Kalev Kuklane

Kalev Kuklane
Nederlands Instituut Publieke Veiligheid (NIPV) · Nederlandse Academie voor Crisisbeheersing en Brandweerzorg

Ph.D., Assoc. Prof.
Modular protection concept for firefighters; Ergonomics of protective clothing; Smart and sustainable PPC/PPE

About

156
Publications
56,023
Reads
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3,169
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - present
Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (IFV)
Position
  • Expert Occupational Health and Safety
Description
  • From March 7, 2022 IFV is called The Netherlands Institute of Public Safety (NIPV). It is the is the public knowledge institute for crisis management and fire services in the Netherlands and focuses on helping the safety regions by reinforcing fire services and dealing with contingency plans and crisis management. NIPV contributes to a safer society by strengthening the safety regions and their partners in terms of professionalizing their tasks. NIPV develops and shares relevant knowledge.
November 2002 - January 2019
Lund University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Organizing practical work, lab exercises and giving lectures of Human and Indoor Environments, Human Performance in Extreme Environments and Work Physiology. Calculation of IREQ, PMV, PHS: http://www.eat.lth.se/termisk-miljoe/english/tools/
September 1995 - February 2000
Luleå University of Technology
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • I was mainly stationed in Solna at National Institute of Working Life.
Education
September 1995 - February 2000
Luleå University of Technology
Field of study
  • PhD in Industrial ergonomics; Ph.D. Thesis: “Footwear for cold environments: Thermal properties, performance and testing”; supervisors: Ingvar Holmér and John Abeysekera
October 1993 - May 1995
Luleå University of Technology
Field of study
  • M.Sc. in Industrial Ergonomics
July 1987 - April 1989
Military service
Field of study
  • Engineering troops: digging machine for trenches and mobile sawmill operator, sergeant, deputy head of the platoon breveting the tasks of company sergeant major

Publications

Publications (156)
Technical Report
ASHRAE standard 55, ISO 7730 and chapter 9 in ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals titled ‘Thermal Comfort’ provide guidance for the assessment of thermal comfort in buildings. As inputs, the method uses climate parameters, the users’ activity level and the clothing insulation of the garments worn by the occupants. The standard provides guidance of the det...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the functional development of the ClimApp tool (available for free on iOS and Android devices), which combines current and 24 h weather forecasting with individual information to offer personalised guidance related to thermal exposure. Heat and cold stress assessments are based on ISO standards and thermal models where environm...
Article
Personal protective clothing (PPC) is critical for worker safety and wellbeing from both protection and thermal management perspectives, particularly as PPC typically covers more than 90% of the body. Research of PPC in low-risk categories such as mining, oil, gas, and construction and their thermal management attributes is limited, although these...
Article
Full-text available
This biomechanics study explored stride length (SL), duration (SDN), and gait ground reaction forces (GRFspeak), required coefficient of friction (RCOFpeak), joint angle (anglepeak, anglemin), angular velocities (angvelx peak), angular accelerations (angaccx peak), muscle electromyography (EMG) during the dominant leg stance phase (SP) following an...
Chapter
Owing to the steep temperature gradient between the warm human body and a cold environment, a potential for high heat losses prevails that may endanger heat balance and represent a threat to human health, function, and performance. Our physiological adaptive power is relatively is relatively low in the cold. Instead, humans rely on technique, organ...
Chapter
In cold climates all user requirements for footwear (insulation, waterproof, vapor permeability, drying, etc.) cannot be met easily due to their conflicting nature. Defining user conditions is important. Cold may be roughly divided into the three ranges (>+5; + 5 to − 10; <−10°C). The choice of proper footwear may be based on this approach. It also...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the equations for calculating the clothing area factor (fcl) used in the standards based on data sets of clothing ensembles, that are meant to provide thermal comfort over a wide range of climatic conditions from hot summer days to extremely cold winter. Over 10 equations for fcl calculations were selected from...
Article
This study aimed to validate the summation methods suggested by ISO 9920. 27 items from an ambulance personnel clothing system were selected for testing. The basic insulation of each garment item (Iclu) was calculated based on the thermal manikin tests. More than 100 realistic clothing combinations were compiled and basic insulation (Icl) of these...
Article
Stair-ascending at maximum ability is required during emergency evacuations to reach a safe refuge from deep underground structures. We hypothesized that an ascent can last maximum 5 min at the individual’s maximum step rate (SR), and oxygen uptake \( ( {\dot{V}}{\text{O}}_{2} ) \) would not reach a stable state. This study explored stair-ascending...
Article
Full-text available
Many workers are exposed to heat stress that can be exacerbated by the type of clothing they wear. The resulted heat strain can lead to short or long-term heat-related disorders. This study aimed to measure clothing properties of sugarcane field workers and evaluate the heat strain by an international standard, predicted heat strain model (PHS). Th...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how ascending movement is affected by carrying load during a stair‐climbing motion. The methods adopted are based on exercise physiology and fire safety engineering. Experiments with 21 volunteers with mean (SD) age of 27 (4) have been carried out on a stair machine with or without carrying a mass of 8 kg, typical weight of...
Article
Heat transfer from the human body, especially through the evaporation of sweat from the skin, is often restricted when protective clothing is used, which may result in overheating. For this reason, it is important to consider the parameters of protective clothing as input data in physiological models, such as predicted heat strain. The two most imp...
Article
Full-text available
More and more people will experience thermal stress in the future as the global temperature is increasing at an alarming rate and the risk for extreme weather events is growing. The increased exposure to extreme weather events poses a challenge for societies around the world. This literature review investigates the feasibility of making advanced hu...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the study was to investigate the thermal performance of five (open and closed) bicycle helmets for convective and evaporative heat transfer using a nine-zone thermal manikin. The shape of the thermal manikin was obtained by averaging the 3D-point coordinates of the head over a sample of 85 head scans of human subjects, obtaine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: The aim was to study if the evaporative water loss can be predicted enough accurately for hydration recommendations by ISO 7933 – Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model during a student laboratory exercise in an extremely hot environment. Method: Twelve young healthy students (8 males and 4 females), unacclimatized to heat, were exposed i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Clothing area factor (fcl) is an indicator of the increase in surface area relative to the nude body for calculation of heat loss from the clothed body to the environment. The aim was to calculate and compare the fcl values from two equations by the photographic method. Method: Thirty-five modern western indoor clothing sets (19 male...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction: Clothing area factor (fcl) is an indicator of the increase in surface area relative to the nude body for calculation of heat loss from the clothed body to the environment. The aim was to calculate and compare the fcl values from two equations by the photographic method. Method: Thirty-five modern western indoor clothing sets (19 male...
Presentation
Full-text available
Introduction: The aim was to study if the evaporative water loss can be predicted enough accurately for hydration recommendations by ISO 7933 – Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model during a student laboratory exercise in an extremely hot environment. Method: Twelve young healthy students (8 males and 4 females), unacclimatized to heat, were exposed i...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change increases the risks of heat stress, especially in urban areas where urban heat islands can develop. This literature review aims to describe how severe heat can occur and be identified in urban indoor environments, and what actions can be taken on the local scale. There is a connection between the outdoor and the indoor climate in bui...
Article
Full-text available
Health surveillance and workplace surveillance are two related but different aspects of occupational health services. The assessment of heat stress using heat indices and thermal models in connection with meteorological data is an important part of surveillance of workplace heat. The assessment of heat exposure provides the basis for occupational h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BACKGROUND AND AIM Non-stop stair ascending at maximum speed is required to reach a safe refuge level from deep underground structures, such as subways and in high-rise buildings in an emergency evacuation situation. Endurance of stair climbing and identifying the time of the onset of leg’s local muscle fatigue (LMF) are interests in evacuation res...
Conference Paper
Thermal performance of five bicycle helmets was evaluated with a thermal manikin head with six zones. Evaluation was made with physical and virtual experimental methods. Ambient temperature maintained at 24 °C and surface temperature of the thermal manikin head was set to 34 °C. Experiments were performed for air velocities of 1.6 m/s and 6 m/s. He...
Article
This laboratory study examined human stair ascending capacity and constraining factors including legs’ local muscle fatigue (LMF) and cardiorespiratory capacity. Twenty-five healthy volunteers, mean age 35.3 years, with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 46.7 mL·min−1·kg−1, and maximal heart rate (HRmax) of 190 bpm, ascended on a stair machine at 60...
Article
The present review covers a wide scope of occupational heat stress related issues. The problematics related to climate change have placed heat exposure on the agenda. As a result, the research on heat effects has increased in recent years and a considerable amount of new material has become available. The literature includes general and specific re...
Article
Full-text available
It is common practice in India to consume the dairy drink buttermilk as a way of mitigating occupational heat strain. This paper explores the thermoregulatory and hydration benefits of drinking buttermilk but also the impacts of work in a hot environment on the gut microbiota, renal and cognitive function. Twelve healthy participants were subjected...
Article
Police crash reports are often the main source for official data in many countries. However, police sampling and data are known to be subject to bias, making the countermeasures adopted according to them possibly inefficient. In the case of bicycle crashes, this bias is most acute and it probably varies across countries, with some of them being mor...
Article
Stair ascending performance is critical during evacuation from buildings and underground in-frastructures. Healthy subjects performed self-paced ascent in three settings: 13 floor building, 31 floor building, 33 m stationary subway escalator. To investigate leg muscle and cardiorespiratory capacities and how they constrain performance, oxygen uptak...
Conference Paper
Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of exposure assessment linked to meteorological data. Reliable assessments of heat stress and heat strain will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions...
Chapter
Owing to giving more stable and repeatable test results than human tests, thermal manikin is widely used in fields like clothing, automobile, building, and aerospace, etc. Thermal manikin is promising and reliable to characterize both static and dynamic heat and moisture exchange in human body-clothing-environment system, particularly in extremely...
Article
Two mathematical models of human thermal regulation include the rational Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) and the thermophysiological model by Fiala. The approaches of the models are different, however, they both aim at providing predictions of the thermophysiological responses to thermal environments of an average person. The aim of this study was to c...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Police crash reports are often the main source for official data in many countries. However, police sampling and data are known to be subject to bias, making the countermeasures adopted according to them possibly inefficient. In the case of bicycle crashes, this bias is most acute and it probably varies across countries, with some of them being mor...
Article
There is reason to believe that factors such as physical exertion and behavioural changes will influence the ascending walking speed and ultimately the possibility of satisfactory evacuation. To study these effects, a 2-year research project was initiated with the focus on effects of physical exertion on walking speeds, physiological performance an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes an ascending evacuation model based on physical work capacity, when exhaustion may play a key role during evacuation. The experiment was carried out on a stair machine (StairMaster, SM5, USA) which involved 13 male and 12 female subjects. Individual climbing speeds at 50 and 70 % of their maximal aerobic capacity (% VO2max) lev...
Article
This paper describes the development of an ascending evacuation model based on physical work capacity of a selected sample. The model is based on the combination of several field experiments, existing databases and pre-tests that were combined to define initial test conditions in the laboratory environment on a step machine. Maximal oxygen consumpt...
Article
The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to la...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional slee...
Conference Paper
Ascending evacuation is becoming more relevant with underground stations reaching increasing depths. Therefore there is need for better understanding of the effects of physical exertion during evacuation. An experiment was conducted in a 61 m long, stationary escalator in Stockholm (Sweden) in order to obtain data on walking speeds, resting and beh...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to identify whether a ventilation cooling shirt was effective in reducing heat strain in a hot climate. Eight female volunteers were exposed to heat (38 °C, 45% relative humidity) for 2 h with simulated office work. In the first hour they were in normal summer clothes (total thermal insulation 0.8 clo); in the second hour a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the final report of the project “Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exertion, walking speed and behaviour”. This project investigated the effects of fatigue on walking speeds, physiological performance and behaviours in case of long ascending evacuation. The report includes a literature review on, at the time when the project...
Article
Full-text available
Sleeping bags are portable products, which are essential for sleeping outdoors. Generally, a sleeping bag is comprised of an outer layer, an inner lining layer and the filler. The EN 13537 (2012) and ASTM F1720 (2014) standards are widely used to determine the thermal insulation of sleeping bags by means of thermal manikin. Previous studies have fo...
Article
Full-text available
Cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) in previous studies was mostly evoked by cold water immersion at 0, 5, and 8 °C of the upper or lower extremities without performing physical work [1]. A limited number of investigations incorporated intermittent exercises during cold air exposure [2]. Literature has documented that the CIVD occurrence depended on t...
Article
Full-text available
Two sets of calibration ensembles for thermal manikins are available at present for EN 342 (and 14058). These 2 sets are not fully enough as: a) statistically, 2 points give an ideal regression line that does not need to be correct for extended range; b) they do cover an insulation range of only EN 14058 and the lower end of EN 342 - the insulation...
Conference Paper
During ascending evacuation in long stairs, there is reason to believe that factors such as fatigue, and change in human behaviour will influence the possibility of satisfactory evacuation and affect the ascending walking speed. Based on these assumption, a 2-year research project was initiated at Lund University. This paper gives a brief descripti...
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown that the cutaneous arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) in hands and feet play a crucial role in the moment to moment regulation of man's body temperature [1]. That role depends, however, on how much of the total body surface that is available to the influence of the AVAs. As the AVAs drain to the superficial veins of the dorsal hand,...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal effects related to wearing headgear are complex and different studies have investigated single parts of this topic. This review aims at summarizing the different findings to give a complete overview on this topic as well as to suggest new perspectives. Headgear increases head insulation and therefore is mainly problematic under warm con...
Article
Military sleeping bags are envisaged for intensive use during military actions. They have extra properties that provide protection for military staff. In cold climatic conditions when sleeping bags are used for rest soldiers’s combat ability and survival depends on the thermal insulation properties of material technical resources (gear) and clothin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Repetitive movements and continuous force production through lower limb muscles are required to ascend many flights of stairs on demand especially in an emergency situation. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of muscle activity to the oxygen uptake (VO2) and the development of leg muscle fatigue from real stai...
Article
Full-text available
Combining the strengths of an advanced mathematical model of human physiology and a thermal manikin is a new paradigm for simulating thermal behaviour of humans. However, the forerunners of such adaptive manikins showed some substantial limitations. This project aimed to determine the opportunities and constraints of the existing thermal manikins w...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wet clothing removal or the addition of a vapor barrier in shivering subjects exposed to a cold environment with only limited insulation available. Volunteer subjects (n = 8) wearing wet clothing were positioned on a spineboard in a climatic chamber (-18.5°C) and subjected to an initial 20 min...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal effects related to wearing headgear are complex and different studies have investigated single parts of this topic. This review aims at summarizing the different findings to give a complete overview on this topic as well as to suggest new perspectives. Headgear increases head insulation and therefore is mainly problematic under warm con...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to study potential age ‐ related changes in the circulatory system via heart rate variability (HRV) by gradually lowering ambient temperature (0.2°C/min) from thermoneutral (32 C°) towards cold (18 C°). ECG was recorded from a young (31 years) and from an older subject (78 years), both males. During the tests, brachium blood pressur...
Article
Full-text available
Four different thermal manikins (male and female shapes) in three different laboratories (UK, Sweden, and China) were used to determine the clothing thermal insulation values of 52 non-Western, mainly indoor clothing ensembles in order to expand the existing clothing database for use with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2013, Thermal Environmental Conditio...
Conference Paper
Field study of evacuation upwards long stairs, ascending evacuation, in two different buildings, 48 meters and 109 meters high. Measuring walking speed along the stair slope and vertical speed. Presenting values for different percentiles of the studied population. The importance of not using the same value for walking speed for different stairs sin...
Conference Paper
Field study of evacuation upwards long stairs, ascending evacuation, in two different buildings, 48 meters and 109 meters high. Measuring walking speed along the stair slope and vertical speed. Presenting values for different percentiles of the studied population. The importance of not using the same value for walking speed for different stairs sin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The previous round-robin (RR) study on clothing evaporative resistance (Ret) has shown that the repeatability and reproducibility of clothing Ret measurements on sweating manikins were rather low. To further examine and enhance the measurement accuracy, a new strict but feasible test protocol was proposed and thoroughly examined in a new round-robi...