Kai S Cortina

Kai S Cortina
University of Michigan | U-M · Department of Psychology

Dr. phil. habil.

About

97
Publications
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3,472
Citations

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
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Instructional videos are widely used to study teachers’ professional vision. A new technological development in video research is mobile eye-tracking (MET). It has the potential to provide fine-grained insights into teachers’ professional vision in action, but has yet been scarcely employed. We addressed this research gap by using MET video feedbac...
Article
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In need of simultaneously tackling various tasks at a fast pace, teaching is a job that requires skillful attention allocation. Selective visual attention forms the basis of teacher's professional vision – the expertise of attending to and interpreting classroom features, but it is also a process mostly hidden from direct observation. Eye tracking...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the relationship between passive social network sites use and subjective well-being (i.e., cognitive and affective evaluations of lives), as well as the mediating role of self-concept clarity underlying this relationship. A convenience sample of Chinese speaking adults volunteered to take part in this study (the valid sam...
Article
Based on a population-representation approach using census data we explored the breadth of research in the Journal of Latinx Psychology ( N = 154) and Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences ( N = 94) with respect to distribution across states and nationality background of the Latinx’ samples. Over 90% of the empirical studies are based on Latinx s...
Preprint
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Video lectures are increasingly prevalent, but they present challenges to learners. Students' minds often wander, yet we know little about how mind-wandering affects attention during video lectures. Two studies examined eye movement patterns of mind-wandering during video lectures. In both studies, mind-wandering reports were collected by either se...
Article
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Mind-wandering (i.e., thoughts irrelevant to the current task) occurs frequently during reading. The current study examined whether mind-wandering was associated with reduced rereading when the reader read the so-called garden-path jokes. In a garden-path joke, the reader's initial interpretation is violated by the final punchline, and the violatio...
Article
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The idea of ego-depletion has been examined extensively in western cultures, but cultural background might substantially influence the understanding and effect of the concept. In the present study we used Job et al. (2010) Implicit Theories on Willpower Questionnaire to examine whether Chinese college students, compared to United States students, a...
Preprint
2019, American Psychological Association. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the final, authoritative version of the article. Please do not copy or cite without authors' permission. The final article will be available, upon publication, via its DOI: 10.1037/xlm0000745 Mind-wandering, or thoughts irrelevant to the cur...
Article
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Social status is a salient feature of the classroom peer ecology in early adolescence, yet research has not examined how it plays out within the domains of math and science. The current study investigated the behavioral profiles of cool and admired youth (n = 739, 51% female) in 5th and 6th grade math and science classes. “Cool” youth were perceive...
Article
Traditional video technology used in teacher education focuses on the teacher and usually records the video from the perspective of a student in the classroom. In this pilot study, we demonstrate that viewing a sequence of classroom teaching from the perspective of the teacher provides a different feedback perspective for teachers in training. 23 s...
Poster
1. Reading under irrelevant speech shows a distinct pattern of impairment compared with other distractions such as Mindless Reading. 2. Irrelevant speech leads to increased fixation duration, fixation count, regressions, off-text fixations, pupil size, and blinks, compared to reading in silence. 3. Irrelevant speech increased both the word frequenc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lectures present learners with dilemmas of where to attend and how to maintain attention over extended periods of time. Learning from video lectures is susceptible to mind-wandering (MW), a mental state where attention is decoupled from the external task. Two studies looked at how MW during video lectures is reflected in changes in eye movements. I...
Article
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Purpose This study examined the effects of 4-week, daily 6-minute coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA) breaks in classroom on attention and concentration in school-aged children. Methods Participants (n=116) in fifth grade from two elementary schools were assigned to three groups: two intervention groups (n= 60) and one control group (n...
Article
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The current research looked at how listening to music affects eye movements when college students read natural passages for comprehension. Two studies found that effects of music depend on both frequency of the word and dynamics of the music. Study 1 showed that lexical and linguistic features of the text remained highly robust predictors of lookin...
Article
Documenting disparities in academic achievement is a key element in educational system monitoring but it is limited to a set of demographic categories to document injustice prevalent in the system. The selection of categories reveals a normative understanding of educational justice that ignores other causes of injustice. Using the example of effect...
Article
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Limited evidence exists on how the larger cultural framework affects psychological processes related to schooling. We investigated how the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and power distance influence the sense of school belongingness using 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment survey data on 15-year-old students from...
Article
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In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, Mage = 14.3, S.D. = 1.7, Range = 1...
Article
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The present research explores the additive and interactive effects of anger/hostility (A/H), acceptance of violence (AoV), and constructive conflict resolution strategies (CRS) on the perpetration of physical and sexual teen dating violence (TDV). Adolescents completed surveys assessing physical and sexual TDV perpetration, A/H, AoV, and positive C...
Article
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Professional vision research lacks behind regarding the investigation of attention processes in teaching action. In this study, eye movements of preservice teachers were assessed by mobile eye-tracking technology (MET). Eye movements of N = 7 preservice teachers while teaching in standardized instructional situations (M-Teach) and while teaching in...
Article
Academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are generally seen as mutually reinforcing and hence positively correlated. However, international comparisons have found negative associations between academic self-concept and achievement when country averages are compared. One possible explanation for this paradox is the ‘modesty bias’, which refers to...
Article
Prior research has found strong and persistent effects of instructor first impressions on student evaluations. Because these studies look at real classroom lessons, this finding fits two different interpretations: (1) first impressions may color student experience of instruction regardless of lesson quality, or (2) first impressions may provide val...
Article
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Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and m...
Article
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Classroom observation research and research on teacher expertise are similar in their reliance on observational data with high-inference procedure to assess the quality of instruction. Expertise research usually uses low-inference measures like eye tracking to identify qualitative difference between expert and novice behaviors and cognition. In thi...
Article
The "Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies" (PIAAC) is another important empirical study to investigate developments in the educational system of Germany beyond the 15-year olds that PISA is focused on. From a biographical viewpoint of competencies, this article combines PIAAC and PISA results to address the question how...
Article
The "Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies" (PIAAC) is another important empirical study to investigate developments in the educational system of Germany beyond the 15-year olds that PISA is focused on. From a biographical viewpoint of competencies, this article combines PIAAC and PISA results to address the question how...
Article
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The strategy of sharing program decision-making with youth in youth programs, a specific form of youth-adult partnership, is widely recommended in practitioner literature; however, empirical study is relatively limited. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of youth program decision-making practices (e.g., asking youth to help decide what a...
Article
Die Bildungsforschung belegte, dass neben der Lernmotivation auch die damit einhergehende Zielorientierung wichtig für den Lernerfolg von Schülern ist. Da sich die individuelle Ausprägung der Zielorientierung zum einen hinsichtlich der Relevanz sozialen Einflusses unterscheidet und zum anderen sozialen Einflussprozessen unterliegt, verspricht die s...
Article
Background: Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. Aims: The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy...
Article
In the past, mainly cross-sectional research has shown that nonheterosexuals report lower levels of psychological well-being and functioning than heterosexuals. Drawing on minority stress theory (Meyer, 2003), life span theory, and identity formation theory (Erikson, 1968), the present study analyzed developmental trajectories in psychological func...
Article
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This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic...
Article
Across many investigations, school belonging has been linked to several positive outcomes among adolescents, including academic success and psychological well-being. Based on an ecological framework of child development, this study expands on existing research to explore factors that contribute to adolescents' sense of neighborhood as well as schoo...
Chapter
Der Begriff private school nach US-amerikanischem Verständnis ist nicht gleichbedeutend mit dem deutschen Begriff ,Privatschule‘, auch wenn dies die direkte Übersetzung nahelegen mag. Einzelne Gestaltungsaspekte von Privatschulen (z.B. die konfessionelle Bindung oder ihre staatliche Unabhängigkeit) werden oft synonym mit dem Begriff der private sch...
Chapter
Teacher education in Germany reflects the tiered structure of the country’s secondary school system. In addition to the common distinction between elementary and secondary education, German teacher education programs differ by secondary school type. Teacher training for the academic-track Gymnasium, which students leave with the general university...
Article
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As part of professional development training for mathematic teachers, we used a speech recognition recorder (Language ENvironment Analysis, LENA) to create an automated teacher feedback system to help teachers monitor and limit the time they talk and to increase students’ active participation in mathematics lessons. Teachers got feedback with a 12h...
Article
Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship patt...
Article
The Reading First (RF) program placed emphasis on professional development as a means of improving early elementary reading instruction. For many states literacy coaching was an important component of the professional development provided for teachers. The purpose of this article is to examine coaching in the early years of Michigan's RF program, w...
Article
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This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model i...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to compare 1st-grade teachers' responses to professional development (PD) programs in reading that differed in means and degree of support for teachers' learning and efforts to improve their reading instruction. We compared 3 models of PD: the 1st model provided only seminars for the teachers, the 2nd model provided se...
Article
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In this study, the authors examined the racial and gender gap in the academic development of African American and White children from kindergarten to 5th grade. Their main goal was to determine the extent to which social and behavioral factors, including learning-related skills, problem behaviors, and interpersonal skills, explain these gaps and sh...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to examine whether there were improvements in the percentage of first-, second-, and third-grade students in Reading First (RF) schools in Michigan who performed at or above grade level on a standardized test of reading comprehension. The study reports results for 140 schools that participated in the RF initiative bet...
Article
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This study examined the effects of change in teacher goal emphases on students' efficacy beliefs in mathematics across the transition to middle school. The sample (N = 929) included primarily White (65%) and Black (27%) students, and approximately one third received free or reduced-fee lunch. Analyses grouped children by cross-classification of tea...
Article
The private school system in the United States developed at the instigation of the Catholic minority, parallel to the strictly nondenominational public school system. Since the middle of the 20th century, there has been an increase in the number of private schools founded by other, especially fundamental Christian, religious communities. Simultaneo...
Article
This study investigated variation in students’ behavioral engagement across mathematics classes in China and the United States. Student behavioral engagement was examined along with two aspects of the classroom (group size and teacher instructions given about classroom behavior). Video observational data were collected and coded over 1051 time inte...
Article
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This study examines the relation between the motivational structure and use of learning strategies of high school foreign language students. Students in 36 foreign language classrooms (French, German, Latin, and Spanish; first- through fifth-years) from a large Midwestern high school participated in the study (N = 694). As predicted, correlation an...
Article
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We investigated the relationship between median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and the bispectral index (BIS) during alternating periods of consciousness and propofol-induced unconsciousness. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was repetitively induced by bolus injections of propofol in 24 patients undergoing elective surgery in spinal anaes...
Article
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Reading First, Part B of Title 1 of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, provides support for states with approved programs to improve the reading achievement of early elementary students in high poverty, chronically low achieving schools. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which the Reading First program in the state of Michiga...
Article
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In the present study, we focus on the role of domain-specific academic self-concepts and intrinsic values, which are assumed to mediate the effects of gender. To this end, we integrate two important theoretical models: Marsh's (1986) internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model) and Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value theory (EV theory...
Article
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The Narcotrend is a computer-based EEG monitor designed to measure the depth of anaesthesia. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that the intraoperative level of anaesthetic depth differs if decision-making is guided by Narcotrend monitoring or not. Forty-eight patients undergoing elective surgery were randomized to receive a Nar...
Article
Educational research has rarely revealed direct effects of classroom environment on psychosocial development. Using the example of productive and projective coping after negative feedback, this study demonstrates substantial effects of the goal structure when students experience a drastic change in the mastery focus when the move from elementary to...
Article
This study examines children’s perceptions of the achievement goals parents and teachers emphasize for them in mathematics, and the relation of these goals to children’s personal achievement goals, self-efficacy beliefs, and coping strategies. Results indicated that children’s perceptions of both parent and teacher mastery and performance goal emph...
Article
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We observed the positive emotion socialization practice of parental emotion coaching (EC) and the negative socialization practice of emotion dismissing (ED) during a family interaction task and examined their effects on children's emotion regulation and behavior problems in middle childhood. Participants were 87 sociodemographically diverse familie...
Article
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Early recovery after anaesthesia is gaining importance in fast track management. The aim of this study was to quantify psychomotor recovery within the first 24 h after propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia using the Short Performance Test (Syndrom Kurztest (SKT)), consisting of nine subtests. The hypothesis was that psychomotor performance remains redu...
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