Kalervo Gulson

Kalervo Gulson
The University of Sydney · Sydney School of Education and Social Work

Doctor of Philosophy

About

101
Publications
10,557
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,172
Citations
Introduction
My research is located across social, political and cultural geography, education policy studies, and science and technology studies. My current research programme is focused on education governance and policy futures and the life and computing sciences. This research investigates whether new knowledge, methods and technologies from life and computing sciences, with a specific focus on Artificial Intelligence, will substantively alter education policy and governance.

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
The use of automated decision-making systems is increasing in education. While the potential impacts of ADM are becoming widely known amongst experts, the perspectives of those impacted by ADM remain peripheral. To broaden expertise and participation, this paper proposes that ADM needs to be considered as a sociotechnical controversy, as part of a...
Article
Full-text available
Automated decision-making is a process in which an algorithm collects and analyses data, derives information, applies this information, and recommends an action, at times using forms of Artificial Intelligence (Richardson 2021). This paper proposes that we need to locate automated decision-making as part of the history of educational policy and gov...
Article
Full-text available
In this analytical essay, part of Harvard Educational Review’s symposium on Platform Studies in Education, Ben Williamson, Kalervo N. Gulson, Carlo Perrotta, and Kevin Witzenberger argue that global technology companies have begun acting as governance organizations in education. Their analysis focuses on the global technology company Amazon, which...
Article
Full-text available
Educational systems generate huge quantities of digital data. Digital educational data is captured and used at all points -- from classrooms and schools, to the level of educational departments. As growing trends in ‘data-driven instruction’ suggest, all these data have great potential to support student, teacher and leadership practices, help guid...
Chapter
Full-text available
The goal of this chapter is to assess research that can inform understandings of places and spaces of learning.The chapter assesses evidence across three types of learning spaces: built spaces, digital spaces, and natural spaces. It looks at the role of these different kinds of spaces for learning, attainment, interpersonal relationships, skills de...
Article
This article examines the history of a similarity measure—the Mahalanobis Distance Function—and its movement from colonial India into contemporary artificial intelligence technologies, including facial recognition, and its reapplication into postcolonial India. The article identifies how the creation of the Distance Function was connected to the co...
Article
Full-text available
This paper claims it is impossible to tame Artificial Intelligence in education. The paper is not advocating that AI should be used in an unfettered way in education. Rather, the paper suggests that despite ongoing policy attempts to regulate AI, these policy moves are unlikely to succeed due to a synthesis of machines and humans in education gover...
Article
Research on Artificial Intelligence, especially in the field of machine learning, has exploded in the twenty-first century. AI research in universities has long been funded by a combination of government and corporate sources. The funding of AI research in the contemporary university includes technology companies as both funders and generators of r...
Article
Full-text available
In this special issue response paper, we pick up from prior discussions to suggest areas where we think policy sociology can benefit from further conversation and research. In particular, we bring together our respective readings and work on policy mobilities, in conversation with the contributions of this special issue, to think further about what...
Article
Pre-emption describes a system of automated knowledge creation and intervention that steers the present towards a desirable future, by building on knowledge derived from the past. Folding together temporalities makes it impossible to disprove pre-emption. It is increasingly featured within EdTech, introducing new forms of automated governance into...
Article
Full-text available
Since the turn of this century, much of the world has undergone tectonic socio technological change. Computers have left the isolated basements of research institutes and entered people’s homes. Network connectivity has advanced from slow and unreliable modems to high-speed broadband. Devices have evolved: from stationary desktop computers to ever-...
Article
Full-text available
Digital platforms have become central to interaction and participation in contemporary societies. New forms of ‘platformized education’ are rapidly proliferating across education systems, bringing logics of datafication, automation, surveillance, and interoperability into digitally mediated pedagogies. This article presents a conceptual framework a...
Article
Education has long been a space of in which knowledge was created through data practices. But the ongoing datafication and digitalisation has made new forms of datafied knowledge production within educational research possible. This new form of datafied knowledge creation has shifted the sites of expertise and the authority to create educational kn...
Research
Full-text available
The move by the World Bank to embrace data as a means to improve the lives of poor people through improved development outcomes through better public policies, program design and service delivery, in addition to improved market efficiency and job creation through more private sector growth is predicated on a theory of change that enables data reuse...
Article
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to be an important part of education governance. It is already being built into everything from business intelligence platforms to real-time online testing. In this paper, we aim to understand how AI becomes, and forms, a legitimate part of authority in contemporary education governance in what we call the...
Article
This paper analyses how precision has become a ubiquitous prefix in medicine, agriculture and education. The accompanying imagination in each of these domains is that “data” will enable greater predictive accuracy through new sensors and interfaces. In this paper, we aim to provide insights regarding the ways in which precision assemblages function...
Article
Full-text available
New cognitive infrastructures are emerging as digital platforms and artificial intelligence enable new forms of automated thinking that shape human decision-making. This paper (a) offers a new theoretical perspective on automated thinking in education policy and (b) illustrates how automated thinking is emerging in one specific policy context. We r...
Article
Full-text available
The use of data to govern education is increasingly supported by the use of knowledge-based technologies, including algorithms, artificial intelligence (AI), and tracking technologies. New forms of datafication and automation enable governments and other powerful stakeholders to draw from the past to construct images of educational futures in order...
Article
AI is being reconfigured as a set of technologies that can address poverty with precision. The impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will both exacerbate and ameliorate the conditions of uneven development. Recent debates focus on the disruptive effects of AI, particularly to replication of development trajectories that have had success in reduci...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how datafication is creating new topologies of education policy. Specifically, we analyse how the creation of data infrastructures that enable the generation, communication and representation of digital data are changing relations of power, including both centralised and dispersed forms, and space in education. The paper uses co...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we map the expansion of geographic approaches in education policy scholarship in the last two decades. Our main objective is to trace key contributions, illuminating moments and turns from multiple epistemological perspectives within the scholarship of education policy and from the field of (human) geography. In doing so, we discus...
Article
Drawing on the aesthetic theory of Jacques Rancière and the Lacanian conception of lack, this paper offers an intervention into the notion of subjectivity which can be applied in critical studies of education. Critiquing the progressive and knowledge-oriented ideology of neoliberal systems, Rancière depicts a world in which politics turns out to de...
Article
In this paper, we are interested in the notion of multiple ways of thinking, knowing and transforming life, namely an increasing capacity to intervene in ‘life’ as a ‘molecular biopolitics’, and the changing ways in which ‘life’ can be understood computationally. We identify and speculate on the ways different ideas of life, drawing from humanities...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on the aesthetic theory of Jacques Rancière and the Lacanian conception of lack, this paper offers an intervention into the notion of subjectivity which can be applied in critical studies of education. Critiquing the progressive and knowledge-oriented ideology of neoliberal systems, Rancière depicts a world in which politics turns out to de...
Article
Contemporary education policy involves the integration of novel forms of data and the creation of new data platforms, in addition to the infusion of business principles into school governance networks, and intensification of socio-Technical relations. In this paper, we examine how 'computational rationality' may be understood as intensifying of an...
Book
The empirical focus of this book is on the twenty year struggle by parents and members of the Black community in Toronto to introduce an Africentric Alternative School (AAS) with Black-focused curricula. It brings together a seemingly disparate series of events that emerged from equity and multicultural narratives about the establishment of the sch...
Chapter
The first chapter introduces and discusses the theoretical choices of the book. The chapter introduces how education policy can be thought of in ways consistent with the philosophical and historical ideas of an event. Through the idea of an event, the chapter discusses the ideas of race and racism, recognition and representation, cities and neolibe...
Chapter
This chapter examines the event of finding a location for the school, and examine the connections between the ways in which the city was (and is) racialized and undergoing urban change around gentrification and the rebranding of neighbourhoods. The question about ‘where to put the Black school in the White city’ would produce strong feelings across...
Chapter
*Why would we describe the becoming of the Afrocentric Alternative School as an event? What is an event? The preferred term of ‘case study’ would likely be more applicable qua educational research. We might drill further and describe our account as a particularistic case study, or as a ...
Chapter
This chapter examines the shooting deaths of several young Black men from 1988-2007 and how these deaths produced a spectrum of affects for those working to develop the school. This affective spectrum would coalesce with other feelings of empowerment and safety produced by the governing and patterned sequences of neoliberalism and biopolitics. The...
Chapter
The final chapter concludes the book by examining some of the effects of problematizing ideas of race, racism, equity and so forth, and explicitly takes on the challenges that emerge when education policy is constituted by contradiction, incompleteness, and indeterminacy. The chapter revisits the key concepts of the book (events, biopolitics, race,...
Chapter
*The ways that difference is produced and reconfigured through and due to race connects cities and education (Gulson, 2011; Lipman, 2011). Schools and policy are, furthermore, part of urban networks that ‘are complex: they interact and interfere with each other in ways which are not predictable and which produce ...
Chapter
This chapter connects race-based violence, ideas of counting and race-based statistics, with ideas about racial biopolitics. The focus is on two events. The first is a 2008 a report into school safety, the Falconer Report, which urged for the use of ‘race-based statistics’ in the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), which reignited the overall mov...
Chapter
*The debate about race-based statistics in Toronto constituted a politics of educational recognition via the imbrication of calculation with governance. There was an evident tension between the kinds of racism that were not ‘accounted’ for, and how raciologies were practised and perpetuated in education as part of anti-racist attempts....
Chapter
*There is an extensive literature, over the course of 25 years, that identifies neoliberalism as a political-economic theory that utilises the efficiencies of market economics to develop and legitimate government priorities and practices. Neoliberalism also promotes forms of social organisation that emphasise individuals’ freedom of choice, and has...
Chapter
The chapter provides readers with a brief background to the study, including an orientation to the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the research. The chapter outlines how the book is organized, including brief introductions to each of the six chapters that comprise the book. The chapter concludes by informing readers about the purp...
Book
Gulson and Webb show how school choice can represent and manifest the hopes and fears, contestations and settlements of contemporary racial biopolitics and ethnic politics of education in multicultural cities.
Chapter
This chapters poses two interrelated questions: (1) What do we assume policy can do, when it is informed and constituted by biological rationalities of the postgenomic age and new biosocial governance?; and (2) what are the implications of new biological rationalities for the constitution of education policy, and its varied practices of use and ana...
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief introduction to Policy and Inequality in Education: an edited collection authored by members of the editorial panel of the new book series: Education Policy and Social Inequality. The chapter sets the scene for both the book and the series. It draws particular attention to the book’s different international and empiric...
Book
This book is an edited collection introducing the Education Policy and Social Inequality series, and presents chapters from authors on the editorial board. It investigates relations between educational policy and social inequality, not simply in terms of policy solutions for inequalities but also how education policy frames, creates and at times ex...
Article
Full-text available
The argument of this paper is that new methodologies associated with the emerging field of ‘policy mobilities’ can be applied, and are in fact required, to examine and research the networked and relational, or ‘topological’, nature of globalised education policy, which cuts across the new spaces of policymaking and new modes of global educational g...
Chapter
This chapter examines the spatialities of education policy in a globalising world, and focuses on the territorial and relational aspects of educational governance. The chapter proposes that an explicitly geographical focus on scale and mobility can contribute to new conceptualisations and empirical studies of globalised education policy. The chapte...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with e...
Book
Education policy is premised on its instrumentalist approach. This instrumentalism is based on narrow assumptions concerning people (the subject), decision-making (power), problem-solving (science and methodology), and knowledge (epistemology). Policy, Geophilosophy, and Education reconceptualises the object, and hence, the objectives, of education...
Chapter
In this chapter we examine how the ideas of policy effects and policy affects disrupt the notion of separation. Specifically, the chapter examines policy e(a)ffects in relation to their production and enactments that come from the introduction of ethnoculturally focused schools as emergent objects within the city.
Chapter
I can’t help but dream of the kind of criticism that would try not to judge but to bring an oeuvre, a book, a sentence, an idea to life; it would light fires, watch grass grow, listen to the wind, and catch the sea foam in the breeze and scatter it. It would multiply not judgements but signs of existence; it would summon them, drag them from their...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is intended to be an example of what we have been talking about with regard to an education policy geophilosophy analysis. Perhaps, this chapter is even an enactment of such an analysis. This chapter, however, is not one of a ‘model’, ‘precedent’, or ‘exemplar’.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we provide a kind of topography of the disciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to policy analysis as they have been developed, adopted, and practiced in education. We aim to map out the conceptual, methodological, and ethical dimensions of policy analysis in education.
Chapter
Full-text available
While in the 1990s and 2000s, policy scientificity 2.0 challenged notions of ‘policy science’ supporting 1.0, policy scientificity 2.0 replaced one epistemology with another that ushered forth a perpetual war that contributes to what we call policy scientificity 3.0. Further, we have argued that an instrumental and technorational characterization o...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines neo-liberal education policy as part of developing our policy geophilosophy. Specifically, the chapter re-theorizes neo-liberal policy in order to illustrate different conceptions of the subject/object within arguments that advocate for the deregulation and marketization of education.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the ‘posts’ (e.g., post-structuralism and post-human...
Article
This chapter aims to extend the repertoire of understandings about place and policy in place-based education with a focus on ideas of space, mobility, and belonging. The view provided by this extended perspective leads to the question: How does mobility challenge and provide new ways of thinking about place-based education?
Article
Full-text available
This paper responds to Michael Peters’ paper in this issue, specifically the articulation of the economic in the non-economic parts of contemporary life, and the explication of neoliberalism in governnmentality inspired work. We do this by focusing on the field of New Political Economy, and suggest that education policy analysis that focuses on cul...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses the idea of difference in relation to schools of recognition. The analysis is based on a three-year study that mapped the development of the Africentric Alternative School in the Toronto District School Board. Within, we review the concept of difference and juxtapose it with Gilles Deleuze's concept of difference-in-itself as...
Article
This paper responds to Michael Peters' paper in this issue, specifically the articulation of the economic in the non-economic parts of contemporary life, and the explication of neoliberalism in governnmentality inspired work. We do this by focusing on the field of New Political Economy, and suggest that education policy analysis that focuses on cul...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we contend neo-liberal education policy which supports the creation of schooling choices in public education systems is reshaping, conflating and branding ethnicity. We make these points in reference to school choice in Toronto, Canada, and the establishment of an Africentric ethno-centric school. We argue that one of the registers wi...
Article
In this essay, P. Taylor Webb and Kalervo N. Gulson argue that educational policy is a spatial process and that implementation processes in particular produce crucial emergent geographies for policy research. Webb and Gulson describe how emergent geographies are produced when policy folds actors through senses and enactments of policy. The idea tha...
Article
This paper draws on ideas of assemblage to examine the contingency and (in)coherence of education policy. The paper is a conceptual and thematic attempt to understand the policy terrain, broadly conceived, pertaining to opposition to the establishment of private Islamic schools in Australia and public Afrocentric schools in Canada. This opposition...
Article
We argue that the concept of a policy prolepsis is a category of becoming-policy that actualizes educational practices within spaces of desired policy initiatives and implementations. Policy prolepses represent a range of emergent policy ontologies produced through the interface of educational actors’ senses of policy and their estimations of possi...
Article
Education Policy as Proto-fascism: The Aesthetics of Racial Neo-liberalism We argue that neo-liberal educational policy has emerged as a proto-fascist governmentality. This contemporary technology relies on State racisms and racial orderings manifested from earlier liberal and neo-liberal practices of biopower. As a proto-fascist technology, educat...
Article
This paper is based on two case studies in two ‘transnational ’ cities, Sydney and London, with a focus on ‘Islandton ’ in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It will use an analysis of interview data from a range of educational administrators, school principals, and community workers, to explore educational policy developments that target ‘crisis...
Article
Drawing on three case studies of K-12 public schooling in London, Sydney and Vancouver, this book examines the geographies of neoliberal education policy in the inner city. Gulson uses an innovative and critical spatial approach to explore how the processes and practices of neoliberal education policy, specifically those relating to education marke...
Article
Full-text available
This paper applies ideas that emanate from the Global North, concerning neoliberalism and neoliberal governmentality, to the case of marketisation in South Africa. It also attends to the limits of Northern ideas that are both intellectual undertakings and policy manifestations. In the first part of the paper, we identify how rationales for school c...
Article
This paper examines the links between language, social difference and political domination in the practices of parental school choice at the heart of a global city, Vancouver. Vancouver is a highly diverse city, especially in terms of language. Its inner city is replete with multiple languages whose exchange values are not equal. In this context, o...
Article
This paper focuses on the enduring traces of colonialism within the Australian nation-state and the ongoing challenges to Aboriginal peoples’ rights, especially land rights. We try to make sense of contemporary federal government and New South Wales state, or provincial, government policy changes which connect land use, access and ownership to soci...
Article
This paper is concerned with enduring histories and micro‐geographies of the (post)colonial Australian nation, played out through contemporary connections between Aboriginality, inner Sydney and educational policy change. This paper traces the ‘racialization’ of space and place in the Sydney inner city suburb of Redfern, including the Aboriginal‐‘o...
Article
This paper examines the convergence of urban and education policy in inner Sydney, and posits a politics of place as a useful frame to both understand policy and undertake policy analyses. It reiterates calls for place to be taken seriously in education policy studies, but also proposes that it is equally important to strive for preciseness when us...
Article
Fundamentalist and evangelical Christianity is growing in popularity in Australia, concurrent with the ascendancy of the new Christian school. This article examines the historical and policy landscapes that have given rise to this educational phenomenon and draws some links with other education systems, particularly the United States. It is argued...
Article
This paper explores the spatial dimensions of neoliberalism, in relation to educational policy change in the inner‐city of Sydney, Australia. It offers a response to Peck and Tickell's challenge that studies of neoliberalism are often undertaken as discrete macro‐ or micro‐analyses without attention to the links between, and across, these scales. T...
Article
This paper attempts to make sense of a public–private partnership in London’s East End. I am interested in how policy directions, in terms of cultural practices, may operate as links between transnational corporations and education provision, and, additionally, how concepts of space and place provide possibilities for different understandings of ed...
Article
This paper suggests that including urban renewal as a factor in analysis contributes to more nuanced understandings of educational policy change in inner Sydney. The educational policy change investigated is Building the future, with a focus on a newly created school. Urban renewal is positioned as a component of convergent processes and practices...
Article
In the latter parts of the twentieth century social theory took a spatial turn, one that education has yet to undertake, at least in any concerted way. Nonetheless, this paper aims to demonstrate that there could be, and perhaps is, a more decided turn towards unraveling spatial questions underpinning educational processes and practices. In this pa...
Article
This paper explores how neo-liberal education policy change and urban renewal in inner Sydney and London has interacted with “raced” and classed educational identities. I draw on two examples of policy change, the Building the Future policy development in the inner city area of Sydney and the “Excellence in Cities” partnership programme in East Lon...

Network

Cited By