Kaitlyn Gaynor

Kaitlyn Gaynor
University of California, Santa Barbara | UCSB · National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

About

36
Publications
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1,247
Citations

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
Armed conflict throughout the world’s biodiversity hotspots poses a critical threat to conservation efforts. To date, research and policy have focused more on the ultimate outcomes of conflict for wildlife rather than on the ecological, social, and economic processes that create those outcomes. Yet the militarization that accom- panies armed confli...
Article
Highlights ► Predation risk and social factors influence vigilance in wild blue monkeys. ► The primary function of vigilance in blue monkeys is most likely predator detection. ► The identities, but not number, of neighbours influenced vigilance duration. ► In a mildly aggressive species, social monitoring is a minor component of vigilance. ► Social...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential...
Article
The landscape of fear (LOF) concept posits that prey navigate spatial heterogeneity in perceived predation risk, balancing risk mitigation against other activities necessary for survival and reproduction. These proactive behavioral responses to risk can affect individual fitness, population dynamics, species interactions, and coexistence. Yet, anti...
Preprint
Despite growing evidence of widespread impacts of humans on the behavior of animals, our understanding of how humans reshape species interactions remains limited. Here, we present a framework that draws on key concepts from behavioral and community ecology to outline four primary pathways by which humans can alter predator-prey spatiotemporal overl...
Article
Full-text available
With rapid global change, the frequency and severity of extreme disturbance events are increasing worldwide. The ability of animal populations to survive these stochastic events depends on how individual animals respond to their altered environments, yet our understanding of the immediate and short‐term behavioral responses of animals to acute dist...
Article
Spatiotemporal variation in predation risk arises from interactions between landscape heterogeneity, predator densities, and predator hunting mode, generating landscapes of fear for prey species that can have important effects on prey behaviour and ecosystem dynamics. As widespread apex predators, humans present a significant source of risk for hun...
Article
Full-text available
Camera trapping is increasingly being used to monitor wildlife, but this technology typically requires extensive data annotation. Recently, deep learning has substantially advanced automatic wildlife recognition. However, current methods are hampered by a dependence on large static datasets, whereas wildlife data are intrinsically dynamic and invol...
Article
Full-text available
Human-wildlife interactions are embedded within socio-ecological systems (SES), in which animal behavior and human decision-making reciprocally interact. While a growing body of research addresses specific social and ecological elements of human-wildlife interactions, including conflicts, integrating these approaches is essential for identifying pr...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Global change has spurred the escalation of megafires in California over the last 20 years throughout a variety of ecosystems. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of California wildfires and megafires from the last two decades (2000–2020) in relation to ecosystem types and biodiversity metrics. We offer insights into the prevalence of fir...
Preprint
Full-text available
Camera trapping is increasingly used to monitor wildlife, but this technology typically requires extensive data annotation. Recently, deep learning has significantly advanced automatic wildlife recognition. However, current methods are hampered by a dependence on large static data sets when wildlife data is intrinsically dynamic and involves long-t...
Article
Human activity and land use change impact every landscape on Earth, driving declines in many animal species while benefiting others. Species ecological and life history traits may predict success in human-dominated landscapes such that only species with "winning" combinations of traits will persist in disturbed environments. However, this link betw...
Article
Full-text available
Human activity has rapidly transformed the planet, leading to declines of animal populations around the world through a range of direct and indirect pathways. Humans have strong numerical effects on wild animal populations, as highly efficient hunters and through unintentional impacts of human activity and development. Human disturbance also induce...
Article
As local and global disturbances reshape African savannas, an understanding of how animal communities recover and respond to landscape features can inform conservation and restoration. Here, we explored the spatial ecology of a wildlife community in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique, where conservation efforts have fostered the recovery of large...
Article
Full-text available
Originating from the wildlife trade and emerging as a global pandemic, COVID-19 has shown how exploitation of natural resources can negatively affect human health. More broadly, there is growing recognition of the diverse ways that environmental degradation (eg, deforestation and climate change) negatively affects human health through myriad pathwa...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of literature has documented myriad effects of human activities on animal behaviour, yet the ultimate ecological consequences of these behavioural shifts remain largely uninvestigated. While it is understood that, in the absence of humans, variation in animal behaviour can have cascading effects on species interactions, community str...
Article
Research on the ecology of fear has highlighted the importance of perceived risk from predators and humans in shaping animal behavior and physiology, with potential demographic and ecosystem-wide consequences. Despite recent conceptual advances and potential management implications of the ecology of fear, theory and conservation practices have rare...
Article
Carnivore predation on livestock is a complex management and policy challenge, yet is also intrinsically an ecological interaction between predators and prey. Human-wildlife interactions occur in socio-ecological systems, in which human and environmental processes are closely linked. However, underlying human-wildlife conflict and key to unpacking...
Article
Full-text available
Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator‐prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator‐prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator‐prey interactions, the capacity for ob...
Article
Full-text available
Conflict between livestock producers and wild predators is a central driver of large predator declines and simultaneously may imperil the lives and livelihoods of livestock producers. There is a growing recognition that livestock–predator conflict is a socio‐ecological problem, but few case studies exist to guide conflict research and management fr...
Article
Full-text available
For canid species, scent marking plays a critical role in territoriality, social dynamics, and reproduction. However, due in part to human dependence on vision as our primary sensory modality, research on olfactory communication is hampered by a lack of tractable methods. In this study, we leverage a powerful biologging approach, using acceleromete...
Article
The growing wildland‐urban interface is a frontier of human‐wildlife conflict worldwide. Where natural and developed areas meet, there is potential for negative interactions between humans and wild animals, including wildlife‐vehicle collisions. Understanding the environmental and anthropogenic factors leading to these collisions can inform transpo...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of intelligent software to identify and classify objects and individuals in visual fields is a technology of growing importance to operatives in many fields, including wildlife conservation and management. To non-experts, the methods can be abstruse and the results mystifying. Here, in the context of applying cutting edge methods...
Article
Animals experience varying levels of predation risk as they navigate heterogeneous landscapes, and behavioral responses to perceived risk can structure ecosystems. The concept of the landscape of fear has recently become central to describing this spatial variation in risk, perception, and response. We present a framework linking the landscape of f...
Preprint
Full-text available
In our quest to develop more intelligent machines, knowledge of the visual features used by machines to classify objects shall be helpful. The current state of the art in training machines to classify wildlife species from camera-trap data is to employ convolutional neural networks (CNN) encoded within deep learning algorithms. Here we report on re...
Article
Rapid expansion of human activity has driven well-documented shifts in the spatial distribution of wildlife, but the cumulative effect of human disturbance on the temporal dynamics of animals has not been quantified. We examined anthropogenic effects on mammal diel activity patterns, conducting a meta-analysis of 76 studies of 62 species from six c...
Article
As human populations grow and come into more frequent contact with wildlife, it is important to understand how anthropogenic disturbance alters wildlife behaviour. Using fine-scale spatial analyses, we examined how proximity to human settlements affects antipredator responses of ungulates. We studied seven common ungulate species (Kirk's dik-dik, T...
Article
Molecular markers are powerful tools for studying patterns of relatedness and parentage within populations and for making inferences about social evolution. However, the development of molecular markers for simultaneous study of multiple species presents challenges, particularly when species exhibit genome duplication or polyploidy. We developed mi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large mammals in Amboseli National Park depend on neighboring Maasai group ranches for wet season dispersal. However, the expansion of human infrastructure is reducing the size of wildlife dispersal areas and leading to the insularization of the park, threatening local conservation. To determine the spatial distribution of human settlement, we coll...
Data
Dendogram for nutritional FDtotal taking into account the 17 nutrients listed in Table 1. Species are abbreviated as first three letters of genus plus first three letters of species. Full species names are outlined in Table S3. (TIF)
Data
List of main sources used to establish nutritional composition database used in this study. (DOC)
Data
List of edible, characterized plant species that were identified at the study sites. (XLS)