Kacey C Ernst

Kacey C Ernst
The University of Arizona | UA · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Doctor of Philosophy

About

145
Publications
19,564
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,134
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2001 - December 2006
University of Michigan
Position
  • Graduate Research and Teaching Assistant

Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Shifts in activity patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic might have impacted the benefits of outdoor activities for mental health. By leveraging an existing mobile application, we collected self-reported data on daily outdoor activities, emotional well-being, and the influence of COVID-19 on participant's outdoor activity levels during April-July 2...
Article
Full-text available
Given that older Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes typically pose the greatest risk of pathogen transmission, the capacity to age grade wild Ae. aegypti mosquito populations would be a valuable tool in monitoring the potential risk of arboviral transmission. Here, we compared the effectiveness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age grade field-col...
Article
Full-text available
Addressing global environmental challenges requires access to biodiversity data across wide spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales. Availability of such data has increased exponentially recently with the proliferation of biodiversity databases. However, heterogeneous coverage, protocols, and standards have hampered integration among these databases...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding drivers of disease vectors’ population dynamics is a pressing challenge for human health, however, for short-lived organisms like mosquitoes, landscape-scale models must account for the highly local and rapid scale of their life cycle. Aedes aegypti , a vector of multiple emerging diseases, has been increasing in abundance in desert p...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite the widespread availability of COVID-19 vaccines in the United States, many that have chosen not to be vaccinated have done so because of vaccine hesitancy. This highlights the need for tools that accurately capture the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards COVID-19 vaccines, and provide steps toward improving vaccine accepta...
Article
Background Overnight travel predicts increased likelihood of Plasmodium infection and may introduce parasite strains to new areas, but deviations from routine at-home use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) during travel are not well studied. Methods Cross-sectional data were taken in 2015 from the western Kenyan highlands and lowlands. Hous...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in sleep patterns among individuals with and without laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 test results and self-reported measures recalling sleep habits prior to and during the pandemic were collected from May 2020 to March 2021 among 1,848 individu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To elucidate the symptoms of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases as compared with laboratory-confirmed negative individuals and to the untested general population among all participants who reported symptoms within a large prospective cohort study. Setting and design This work was conducted within the framework of the Arizona CoVHORT, a...
Preprint
Understanding population dynamics of disease vectors is a pressing challenge for human health. A major challenge is that landscape-level models for organisms like mosquitoes must also account for the highly local scale of their reproductive biology. Aedes aegypti, a vector of multiple emerging diseases, has been increasing in abundance and range in...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity contributes to the ecological and climatic stability of the Amazon Basin1,2, but is increasingly threatened by deforestation and fire3,4. Here we quantify these impacts over the past two decades using remote-sensing estimates of fire and deforestation and comprehensive range estimates of 11,514 plant species and 3,079 vertebrate specie...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of flooding events. Although rainfall is highly correlated with mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) in humans, less research focuses on understanding the impact of flooding events on disease incidence. This lack of research presents a significant gap in climate change-driven disease foreca...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The HIV pandemic has caused enormous suffering and loss of life in the last forty years. Currently more than 34 million people have died as a result of HIV infection and over 37 million people are currently living with HIV. There have been tremendous global efforts to address the HIV pandemic and although significant progress has been ma...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical presentation, outcomes, and duration of COVID-19 has ranged dramatically. While some individuals recover quickly, others suffer from persistent symptoms, collectively known as long COVID, or post - acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC). Most PASC research has focused on hospitalized COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe disease. We used...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: Addressing global environmental challenges requires access to biodiversity data across wide spatial, temporal and biological scales. Recent decades have witnessed an exponential increase of biodiversity information aggregated by biodiversity databases (hereafter ‘databases’). However, heterogeneous coverage, protocols, and standards of databas...
Article
Full-text available
Most early Bluetooth-based exposure notification apps use three binary classifications to recommend quarantine following SARS-CoV-2 exposure: a window of infectiousness in the transmitter, ≥15 minutes duration, and Bluetooth attenuation below a threshold. However, Bluetooth attenuation is not a reliable measure of distance, and infection risk is no...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unintended consequences of human behavioral changes induced by governmental and individual responses to COVID-19 risk are yet to be fully realized. Herein, we evaluated changes in outdoor activity patterns during the spring and summer of 2020 vs. 2019 in the Northeast and Midwest United States. We used self-reported data from daily surveys availabl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unintended consequences of human behavioral changes induced by governmental and individual responses to COVID-19 risk are yet to be fully realized. Herein, we evaluated changes in outdoor activity patterns during the spring and summer of 2020 vs. 2019 in the Northeast and Midwest United States. We used self-reported data from daily surveys availabl...
Article
Objectives Levels of knowledge about the sexual transmission of Zika virus are consistently low in populations at risk of a mosquito-borne outbreak, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant. We investigated the effectiveness of sources of public health messaging about sexual transmission to w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Clinical presentation, outcomes, and duration of COVID-19 has ranged dramatically. While some individuals recover quickly, others suffer from persistent symptoms, collectively known as post-acute sequelae of SAR-CoV-2 (PASC). Most PASC research has focused on hospitalized COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe disease. We used data from a divers...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate diagnosis of potential SARS-CoV-2 infections by symptoms is one strategy for continuing global surveillance, particularly in low-resource communities. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study, the Arizona CoVHORT, among Arizona residents to elucidate the symptom profile of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 participants(16.2%)...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a prospective, population-based cohort of individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those without past infection through multiple recruitment sources. The main study goal is to track health status over time, within the diverse populations of Arizona and to identify the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on health and well...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective To measure meaningful, local exposure notification adoption without in-app analytics. Methods We surveyed app usage via case investigation interviews at the University of Arizona, with a focus on the period from September 9 to November 28, 2020, after automating the issuance of secure codes to verify positive diagnoses within the test re...
Article
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a serious disease in northwest Mexico, particularly in low-income communities. This study aimed to evaluate RMSF-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in an endemic urban area with a high burden of the disease. A cross-sectional study design using a non-probabilistic household survey was conducted with 4...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Alternative long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use for purposes other than sleeping protection from mosquitoes is widely debated as a limitation to successful malaria control efforts, yet rarely rigorously studied. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1217 households in an epidemic highland site and an endemic lowland site in weste...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Bluetooth-based exposure notification apps can supplement manual contact tracing to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Their speed, scalability, and privacy preservation are generally acknowledged, but less exploited are smartphones’ accurate measurement of duration, and ability to automatically calculate risk from multiple inputs. Methods...
Preprint
Full-text available
UNSTRUCTURED Despite unprecedented advances in global access to the Internet via smartphones, barriers remain to engaging hard-to-reach populations in many methods of health research. One potential avenue for conducting qualitative research is via participatory web-based media, including the free, popular social platform WhatsApp. However, despite...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite unprecedented advances in worldwide access to the internet via smartphones, barriers to engaging hard-to-reach populations remain in many methods of health research. A potential avenue for conducting qualitative research is via participatory web-based media, including the free, popular social platform WhatsApp. However, despite t...
Article
Vertical transmission, or pathogen transfer from female to offspring, can facilitate the persistence of emerging arboviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), through periods of low horizontal transmission or adverse environmental conditions. We aimed at determining the rate of vertical transmission for ZIKV in its principal vector, Aedes aegypti, and th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experiences disproportionate burden of cervical cancer incidence and mortality due in part to low uptake of cervical screening, a strategy for prevention and down-staging of cervical cancer. This scoping review identifies studies of interventions to increase uptake of cervical screening among women in the regio...
Article
Full-text available
Darwin proposed two seemingly contradictory hypotheses regarding factors influencing the outcome of biological invasions. He initially posited that nonnative species closely related to native species would be more likely to successfully establish, because they might share adaptations to the local environment (preadaptation hypothesis). However, bas...
Article
Full-text available
Universal "coverage" with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is recommended for malaria control in endemic areas, but ownership does not ensure usage. We evaluated relationships between household-level ownership and individual-level usage in western Kenya in 2015. Low-prevalence highland (> 1,500 m) and highly endemic lowland (< 1,200 m) sites...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several viruses including dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever. Vector surveillance and control are the primary methods used for the control and prevention of disease transmission, however, there is an overreliance on measures of population abundance in surveillance programs as a trigger...
Preprint
Background: The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several viruses including dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever. Vector surveillance and control are the primary methods used for the control and prevention of disease transmission, however, these activities rely on measures of population abundance in surveillance programs as a trigger for...
Article
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Infection with the dengue virus alone occurs in an estimated 400 million people each year. Likelihood of infection with a virus transmitted by Ae. aegypti is most commonly attributed to abundance of the mosquito. However, the Arizona-Sonora dese...
Article
Education intervention effectiveness to improve bed net care and repair knowledge or practices is unclear. To assess intervention effectiveness, we systematically reviewed eight peer-reviewed literature databases and 16 malaria organizations (PROSPERO protocol CRD42019123932) using pre-specified combinations of ‘education intervention’, ‘mosquito n...
Article
During the 2016 Zika pandemic in Brazil, women's perceptions of infection risk, ability to adhere to Zika prevention strategies, or access to services following exposure were not emphasized in the public health response. Women in Fortaleza, Brazil, responded to a questionnaire on social factors related to perceived Zika risk and access to health ca...
Article
Aims We conducted a statewide online survey to understand public knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for mosquito-borne diseases and influenza in Arizona. Method The survey included knowledge of diseases, major health concerns, and sources of health information and KAP of NPIs for influenza...
Article
Mobile health (mHealth) technologies are increasingly used across health programming including intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention to optimize screening, educational outreach, and linkages to care via telehealth. We systematically evaluated current web-based and mHealth interventions, which include web- or mobile-based delivery methods for p...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Public health literature is replete with evidence on individual and interpersonal indicators of modern contraceptive use. There is, however, limited knowledge regarding healthcare system indicators of modern contraceptive use. This study assessed how the healthcare system influences use of modern contraceptive among women in Ghana, Ken...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are effective for malaria prevention and are designed to provide nearly 5 years of mosquito protection. However, many ITNs and LLINs become damaged and ineffective for mosquito bite prevention within 1 to 2 years in field conditions. Non-adherence to recommended...
Article
Background: Detection of local dengue transmission requires an aware and engaged medical community, as health care providers are the front line of public health surveillance. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice about dengue, an online survey was distributed among Arizona health care providers during 2014 and 2015. Materials and method...
Article
Full-text available
The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in the United States. Surveillance for adult Ae. aegypti is limited, hindering understanding of the mosquito's seasonal patterns and predictions of areas at elevated risk for autochthonous virus transmission. We developed a simple, intuitive e...
Article
Full-text available
Workshops with academic, national and local government, and community stakeholders were held in Kenya (2017) and Indonesia (2018) to understand the role and perceptions of women in vector control and to identify strategies for accelerating involvement of women in sustained support for vector control interventions at multiple levels/sectors.
Article
Full-text available
Swimming pool water ingestion volumes are necessary for assessing infection risk from swimming. Pool water ingestion volumes can be estimated by questionnaire or measuring a chemical tracer in swimmer urine. Questionnaires are often preferred to the chemical tracer method because surveys are less time consuming, but no research exists validating qu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vertical transmission, or pathogen transfer from mother to offspring, can facilitate persistence of emerging arboviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), in mosquito populations. Understanding vertical transmission and the different environmental and temporal conditions that affect it is important to assess whether new outbreaks could occur without rein...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Women's status and empowerment influence health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women and their children. Despite its benefits, however, research on women's empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is limited in scope and geography. Empowerment is variably defined and data for comparison across regions is often limited. The objec...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work demonstrates that individuals who obtain exemptions from school immunization requirements are geographically clustered, making regional differences in vaccination coverage a significant concern. Even where exemption levels are high, there are still parents that vaccinate. School-level assessments have determined that exemptors are mor...
Data
Parent survey (English and Spanish versions). (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya are affected by the longevity of the adult female mosquito. Environmental conditions influence the survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes, the primary vectors of these viruses. While the association of temperature with Aedes mortality has been relat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Measles is a highly contagious virus. An effective vaccine has been widely administered for over three decades but the measles burden is still high, causing 134,200 deaths globally in 2014. In Libya, a national mass measles vaccination campaign took place in 2005 targeting all residents of Libya age 9 months to 20 years between 5 Februa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate unless diagnosed promptly and treated timely with doxycycline. Physician knowledge about presentation and treatment can improve outcomes of RMSF in endemic regions, such as Sonora in northern Mexico, where RMSF has caused 1348 non-fatal cases and...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing the active participation of professional women in vector control (VC) activities may help promote greater gender equity in the workplace and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. This stakeholder survey examined the current roles and perspective of professionals employed in the VC sector in Kenya, Indonesia, India, and other countr...