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Coastal observatories are key to improve the understanding of processes within the coastal area and their interactions with regional and global environmental changes. The land-sea transition zone is an essential area that allows research on unique scientific questions under anthropogenic and natural influences. Amid the Wadden Sea UNESCO world natu...
Advective flows of seawater and fresh groundwater through coastal aquifers form a unique ecohydrological interface, the subterranean estuary (STE). Here, freshly produced marine organic matter and oxygen mix with groundwater, which is low in oxygen and contains aged organic carbon (OC) from terrestrial sources. Along the groundwater flow paths, dis...
Terrestrial and marine environments merge at the land-sea transition zone. This zone is important as ~38% of the world’s population live by and depend on the coastal regions, and oceans are considerably affected by it. Furthermore, terrestrial and marine groundwater and seawater mix in the subterranean estuary (STE), where submarine groundwater dis...
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a ubiquitous source of meteoric fresh groundwater and recirculating seawater to the coastal ocean. Due to the hidden distribution of SGD, as well as the hydraulic-and stratigraphy-driven spatial and temporal heterogeneities, one of the biggest challenges to date is the correct assessment of SGD-driven consti...