Kai Bao

Kai Bao
Karolinska Institutet | KI · Department of Dental Medicine

Phd

About

44
Publications
4,603
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594
Citations
Introduction
Working at the Karolinska Institutet in the Department of Dental Medicine (DENTMED) to investigate the multi-species proteomic profiles from biofilm, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, gingival tissue with the aim of understanding periodontitis.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - May 2020
Karolinska Institutet
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • This research involved investigating the multi-species proteomic profiles from biofilm, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, gingival tissue with the aim of understanding periodontitis.
January 2016 - December 2017
University of Zurich
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Collaborated with other scientists from eight different universities for an EU Horizon 2020 project (acronym DIAGORAS) to develop an automated centrifugal microfluidic platform to diagnose oral and respiratory tract infections.
December 2011 - December 2015
University of Zurich
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • The primary focus was the bacteria-bacteria interaction within a multi-species biofilm and development of an in vitro bacteria-host infection model within a perfusion bioreactor.
Education
February 2012 - December 2015
University of Zurich
Field of study
  • Microbiology & Immunology
September 2009 - January 2011
University of Leicester
Field of study
  • Cancer cell and molecular biology
September 2004 - July 2008
Jiangnan University
Field of study
  • Biotechnology

Publications

Publications (44)
Chapter
Biocompatibility and biostability are the key properties of dental implants in the “oral environment,” in order to optimize their performance before or after functional loading. Uneventful host defense to dental implant insertion starts with a more favorable immune response that promotes wound healing around the jawbone and soft mucosal tissue. The...
Article
Full-text available
Filifactor alocis is a Gram-positive asaccharolytic, obligate anaerobic rod that has been isolated from a variety of oral infections including periodontitis, peri-implantitis, and odontogenic abscesses. As a newly emerging pathogen, its type strain has been investigated for pathogenic properties, yet little is known about its virulence variations a...
Article
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Periodontitis and dental caries are two major bacterially induced, non-communicable diseases that cause the deterioration of oral health, with implications in patients' general health. Early, precise diagnosis and personalized monitoring are essential for the efficient prevention and management of these diseases. Here, we present a disk-shaped micr...
Article
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This study investigated the potential of salivary bacterial and protein markers for evaluating the disease status in healthy individuals or patients with gingivitis or caries. Saliva samples from caries- and gingivitis-free individuals (n = 18), patients with gingivitis (n = 17), or patients with deep caries lesions (n = 38) were collected and anal...
Article
Full-text available
Oral health is important not only due to the diseases emerging in the oral cavity but also due to the direct relation to systemic health. Thus, early and accurate characterization of the oral health status is of utmost importance. There are several salivary biomarkers as candidates for gingivitis and periodontitis, which are major oral health threa...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of high‐throughput technologies for the comprehensive measurement of biomolecules, also referred to as “omics” technologies, has helped us gather “big data” and characterize microbial communities. In this article, we focus on metaproteomic and metabolomic approaches that support hypothesis‐driven investigations on various oral biologi...
Article
Full-text available
Filifactor alocis is a Gram-positive asaccharolytic, obligate anaerobic rod of the phylum Firmicutes, and is considered an emerging pathogen in various oral infections, including periodontitis. We here aimed to perform phylogenetic analysis of a genome-sequenced F. alocis type strain (ATCC 35896; CCUG 47790), as well as nine clinical oral strains t...
Article
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Efforts to map gingival tissue proteomes and microbiomes have been hampered by lack of sufficient tissue extraction methods. The pressure cycling technology (PCT) is an emerging platform for reproducible tissue homogenisation and improved sequence retrieval coverage. Therefore, we employed PCT to characterise the proteome and microbiome profiles in...
Article
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Oral health is maintained by a healthy microbiome, which can be monitored by state-of-the art diagnostics. Therefore, this study evaluated the presence and quantity of ten oral disease-associated taxa (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, oral associated...
Article
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Aim This study aimed to characterize the salivary proteome during the induction and resolution of gingival inflammation in the course of human experimental gingivitis (EG), and to cluster the proteomic profiles based on the clinically‐defined ‘slow’ and ‘fast’ response patterns. Materials and methods A total of 50 unstimulated whole saliva were ob...
Article
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Purpose: To decipher the underlying immunological mechanisms in predisposition to oral microbial dysbiosis in SCN patients. Experimental design: Ten SCN patients (5-23 years old) and twelve healthy controls (5-22 years old) were periodontally examined and provided saliva, subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. The SCN pa...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to validate label-free quantitative proteomics (LFQ) against antibody-based methods for quantifying established periodontal disease biomarkers in saliva. Experimental design: In an experimental gingivitis model, healthy volunteers (n = 10) provided whole unstimulated saliva at baseline (d0), during the induction (d7, d1...
Article
Understanding the progression of periodontal tissue destruction is at the forefront of periodontal research. We aimed to capture the dynamics of gingival tissue proteome during the initiation and progression of experimental (ligature‐induced) periodontitis in mice. Pressure cycling technology (PCT), a recently developed platform that uses ultra‐hig...
Article
Full-text available
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a periodontal pathogen colonizing the oral cavity of a large proportion of the human population. It is equipped with several potent virulence factors that can cause cell death and induce or evade inflammation. Because of the large genetic diversity within the species, both harmless and highly virulent genoty...
Chapter
Periodontal disease entails the inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting (periodontal) tissues as a result of polymicrobial colonization of the tooth surface in the form of biofilms. Extensive data collected over the past decades on this chronic disease demonstrate that its progression is infrequent and episodic, and the susceptibility to i...
Article
Full-text available
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative organism, strongly associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis. An important virulence property of A. actinomycetemcomitans is its ability to form tenacious biofilms that can attach to abiotic as well as biotic surfaces. The histone-like (H-NS) family of nucleoid-structuring proteins ac...
Article
Background and aim: Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease associated with dysbiosis. Although complement inhibition has been successfully used to treat periodontitis in animal models, studies globally analysing inflamed tissue proteins to glean insight into possible mechanisms of action are missing. Using quantitative shotgun p...
Article
Full-text available
Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent worldwide, but largely silent, chronic diseases. They affect the tooth-supporting tissues with multiple ramifications on life quality. Their early diagnosis is still challenging, due to lack of appropriate molecular diagnostic methods. Saliva offers a non-invasively collectable reservoir of clinical...
Chapter
A biofilm is a structured community of microbial cells embedded in a self-produced (hydrated) matrix extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and adherent to an inert or living surface, as defined by Costerton [1] and modified in 2012 by IUPAC [2]. Microbial cells growing in a biofilm differ physiologically from planktonic cells of the same organism...
Article
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Anaeroglobus geminatus is a relatively newly discovered putative pathogen, with a potential role in the microbial shift associated with periodontitis, a disease that causes inflammatory destruction of the periodontal tissues, and eventually tooth loss. This study aimed to introduce A. geminatus into a polymicrobial biofilm model of relevance to per...
Article
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Objectives: Anaeroglobus geminatus is a gram-negative species belonging to the family of Veillonellaceae and close associate to genus Megasphaera. The role of the species within dysbiotic microbial communities is not yet clear. However, this putative pathogen has been identified in a number of anaerobic infections, including periodontal diseases. T...
Article
Periodontal diseases entail the inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting (periodontal) tissues and may eventually lead tooth loss. Severe periodontal disease (or periodontitis) affects approximately 10% of the global population. Periodontitis not only severely deteriorates people's quality of life by impairing the dentition but also adverse...
Article
Global healthcare systems are struggling with the enormous burden associated with infectious diseases, as well as the incessant rise of antimicrobial resistance. In order to adequately address these issues, there is an urgent need for rapid and accurate infectious disease diagnostics. The H2020 project DIAGORAS aims at diagnosing oral and respirato...
Article
Full-text available
Global healthcare systems are struggling with the enormous burden associated with infectious diseases, as well as the incessant rise of antimicrobial resistance. In order to adequately address these issues, there is an urgent need for rapid and accurate infectious disease diagnostics. The H2020 project DIAGORAS aims at diagnosing oral and respirato...
Article
Full-text available
Periodontal infections cause inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting tissues. We recently developed a dynamic, in vitro periodontal organotypic tissue model in a perfusion bioreactor system, in co-culture with an 11-species subgingival biofilm, which may recapitulate early events during the establishment of periodontal infections. This stu...
Article
Periodontitis is the chronic inflammatory destruction of the periodontal tissues, as a result of bacterial biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Proteins secreted by the gingival epithelium challenged by subgingival biofilms represent an important initial response for periodontal inflammation. The aim of this in vitro study was to characterize th...
Article
Full-text available
Periodontitis is an infectious disease that causes the inflammatory destruction of the tooth-supporting (periodontal) tissues, caused by polymicrobial biofilm communities growing on the tooth surface. Aggressive periodontitis is strongly associated with the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival biofilms. Nevertheless,...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Periodontal infection involves complex interplay between oral biofilm, gingival tissues and cells of the immune system in a dynamic microenvironment. A humanized in vitro model that reduces the need for experimental animal models, while recapitulating key biological events in a periodontal pocket, would constitute a technical advancement i...
Article
Full-text available
In vitro studies using 3D co-cultures of gingival cells can resemble their in vivo counterparts much better than 2D models that typically only utilize monolayer cultures with short-living primary cells. However, the use of 3D gingival models is still limited through lack of appropriate cell lines. We aimed to establish immortalized cell line models...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Periodontal diseases are polymicrobial diseases that cause the inflammatory destruction of the tooth-supporting (periodontal) tissues. Their initiation is attributed to the formation of subgingival biofilms that stimulate a cascade of chronic inflammatory reactions by the affected tissue. The Gram-negative anaerobes Porphyromonas gingi...
Conference Paper
Objective: The development of subgingival biofilms is the causative factor of periodontal disease. Metabolic and spatial interactions between multiple species are crucial for biofilm formation. Species-specific virulence factors may regulate the interaction between bacteria within biofilms, altering the ecological niche. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a...
Conference Paper
Objectives: The gingival epithelium responds to the challenge of the biofilm by a number of cellular changes. This study investigated the secreted proteome of gingival epithelial cell cultures in response to in vitro subgingival biofilms, and identified the relative effects of the three “red complex” species. Methods: A 10-species subgingival biofi...
Article
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. It is initiated by complex subgingival biofilms, triggering an inflammatory response by the juxtaposed gingival tissue. The range of transcriptional events initiated in gingiva following biofilm challenge is not fully elucidated. By employing gene microa...
Article
Effective treatments to prevent recurrence or progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, or to inhibit metastasis of muscle-invasive forms of the disease, would deliver significant patient benefit. Here the involvement of STAT signalling and the chemopreventive potential of diindolylmethane (DIM) in human bladder cancer were investigated. M...