Kamaljit S Balaggan

Kamaljit S Balaggan
The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust · Department of Ophthalmology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

49
Publications
7,072
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,492
Citations

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Purpose: To report the 1 year outcomes of a randomised trial comparing femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and phacoemulsification cataract surgery (PCS). Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital, New Cross Hospital and Sussex Eye Hospital, UK DESIGN:: Multicentre, randomised controlled non inferiority trial. Methods: 311 of 392 (79%) par...
Article
To identify risk factors affecting visual outcomes in successfully re-attached macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) surgery. A prospective study, using online databases, of visual outcomes for 2074 macula-off retinal detachments that were successfully re-attached by vitrectomy and internal tamponade. The database included detailed reti...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To report the 3 month results of a randomised trial (FACT) comparing femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and standard phacoemulsification cataract surgery (PCS). Design Multicentre, randomized controlled trial funded by the UK National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, HTA 13/04/46/) Methods This trial took place in thre...
Article
Full-text available
Daren Hanumunthadu,1 Tomas Ilginis,1 Kamaljit S Balaggan,1,2 Praveen J Patel1 On behalf of the DOCS team 1NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, London, 2Wolverhampton and Midland Counties Eye Infirmary, Wolverhampton, UKChanges in macular thickness mea...
Article
Background The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods A prospective study consisting of patients with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study...
Article
Purpose: To determine the intrasession repeatability of spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT)-derived macular retinal and choroidal metrics in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in the Distance of Choroid Study (DOCS) DESIGN: Validity and reliability analysis METHODS: Enrolled patients underwent repeated SD-OCT imaging using...
Article
To evaluate the variations in dwell times and doses expected when using an episcleral brachytherapy device for treatment of neovascular agerelated macular degeneration (n-AMD) based on accurate imaging modalities Data from 40 eyes from 40 subjects with known n- AMD acquired through the Distance of Choroid Study (DOCS) conducted at Moorfields Eye Ho...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Mutations in RPE65 cause Leber’s congenital amaurosis, a progressive retinal degenerative disease that severely impairs sight in children. Gene therapy can result in modest improvements in night vision, but knowledge of its efficacy in humans is limited. METHODS We performed a phase 1–2 open-label trial involving 12 participants to evalu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mutations in RPE65 cause Leber's congenital amaurosis, a progressive retinal degenerative disease that severely impairs sight in children. Gene therapy can result in modest improvements in night vision, but knowledge of its efficacy in humans is limited. Methods: We performed a phase 1-2 open-label trial involving 12 participants to...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Acute maculopathy is a rare condition of unknown aetiology and Coxsackie virus is known to be associated with this macular chorioretinitis. Findings: We report a case of acute unilateral maculopathy in a 35-year-old woman with concurrent hand foot and mouth disease. Furthermore, we display multimodal imaging (colour fundus phot...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the off-label use of subconjunctival bevacizumab for corneal neovascularisation (CoNV). Methods: 30 patients with recent-onset CoNV from various causes were randomly assigned into a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Each received three 0.1 ml injections containing either 2.5 mg bevacizumab or 0.9% saline at monthly...
Thesis
Exudative age-related macular degeneration, characterised by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), is the leading cause of severe visual impairment in developed societies. Until recently, established treatments were of limited efficacy, and associated with other disadvantages including being inherently destructive therapies. Although novel anti-VEGF...
Article
Insertional mutagenesis following gene therapy with gammaretroviral vectors can cause the development of lymphoproliferation in children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. In experimental studies, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have also been reported to increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The possibility of v...
Article
Substantial advances in our understanding of lentivirus lifecycles and their various constituent proteins have permitted the bioengineering of lentiviral vectors now considered safe enough for clinical trials for both lethal and non-lethal diseases. They possess distinct properties that make them particularly suitable for gene delivery in ophthalmi...
Article
Objective To evaluate the off-label use of subconjunctival bevacizumab for corneal neovascularisation (CoNV). Methods 30 patients with recent-onset CoNV from various causes were randomly assigned into a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Each received three 0.1 ml injections containing either 2.5 mg bevacizumab or 0.9% saline at monthly inter...
Article
The purpose of this study is to report a case of combined hemiretinal vein occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), in which the development of the CLRAO was substantially delayed. This interventional case report illustrates the sequential development of a cilioretinal artery occlusion following a hemiretinal vein occlusion with colour...
Article
Full-text available
Lentiviral vectors with self-inactivating (SIN) long terminal repeats (LTRs) are promising for safe and sustained transgene expression in dividing as well as quiescent cells. As genome organization and transcription substantially differs between actively dividing and postmitotic cells in vivo, we hypothesized that genomic vector integration prefere...
Article
Full-text available
Cell-cell adhesion regulates the development and function of epithelia by providing mechanical support and by guiding cell proliferation and differentiation. The tight junction (TJ) protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 regulates cell proliferation and gene expression by inhibiting the activity of the Y-box transcription factor ZONAB in cultured epitheli...
Data
SLO of AAV2/6-CMV-GFP transduced Crb1−/− mouse retina at 3 weeks post injection. After intravitreal injection of AAV2/6-CMV-GFP at postnatal day 21 (n = 6), the integrity of the retina appeared normal (A). The fluorescent signal for GFP was detected along the major retinal blood vessels (B). After subretinal injection of AAV2/6-CMV-GFP at postnatal...
Article
Full-text available
Müller cell gliosis occurs in various retinal pathologies regardless of the underlying cellular defect. Because activated Müller glial cells span the entire retina and align areas of injury, they are ideal targets for therapeutic strategies, including gene therapy. We used adeno-associated viral AAV2/6 vectors to transduce mouse retinas. The transd...
Article
Retroviral vectors have induced subtle clonal skewing in many gene therapy patients and severe clonal proliferation and leukemia in some of them, emphasizing the need for comprehensive integration site analyses to assess the biosafety and genomic pharmacokinetics of vectors and clonal fate of gene-modified cells in vivo. Integration site analyses s...
Article
Full-text available
Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors show considerable promise for ocular gene transfer. However, one potential barrier to efficacious long-term therapy is the development of immune responses against the vector or transgene product. We evaluated cellular and humoral responses in mice following both single and repeated subretinal adminis...
Article
Retroviral vectors are commonly used gene delivery tools in clinical gene therapy providing stable integration and continuous gene expression of the transgene in the treated host cell. However, integration of the reverse transcribed vector DNA into the host genome is, by itself, a mutagenic eventthat may directly contribute to severe adverse events...
Article
Full-text available
Early-onset, severe retinal dystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kD protein (RPE65) is associated with poor vision at birth and complete loss of vision in early adulthood. We administered to three young adult patients subretinal injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector 2/2 expressi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Aqueous misdirection syndrome (AMS) typically occurs after surgery for angle closure glaucoma, or surgery in hyperopic eyes with narrow angles. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is often considered the definitive treatment for AMS. The authors describe a rare case of AMS developing de novo after PPV in an eye without any prior history of AMS,...
Article
Full-text available
Zinc finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) have been shown to positively or negatively regulate the expression of endogenous genes involved in a number of different disease processes. In this study we investigated whether gene transfer of an engineered ZFP TF designed to up-regulate expression of the chromosomal pigment epithelium-derived...
Article
To assess excision of choroidal new vessels (CNV) combined with autologous transplantation of the equatorial retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) as a means of restoring vision for patients with acute neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective interventional cohort study. Twelve patients were recruited into an ethics committee appr...
Article
Full-text available
While AAV- and lentivirus-mediated gene replacement therapy can produce structural and functional improvements in various animal models of inherited retinal degeneration, this approach often has very limited effects on the rate of photoreceptor cell loss. Neurotrophic factors such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and glial cell line-derived ne...
Article
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to protect ganglion cells in a variety of acute ischaemia models. Here we assess the efficacy of local CNTF gene transfer in protecting retinal ganglion cells when there is focal ischaemia combined with interruption of axoplasmic flow. This dual injury may be more representative of the pathological...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the efficacy of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vectors encoding endostatin (EIAV.endostatin) or angiostatin (EIAV.angiostatin) in inhibiting angiogenesis and vascular hyperpermeability in the laser-induced model of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). Equine infectious anaemia virus.endostatin, EIAV.angiostatin...
Article
Full-text available
Retroviral and lentiviral vector integration into host-cell chromosomes carries with it a finite chance of causing insertional mutagenesis 1. This risk has been highlighted by the induction of malignancy in mouse models, and development of lymphoproliferative disease in three individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency–X1 (refs. 2,3). Therefo...
Article
Full-text available
Ocular neovascularization associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of severe visual loss in adults in developed countries. Physiological and pathological retinal angiogenesis may occur independently in postnatal life through the complex activation of pro- and antiangiogenic pathway...
Article
We have developed minimal non-primate lentiviral vectors based on the equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV). We evaluated the in vivo expression profiles of these vectors delivered regionally to ocular tissues to define their potential utility in ocular gene therapy. EIAV vectors pseudotyped with VSV-G or rabies-G envelope proteins were delivered...
Article
Necrotising fasciitis or streptococcal gangrene is a rare and often fatal soft tissue infection usually affecting the limbs and trunk. Facial involvement is exceedingly rare due to the excellent blood supply of this region. We report a case of initially misdiagnosed streptococcal gangrene of the eyelids precipitated by minor trauma and which progre...
Article
Full-text available
Mutation of the Chx10 homeobox gene in mice and humans causes congenital blindness and microphthalmia (small eyes). This study used Chx10-/- (ocular retardation) mice to investigate how lack of Chx10 affects progenitor/stem cell behavior in the retina and ciliary epithelium (CE). The distribution of mitotic retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) during em...
Article
Full-text available
Autoimmune posterior uveitis is a chronic, potentially blinding inflammatory disease of the eye. It is commonly treated with immunosuppressive drugs that have adverse long-term effects. Advances in gene transfer techniques have enabled long-term, stable transduction of retinal cells following subretinal injection with adeno-associated viral (AAV) v...
Article
Full-text available
Gene therapy strategies need to achieve efficient transgene expression whilst minimizing toxic effects. Retrovirus vectors are very effective in several systems, but they have been shown to cause malignancies through insertional mutagenesis, one of the most serious side-effects identified to date in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. The ris...
Article
Full-text available
The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat is a well-characterized model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) due to a defect in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It is homozygous for a null mutation in the gene encoding , a receptor tyrosine kinase found in RPE cells, that is required for phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segme...
Article
To describe a technique for the subsequent placement of an unsutured posterior chamber lens intraocular lens (PC IOL) in eyes requiring cataract or clear lens extraction at the time of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil tamponade. Department of Vitreoretinal Surgery, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom. This retrospective review...
Article
A 32-YEAR-OLD white woman sought treatment for a 3-day history of episodic left pupillary distortion associated with blurred vision and abnormal periocular sensations. Attacks lasted between 3and 15 minutes, during which the pupil elongated at the 7-o'clock position (Figure 1). The patient had no headaches or other neurological symptoms or signs. R...

Network

Cited By