Kai Hakkarainen

Kai Hakkarainen
University of Helsinki | HY · Institute of Behavioural Sciences

About

199
Publications
82,977
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7,521
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2010 - July 2014
University of Turku
Position
  • Professor of Educational Research

Publications

Publications (199)
Article
Full-text available
The present investigation examined cross-age peer tutoring in the context of organising a technology-enhanced STEAM project aimed at bringing elements of maker culture to a lower secondary school. We examined how 8th graders tutored 7th graders in programming skills. The participants were peer tutors (n = 15) studying in a technology-oriented class...
Chapter
This paper presents our systematic review of empirical learning analytic studies carried out at K-12 education with a specific focus on pedagogically innovative (constructive) approaches on technology-mediated learning, such as knowledge building, knowledge creation, and maker-centered learning and maker culture. After reading abstracts of identifi...
Preprint
The years of adolescence form a crucial period in students’ academic path, as it is during these years that the maladaptive or adaptive academic pathways begin to diverge. Simultaneously, the unsupervised engagement with digital media begins a sharp increase during these years. The dynamics between these have been a recent topic of concern – does e...
Article
Advances in immersive virtual reality (I-VR) technology have allowed for the development of I-VR learning environments (I-VRLEs) with increasing fidelity. When coupled with a sufficiently advanced computer tutor agent, such environments can facilitate asynchronous and self-regulated approaches to learning procedural skills in industrial settings. I...
Article
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Current educational reforms concerning curricula and digitalization challenge educators to meet new demands for learning and schooling. What is common for current educational reforms is that they tend to emphasize competencies that are not related to the traditional subject-matters and reflect a stance which presents learning as a naturally reflect...
Article
The gap between students’ formal, school-based learning and informal, social learning has been widely acknowledged. To overcome this gap, academic service-learning (AS-L) pedagogy involves deliberate efforts to interconnect formal and informal learning by enhancing students’ transitions across multiple authentic settings and fostering their partici...
Chapter
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Societies and industries have changed significantly in recent decades. The emerging innovation society has resulted in the technological, sociological, and cognitive development of society. Our professional lives are highly digital, but K-12 education (both teaching and learning) is still taking its first steps in a digital transformat...
Article
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This exploratory case study examined the kinds of activity that a ‘deskless school” (i.e., flexible physical school spaces) engenders among pupils and teachers. We also considered the meaning and significance that pupils and teachers attach to various features of the school, as well as the associated action possibilities. The data were gathered in...
Article
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The study focuses on examining elementary pupils’ (N = 42, 11–13 years old) reflections on collaborative design processes, team collaboration and their co-inventions. Digital and traditional fabrication technologies were used in a 2-year co-invention project containing approximately 16 sessions during year 1 and 11 sessions in year 2. Between the t...
Article
Background This exploratory study engaged teams of elementary and middle school students in the collaborative design of digital games. Game design is theoretically examined in this study as a form of knowledge-creating learning that is characterized by collaborative efforts to advance a shared object of activity, i.e., the game being designed. Usin...
Article
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Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 28(3), 1-14. The purpose of the article is to introduce a systematic, three-level video analysis method for tracing the emotional aspects of a collaborative design and making process. Maker-centred learning can evoke strong emotions affecting students' motivation because it involves t...
Chapter
The purpose of the present paper is to examine the sociocultural foundations of technology-mediated collaborative learning. Toward that end, we discuss the role of artifacts in knowledge-creating inquiry, relying on the theoretical ideas of Carl Bereiter, Merlin Donald, Pierre Rabardel, Keith Sawyer, and L. S. Vygotsky. We argue that epistemic medi...
Article
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic The developmental ecologies of our youth are being transformed through the socio‐digital revolution. Adolescents participate in their digital media ecologies in Friendship‐ (hanging out with friends) and Interest‐driven ways (messing around and geeking out related to interests). What this pap...
Article
The research study focuses on the phenomenon of informal learning and teaching, as it materializes through the quiltmakers’ engagement in idiosyncratic community practices. The present study considers the construction of craft knowledge from a sociocultural perspective, focusing on social and material mediation, and embodiment as a form of meaning-...
Chapter
This chapter discusses “doing” educational research with two quilting communities located in Aotearoa New Zealand. The ethnographic inquiry explores the phenomenon of informal learning and teaching as they materialise through the quilters’ communal practices. Collective quiltmaking is often marginalised by non-quilters as a “granny” activity bounde...
Article
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Co-teaching is regularly paired with school improvements and educational reforms, yet research does not clearly separate the challenges of co-teaching for teacher professional development, course improvement and for wider reforms. We explored how co-teaching emerged and what barriers teachers experienced as meaningful for their co-teaching after a...
Article
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The present investigation aimed to analyze the collaborative making processes and ways of organizing collaboration processes of five student teams. As a part of regular school work, the seventh-grade students were engaged in the use of traditional and digital fabrication technologies for inventing, designing, and making artifacts. To analyze comple...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the pedagogical infrastructures in three cycles of seventh graders' co-invention projects that involved using traditional and digital fabrication technologies for inventing and creating complex artefacts. The aim of the projects was to create high-end multi-material makerspaces by expanding Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Digital technologies have been increasingly embedded in students’ everyday lives. Interest-driven socio-digital participation (ISDP) involves students’ pursuit of interests mediated by computers, social media, the internet, and mobile devices’ integrated systems. ISDP is likely to intertwine closely with young people’s social networks that has been...
Article
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In this study, we examined maker‐centred learning from an epistemic perspective, highlighting the agentic role of material engagement and artefacts in learning and creativity. The use of physical materials plays a crucial role in maker activities where the socio‐epistemic aspects of knowledge creation entangle with the designing and making of physi...
Article
This article discusses the informal learning processes of a quilting community, located in Aotearoa New Zealand, as participants engage in a collaborative textile project. Few studies have investigated everyday quilters’ collective learning processes, even though communal quiltmaking has been undertaken over the centuries. The concept of zone of pr...
Article
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This article examined digital learning engagement as the out-of-school learning component that reflects informally emerging socio-digital participation. The gap hypothesis proposes that students who prefer learning with digital technologies outside of school are less engaged in traditional school. This hypothesis was approached from the framework o...
Article
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The present researchers studied elementary school students’ use of electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) in their craft education over a three-year period. The data consisted of the textual and the visual content of the students’ (n= 38) ePortfolios. The students’ productions were analyzed and conceptualized through the qualitative analysis of conten...
Article
Co-invention projects in elementary school engage pupils in complex, open-ended design tasks in a practical, hands-on way. Physical materials are an intrinsic part of design, involving transformation of conceptual ideas into material forms, such as prototypes. These tangible objects mediate embodied thinking and act as material-social mediators of...
Article
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This study contributes to the research on the differences in young peoples' approaches to socio-digital participation (SDP). We first investigated the differences in SDP between three samples of Finnish students (i.e., elementary school 6th grade, n = 741; high school 1st year, n = 1317; higher education 1st year, n = 1232) and then looked at how t...
Article
[Psykologia-lehti] Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaisia tavoiteorientaatioryhmiä voidaan löytää kuudennella luokalla ja miten ryhmät eroavat toisistaan henkilökohtaisten koulutustavoitteiden, niiden arviointien (merkitys, vaivannäkö, saavuttaminen ja kuormitus) sekä koulumenestyksen suhteen. Oppilaat (N = 745) jaettiin tavoiteorientaa...
Article
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Background Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age‐related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods Brain activity was...
Article
Full-text available
While sketching has an established role in professional design, its benefits and role in design education are subjects that invite research and opinions. We investigated how undergraduates studying to become design educators and textile teachers used sketching to generate and develop design solutions in a collaborative setting. The students were gi...
Poster
Full-text available
The authors studied students' experiences of using an electronic portfolio over four years to develop its use as a method of documentation. The main research question focused on the pupils' experiences of the functions and the benefits of using an electronic portfolio. AUTHENTIC EVIDENCES The ePortfolio is a personalized tracking of learning (e.g.,...
Article
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The purpose of the present study is to investigate gender and cultural background similarities among adolescents’ patterns of networking within a multicultural Finnish school. The participants consisted of 109 seventh to ninth graders who represented three cultural groups: major-culture (n = 50; 46%), bi-culture (n = 26; 24%) and minor-culture (n =...
Article
This study explored the remaining potential of gestures as creative tools for collaborative designing. We compared novice designers’ use of sketching against gesturing in early ideation and rough visualisation. To preserve the kinesic character of gestures, we developed a detailed video analysis method, which revealed that the majority of sketching...
Article
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We examined how the emerging digital culture has affected magicians’ careers, the development of their expertise and the general practices of their professions. We used social network analysis (n=120) to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (n=16) representing different generations. The participants were theme interviewed and also coll...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the discursive framing of space-time in the context of a collaborative task in a higher education course. We employed the concept of chronotope, which was developed within the dialogical approach for a socio-cultural examination of space and time. We conducted participant observation at a media-design...
Article
Due to ongoing cultural-historical transformations, the space-time of learning is radically changing, and theoretical conceptualizations are needed to investigate how such evolving space-time frames can function as a ground for learning. In this article, we argue that the concept of chronotope – from Greek chronos and topos, meaning time and place/...
Chapter
Full-text available
Advances in scripting theory and advances in support for student-driven knowledge construction call for a reconsideration of long-standing issues of guidance, control, and agency. This symposium undertakes a fresh analysis based on the relations between two widely adopted approaches that may be poles apart but arguably viewed as variations within a...
Article
In the design studio, within educational contexts, sketching, model-making and prototyping of tangible objects are parts of the design process that support students in achieving final design solutions. This paper presents research in which three design experiments involving design studio settings, using a Learning by Collaborative Designing model f...
Article
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Given the importance of entrepreneurial thinking and acting as a meta-skill in the future world of work, we focus on the emerging entrepreneurial mindset in the transition to adulthood. We study the role of personality characteristics and age-appropriate entrepreneurial competencies (leadership, self-esteem, creativity, proactivity motivation) in t...
Article
The present study analyses data collected from a series of developmental seminars in a fingerprint laboratory during which fingerprint examiners jointly discussed and developed their work processes, analytical methods, decision-making criteria and rules of documentation. The analysed organizational development took place in the context of moving fr...
Article
Maailmanlaajuiset ongelmat vaativat uudenlaisia kykyjä omaksua, ymmärtää ja luoda tietoa. Opiskelijoiden valmiuksia kehittyä luoviksi asiantuntijoiksi voidaan vahvistaa tutkivan oppimisen pedagogiikalla, joka nojaa jaettuun asiantuntijuuteen ja yhteisölliseen toimintaan.
Article
Full-text available
Recent research shows an increased concern with well-being at school and potential problems associated with students' use of socio-digital technologies, i.e., the mobile devices, computers, social media, and the Internet. Simultaneously with supporting creative social activities, socio-digital participation may also lead to compulsive and addictive...
Article
This explorative case study longitudinally examines teacher orchestration of an inquiry learning process in a technology-enhanced elementary classroom. A 13-month investigative study on cultural artifacts was conducted on 32 fourth grade students who progressed to the fifth grade during the project. The activities were mediated and documented using...
Article
Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13–24 years) with...
Article
Applying a person-oriented approach, this study set out to examine what profiles of school engagement and school burnout (i.e., exhaustion, cynicism, inadequacy) can be identified among elementary school children at age 12, a generation also often referred to as the generation of digital natives. We compared the group memberships in their use of so...
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigated primary school pupils' experiences using an electronic portfolio in their craft education for a three year period, from the 3rd grade until the end of the 5th grade. This article emphasizes the functions and the benefits of the ePortfolio method and outlines general user experiences based on pupil interviews (N=38), which r...
Article
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This article examines a new training design for continuing professional development that aims to support the learning of the novel knowledge and skills needed in emerging professional fields by interconnecting academic and workplace settings. The training design is based on using two advisors, one from working life and the other from an academic co...
Article
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This article is based on a study of novice designers’ knowledge of materials in a challenging collaborative assignment. We approached material knowledge from two complementary viewpoints: the dimensions of knowledge shared during designing, and how student teams built new knowledge during making. We found that both modalities studied—namely, words...
Article
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Designing and making crafts is a complex, multifaceted process that requires sophisticated, professional thinking and competence, described as reflection in action and as an embodied process in which the hand, eye and mind collaborate. This article discusses these cognitive and embodied aspects central to designing and making crafts in light of cog...
Article
The current generation of young people indulge in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life...
Article
The purpose of the present article is to analyse textile teacher students’ collaborative designing of a functional 3D textile puzzle for visually impaired children. The data collection took place across three sessions of collaborative designing: defining design constraints, visualization and building a mock-up. Twelve first-year university-level st...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to assess adolescents’ participation in various socio-digital activities by using a self-report questionnaire, a social networking questionnaire, and interviews. The participants (n = 253) were grade 6–9 students from a multicultural lower-secondary school in Finland. Three profiles of socio-digital participation were i...
Article
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This article analyses how a group of teachers managed the resources available while performing computer-supported collaborative problem-solving tasks in the context of professional development. The authors video-recorded and analysed collaborative sessions during which the group of teachers used a digital environment to prepare a pedagogical scenar...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to analyse the development of two apprentices’ adaptive expertise in fingerprint examination across a two-year training program. The apprentices were selected from a large number of candidates to be trained at the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The problem addressed was how the newc...
Data
The Contextual Activity Sampling System (CASS) methodology and CASS-Query tools have been developed for the investigation of learning and working practices. The CASS-methods and tools provide contextualized data that allow the analyzing and modeling of within-person changes across time. This paper describes a pilot study with 3G mobiles used by eig...
Chapter
The purpose of this article is to review what engages digital natives, i.e., children and adolescents who have, from the beginning of their lives, been socialized to use sociodigital technologies. Surveying the research literature, we present findings as to what pursuits digital natives find interesting, motivating, and involving in both informal a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N = 120) was used to identify Finland's most highly regarded magicians (N = 16). The selected participants' careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine how a collective knowledge-creation-oriented approach to doctoral education is being adopted in research within the field of education. The authors interviewed nine leaders of national centres of excellence in science research and 12 education professors whose research communities cultivate co...
Article
Full-text available
Sixth-graders’ socio-digital participation, interests and academic well-being. The aim of this study was to examine how sixth-graders engage in socio-digital participation and whether there are differences between gender or students with different interests. Also, the aim was to investigate the relationships between socio-digital participation, ICT...
Article
In order to address the requirements of future education in different fields of academic professional activity, a model called Academic Apprenticeship Education was initiated in Finland in 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the development of expert networks in the context of a 1-year Academic Apprenticeship Education model in the field of...
Article
Full-text available
In order to address the requirements of future education in different fields of academic professional activity, a model called Academic Apprenticeship Education was initiated in Finland in 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the development of expert networks in the context of a one-year Academic Apprenticeship Education model in the field...