Kalif E Vaughn

Kalif E Vaughn
Northern Kentucky University | NKU · Department of Psychological Science

PhD

About

18
Publications
7,321
Reads
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343
Citations
Citations since 2016
11 Research Items
305 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
Additional affiliations
May 2014 - present
Williams College
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2009 - May 2014
Kent State University
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (18)
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has shown that retrieval hints can make test trials more enjoyable without sacrificing learning. We investigated the extent to which this effect was moderated by hint strength. Both experiments utilized a within‐participants design. In Experiment 1 (n = 41), participants studied skeletal charts highlighting a bone region. After study, p...
Article
Full-text available
Research on praise, in support of a growth mindset, has overwhelmingly focused on children. We explored how praise influences performance in college students. Colleges are often challenged to respond to students’ established mindsets in the face of increasingly demanding coursework. Specifically, we examined how fear of failure may alter the effect...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Testing oneself (i.e., doing retrieval practice) is an effective way to study. We attempted to make learners choose to test themselves more often. In Experiment 1, participants were asked how they wanted to study and were given four options: retrieval with no hint (e.g., idea: ______), a two-letter hint (e.g., idea: s____r), a four-letter...
Article
Full-text available
Over the course of a criminal investigation, eyewitnesses are sometimes shown multiple lineups in an attempt to identify the culprit, yet little research has examined eyewitness identification performance from multiple lineups. In two experiments, we examined eyewitness identification accuracy among witnesses who made an inaccurate identification f...
Article
Full-text available
SCIENTIFIC Studying something and then restudying it right away (blocking) is less effective than studying it and then restudying it again after a delay (spacing). Learners would do well to recognize the advantage of spacing, but they often rate it as being less effective than blocking. The authors looked at what happens when people are put in cont...
Article
Research on techniques for enhancing long-term retention has focused almost exclusively on single-session learning conditions. However, even the most potent initial learning manipulations typically do not yield retention levels sufficient for successful performance in many real-world contexts. In contrast, successive relearning (i.e., practicing to...
Chapter
Full-text available
Attempting to recall information from memory (ie, retrieval practice) has been shown to enhance learning across a wide variety of materials, learners, and experimental conditions. We examine the moderating effects of what is arguably the most fundamental distinction to be made about retrieval: whether a retrieval attempt results in success or failu...
Article
Full-text available
Attempting to retrieve information from memory is an engaging cognitive activity. We predicted that people would learn more when they had spent more time attempting to retrieve. In experiments 1a and 1b, participants were shown trivia questions for 0, 5, 10, or 30 seconds and then the answer was revealed. They took a final test immediately or after...
Article
Retrieval practice improves memory for many kinds of materials, and numerous factors moderate the benefits of retrieval practice, including the amount of successful retrieval practice (referred to as the learning criterion). In general, the benefits of retrieval practice are greater with more than with less successful retrieval practice; however, l...
Article
Recent research on testing effects (i.e., practice tests are more effective than restudy for enhancing subsequent memory) has focused on explaining when and why testing enhances memory. Of particular interest for present purposes, Zaromb and Roediger (2010) reported evidence that testing effects in part reflect enhanced relational processing, which...
Article
Full-text available
Taking tests on to-be-learned material is one of the most powerful learning strategies available to students. We examined the magnitude and mechanisms of the testing effect in college students with (n = 25) and without (n = 75) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by comparing the effect of practice testing versus a comparable amount of restudy...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the voluminous literatures on testing effects and lag effects, surprisingly few studies have examined whether testing and lag effects interact, and no prior research has directly investigated why this might be the case. To this end, in the present research we evaluated the elaborative retrieval hypothesis (ERH) as a possible explanation for...
Article
A wealth of research has established that retrieval practice promotes subsequent memory, particularly when the retrieval attempt is successful. Furthermore, the number of successful retrievals during practice (i.e., criterion level) dramatically influences final test performance. For example, Vaughn and Rawson (2011) had participants learn Lithuani...
Article
Full-text available
A wealth of previous research has established that retrieval practice promotes memory, particularly when retrieval is successful. Although successful retrieval promotes memory, it remains unclear whether successful retrieval promotes memory equally well for items of varying difficulty. Will easy items still outperform difficult items on a final tes...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, Kornell, Hays, and Bjork (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 35:989-998, 2009) demonstrated that incorrect guessing can benefit subsequent memory to a greater degree than can an equivalent amount of study time. We explored this intriguing finding to determine which factors moderate the advantage of incorre...
Article
Previous research has shown that increasing the criterion level (i.e., the number of times an item must be correctly retrieved during practice) improves subsequent memory, but which specific components of memory does increased criterion level enhance? In two experiments, we examined the extent to which the criterion level affects associative memory...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
Hello,
I am looking for some sort of mock-crime scene video that has a suspect line-up at the end. I am attempting to have my participants watch the video and then try to identify the suspect in the video.
Does anyone have any ideas on where to look for such a video?
Thanks!
Question
Hi all,
I need software that will allow me to present subliminal primes with consistent timing down to the millisecond (or frame by frame). I need the program to be synced up with the monitors refresh rate so that it always presents the prime.
Any help is much appreciated!

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
I am investigating whether or not a high level of retrieval effort produces more learning than a low level of retrieval effort during a test attempt. My hypothesis is that as long as a retrieval attempt occurs, retrieval effort does not predict learning.