misbehavior attacks. Recently, trust based solutions have pro...
Article
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are gaining tremendous interest among researchers and industries. Although the main reason for developing VANETs is traffic safety, many applications such as traffic status monitoring, road traffic management, routing and distribution of data, have emerged. VANETs exploit multi-hop communications among vehicles to...
Article
Wireless sensor networks have gained remarkable appreciation over the last few years. Despite significant advantages and tremendous applications, WSN is vulnerable to variety of attacks. Due to resource constraint nature of WSN, applicability of traditional security solutions is debatable. Although cryptography, authentication and confidentiality m...
Article
Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of hundred to thousands sensor nodes to gathered the information from physical environment. Different clustering based algorithms have been proposed to improve network lifetime and energy efficiency. Practically it is not feasible to recharge the battery of sensor nodes when they are sensing the data. In such...