Kalysha Closson

Kalysha Closson
University of California, San Diego | UCSD

MSc PhD

About

63
Publications
7,713
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515
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
514 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Gender inequity, including low sexual relationship power (SRP), is an important determinant of intimate partner violence (IPV) and negative sexual, reproductive, and mental health. Different versions of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) are commonly used within youth studies to examine how gender inequities, including controlling behaviors...
Article
Background: Sexual relationship power (SRP) inequities, including having a controlling partner, have not been widely examined among women living with HIV (WLWH). We measured prevalence, and key outcomes of relationship control among WLWH in Canada. Methods: Baseline data from WLWH (≥16 years), reporting consensual sex in the last month enrolled...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gender inequity and the subsequent health impacts disproportionately affect communities in the Global South. However, most gender equity measures, such as Pulerwitz’ (2000) Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), are developed and validated in the Global North and then applied in Global South settings without investigation of context app...
Article
Efforts to advance sexual health globally require greater understandings of youth intimate relationship dynamics. Among 38 South African youth (21 women/17 men aged 21-30 from Durban and Soweto) we conducted qualitative cognitive interviews to explore how gender and power intersect to shape intimate relationship dynamics (October 2019-March 2021)....
Article
Gender-based power dynamics within intimate relationships such as controlling behaviours are driven by inequitable gender norms that perpetuate intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, the ways in which we understand and measure gender-based power dynamics focus on the relationships of monogamous, cisgender, white, heterosexual women. This paper outli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Young women and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Non-binary/no gender, or Questioning (LGBTQ+) youth in South Africa face some of the highest global levels of intimate partner violence (IPV). Given limited evidence in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has fuelled IPV globally, we aimed to describe and compare experiences and perpet...
Article
Objective: To describe the prevalence of diagnosed depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia in people with HIV (PWH) and the differences in HIV care continuum outcomes in those with and without mental health disorders (MHDs). Design: Observational study of participants in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research a...
Article
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Introduction Many young people report experiencing negative emotional responses to their awareness of climate change and the threats it poses to their future. With that, an increasing number of survey instruments have been developed to examine young people’s negative emotional responses to their awareness of climate change. This report describes a...
Article
Little is known about how the co-occurrence of psychosocial factors affect sub-populations of people living with HIV (PLWH). We used cross-sectional data from 999 PLWH, aged ≥19, accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in British Columbia, Canada (2007-2010) to examine associations between psychosocial factors and ART-related outcomes separately for...
Article
Intergenerational differences in inequitable gender attitudes may influence developmental outcomes, including education. In rural Karnataka, India, we examined the extent of intergenerational (adolescent girls [AGs] vs. older generation family members) dis/agreement to attitudes around gendered power inequities, including gender roles and violence...
Article
Objective: We aimed to characterize mortality among people with HIV (PWH) and psychotic disorders (PWH/psychosis+) vs. PWH alone (PWH/psychosis-). Method: A population-based analysis of mortality in PWH (age ≥19) in British Columbia (BC) from April 1996 to March 2017 was conducted using data from the Seek and Treat for Optimal Prevention of HIV/...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective To describe the prevalence of diagnosed depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia in people with HIV (PWH) and the differences in HIV care continuum outcomes in those with and without mental health disorders (MHD). Design Observational study of participants in the NA-ACCORD. Methods PWH (≥18 years) contributed data on pre...
Article
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Objectives People living with human immunodeficiency virus in Canada can face criminal charges for human immunodeficiency virus non-disclosure before sex, unless a condom is used and their viral load is <1500 copies/mL. We measured the reported impact of human immunodeficiency virus non-disclosure case law on violence from sexual partners among wom...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Extreme weather events caused by climate change pose a risk to mental health. Illustrating this reality, this study estimates the impact of the 2021 Western North American heat dome (June 25th, 2021 – July 1st, 2021) on climate change anxiety among British Columbians. Methods We conducted an online survey of British Columbians, aged ≥...
Article
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Purpose This study aimed at determining to what extent sexual minority status modifies the association between HIV risk behavior and prevalent mood or anxiety disorder diagnosis in British Columbia (BC), Canada, using a population-based survey. Methods This analysis was based on the cross-sectional 2013–2014 Canadian Community Health Survey. The s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Gender inequity and the subsequent health impacts disproportionately affect communities in the Global South. However, most gender equity measures, such as Pulerwitz’ (2000) Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), are developed and validated in the Global North and then applied in Global South settings without investigation of context ap...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) may impact on the HIV-treatment cascade. Setting: Four high HIV-prevalence DREAMS health districts in South Africa. Methods: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected March 2017-June 2018, using random household sample of young (12-24 years) girls and women. Face-to-face interviews assesse...
Article
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Background The ubiquity of cellular phone (cellphone) use in young people’s daily lives has emerged as a priority area of concern for youth mental health. Objective This study measured the prevalence of depression and its association with high cellphone use among youth in Soweto and Durban, South Africa. Methods We analysed cross-sectional, basel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background High rates of adolescent pregnancies in South Africa continues to be a pressing public health concern. This study examines (1) the prevalence of current contraceptive use; and (2) the independent association between adolescent pregnancy and effective contraception use. Methods This study uses baseline cross-sectional data from a youth-c...
Conference Paper
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Background: Antipsychotics, i.e. first generation (FGA) dopamine D2 antagonists or second-generation (SGA) dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT-2 antagonists, are mainstays in treatment of psychotic disorders.Yet, treatment pathways among people living with HIV (PLWH) is not well understood. Our objective was to characterize treatment trajectories in a po...
Article
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Background: Understanding young women and men's perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in biomedical HIV prevention research is important for designing youth friendly services (YFS) and acceptable technologies, which are necessary for preventing high sustained HIV incidence in South Africa. This study explores the multileveled barrier...
Article
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Introduction Universal provision of effective antiretroviral medication has been essential to reduce mortality, increase longevity, and reduce onward transmission of HIV. This study aims to illuminate persistent threats to the health and longevity of under-served PLWH in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Between 2007 and 2010, 1000 PLWH acros...
Article
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Objectives: Psychological stress is an important determinant of health, including for mental well-being and sexual health. However, little is known about the prevalence and psychosocial and sexual health correlates of perceived stress among young people in South Africa, where elevated life-stressors are an important driver of health inequities. Thi...
Article
Objective To assess the prevalence of food insecurity and the independent association between depression and food insecurity among youth living in two urban settings in South Africa. Methods Baseline cross‐sectional survey data was analysed from a prospective cohort study conducted between 2014 and 2016 among youth (aged 16‐24 years) in Soweto and...
Article
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Social isolation, a risk factor for poor health within the general population, may be exacerbated by unique challenges faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). This analysis examines the association between social isolation and all-cause mortality among a cohort of PLHIV experiencing multiple social vulnerabilities. The analytical sample included 9...
Article
Background Current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in the United States (in 2019, 66–70%), remains below the Healthy People 2020 coverage goal of 80%. HPV vaccine misinformation, including parental concerns of sexual risk-compensation influence vaccine uptake. We examined the association between HPV vaccination and sexually transmitted...
Article
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Objective: To examine the independent association between intimate partner violence (IPV) severity and all-cause mortality among women living with HIV (WLHIV). Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire linked to longitudinal vital statistics data. Methods: We examined the lifetime prevalence of IPV and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates by...
Article
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This article was updated was to correct the spelling of Chenoa Cassidy-Matthews' name: it is correct as displayed here.
Article
Partner notification and treatment are essential components of sexually transmitted infection (STI) management, but little is known about such practices among adolescents and young adults. Using data from a prospective cohort study (AYAZAZI) of youth aged 16–24 years in Durban, South Africa, we assessed the STI care cascade across participant diagn...
Article
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Our study aims to define and identify correlates of social isolation among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The Longitudinal Investigation into Supportive and Ancillary health services (LISA) study provided a cross-sectional analytic sample of 996 PLHIV in British Columbia, Canada (sampled between 2007 and 2010). Individuals marginalized by socio-st...
Article
Background Due to stigma and discrimination, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) potentially carry a heightened burden of loneliness. This analysis investigates loneliness among gbMSM and its relationship with self-rated physical health, along with the mediating effect of depression. Methods Participants were recruited using...
Article
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Using data from the Comparison of Outcomes and Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study we examined factors associated with mood disorder diagnosis (MDD) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative individuals in British Columbia, Canada. MDD cases were identified between 1998 and 2012 using International Classification of Disease 9 and 1...
Article
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Introduction: Measures used to assess equitable relationship dynamics, including the sexual relationship power scale (SRPS) have previously been associated with lower HIV-risk among young women, and reduced perpetration of intimate partner violence among men. However, few studies describe how the SRPS has been adapted and validated for use within...
Article
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Objective Our primary objective was to examine the syndemic effect of HIV/HCV co-infection and mental health disorders (MHD) on the acute care hospitalization rate among people living with HIV (PLW-HIV) in British Columbia, Canada. Secondarily, we aimed to characterize the longitudinal trends in the aforementioned rate, while controlling for the ef...
Article
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with important implications for morbidity and mortality. This population-based cohort study examined the impact of schizophrenia diagnoses on all-cause mortality among a sample of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and a 10% random sample of individuals living without HIV (HIV-) in British Columbia (BC), through...
Article
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br/>Background Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YGBM) may have reduced engagement and knowledge of HIV care and biomedical HIV prevention strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and Treatment as Prevention (TasP), compared with adult GBM. We sought to understand differences in...
Article
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Objectives To assess the impact of physicians’ patient base composition on all-cause mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV) who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Design Observational cohort study from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2013. Setting BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS’ (B...
Article
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Qualitative research suggests that men’s inability to achieve dominant forms of masculinity may be related to HIV-risk behaviours and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Using clustered cross-sectional data, we assessed how young men’s gender role conflict was associated with HIV-risk behaviours in urban informal settlements in KwaZulu-Na...
Article
Purpose: We assessed differences in optimal adherence between youth (aged 15-29 years) and adults (aged ≥30 years) enrolled in the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program from 2010 to 2016. Methods: Population-level clinical data were used to compare optimal antiretroviral therapy adherence (≥95%), based on phar...
Article
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Background: Youth in southern Africa, particularly adolescent girls and young women, are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. Untreated genital tract infections (GTIs) increase both HIV transmission and acquisition risks. South African GTI treatment guidelines employ syndromic management, which relies on individuals to report GTI sig...
Article
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Describe the prevalence and covariates of viral suppression and subsequent rebound among younger (≤29 years old) compared with older adults.A retrospective clinical cohort study; eligibility criteria: documented HIV infection; resident of Canada; 18 years and over; first antiretroviral regimen comprised of at least 3 individual agents on or after J...
Article
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Using data from the Comparison of Outcomes and Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study we examined factors associated with mood disorder diagnosis (MDD) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative individuals in British Columbia, Canada. MDD cases were identified between 1998 and 2012 using International Classification of Disease 9 and 1...
Article
Background In the USA, young Black gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men (YBMSM) bear the largest burden of HIV incidence. The aim of this study is to examine the independent associations between economic dependency on a sexual partner and several HIV risk behaviours and sexual health outcomes among YBMSM living in Jackson, Mississippi,...
Article
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Sexual self-efficacy (SSE), one’s perceived control of or confidence in the ability to perform a given sexual outcome, predicts sexual behavior; however, important questions remain regarding whether gender modifies observed associations. In a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed HIV-prevention literature focusing on youth (ages 10 to 25) in sub-Sa...
Article
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Within HIV-endemic settings, few studies have examined gendered associations between sexual self-efficacy (SSE), one’s confidence or perceived control over sexual behavior, and uptake of HIV prevention behaviors. Using cross-sectional survey data from 417 sexually-experienced adolescents (aged 14–19, median age = 18, 60% female) in Soweto, South Af...
Article
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Sexual self-efficacy (SSE) – one's confidence in their ability to perform given sexual behaviours, has been shown to predict adolescents’ HIV-prevention practices (e.g., Condom use). Few studies within sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV incidence and prevalence disproportionately affects young women, have examined gendered differences in SSE. We used mu...
Article
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Background Youth between the ages of 15 years to 24 years account for almost half of new HIV infections in South Africa. Objectives To describe the study details of the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS) which was an investigation of HIV risk among adolescents living in Soweto, South Africa. Methods Eligibility criteria for the BBAHS...
Article
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Built and social environments, including one's perception of their environment, are important determinants of health. The intersection of gender and HIV status may complicate the role of neighborhood cohesion in safety, personal well-being, and health outcomes for populations impacted by social and structural inequities. Among women in particular,...
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Purpose We examined adolescents’ knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV preven...
Data
Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS)Interview-administered questionnaire. (PDF)
Article
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Background Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Methods Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS), prevalence of “ever” experiencing...
Article
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Background People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health se...
Article
Background To determine factors associated with age-disparate sexual partners among Vancouver gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). Methods Sexually active GBM aged ≥16 years were recruited from February 2012 to February 2014. Participants self-completed a questionnaire on demographics, attitudes and sexual behaviour and substan...
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Background Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)—individuals with common experiences to the participant population (e.g. people who use drugs, people living with HIV [PLHIV]). However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the operatio...
Article
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Adolescents in HIV endemic settings are a priority demographic with respect to HIV prevention. Some studies have shown that behaviours associated with HIV transmission, may be mediated by mental health factors such as depression. We undertook this study to explore the prevalence and associations of depression symptomology among adolescents living i...

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