K. P. Sudheer

K. P. Sudheer
Indian Institute of Technology Madras | IIT Madras · Department of Civil Engineering

Ph D

About

144
Publications
47,042
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6,981
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
May 2003 - present
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Position
  • Professor
May 2003 - present
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (144)
Preprint
Full-text available
The extensive damages of extreme rainfall events (EREs) and associated natural disasters on the natural and anthropogenic resources and the enormous economic losses underscore the requirement for developing early warning systems to mitigate the impact of such disasters. However, accurate forecasting of EREs at a regional scale and at higher lead ti...
Article
Physics‐based, comprehensive, distributed hydrologic models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, are a prime choice of decision makers and watershed managers for analyzing the impact of different land management practices on watershed hydrology and water quality. However, the decisions framed through the application of such models are highl...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal variability of rainfall in rainfed regions is one of the main factors for their low agricultural productivity. The future climate projections show an increased variability of rainfall, thus further impacting the rainfed agriculture. The change in rainfall pattern is expected to alter the cropping period and making the crop sowing date...
Article
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model simulates a watershed by dividing it into subbasins which are further divided into hydrologic response units (HRUs). User‐defined area thresholds for land use, soil, and slope are often used when defining HRUs during model setup to improve computational efficiency by reducing the number of HRUs. This,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soil pore water pressure analysis is crucial for understanding landslide initiation and prediction. However, field-scale transient pore water pressure measurements are complex. This study investigates the integrated application of simulation models (HYDRUS-2D/3D and GeoStudio–Slope/W) to analyze pore water pressure-induced landslides. The proposed...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing demand for food and clean energy, such as biofuel calls for a sustainable food-energy nexus in the agriculture sector. Mixed cropping pattern of food and biofuel crops is a viable strategy to meet the escalating demands of the biofuel production at the cost of food production. The implementation of the proposed solutions of simulatio...
Article
Full-text available
The time distribution of extreme rainfall events is a significant property that governs the design of urban stormwater management structures. Accuracy in characterizing this behavior can significantly influence the design of hydraulic structures. Current methods used for this purpose either tend to be generic and hence sacrifice on accuracy or need...
Article
The effectiveness of bias correction (BC) of global-scale future climate projections is crucial in climate change studies. The magnitude of error in the BC affect climate change adaptation decisions. The existing BC methods vary in their complexity, and exhibit limitations on data length, degrees of freedom etc. This study proposes a new method, L-...
Article
Domestic water use is one of India's primary water uses that also includes irrigation, industrial, and environmental water uses. However, there is a lack of reliable data that hinders the estimation of domestic water use in India. Previous large-scale assessments often estimated domestic water use using population alone as a predictor. Economic and...
Article
Full-text available
Distributed hydrological models account for spatial heterogeneity by discretizing the watershed into unique units based on the watershed characteristics. However, parameter estimation is one of the major tasks in the application of distributed hydrological models. The existing calibration methods for distributed hydrological models do not consider...
Article
This study assesses the effect of lockdown, due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, on the concentration of different air pollutants and overall air quality of a less industrialized region (Kerala) of India. We analysed data from four ambient air quality stations over three years (January to May, 2018-2020) with pairwise comparisons, tr...
Article
Full-text available
The uncertainties associated with the simulation models are often ignored in operational hydrology. While many methods are available for evaluation of simulation uncertainty, most of them focus on construction of prediction bands, which alone may not be sufficient to make effective decisions. This is a serious concern in watershed management planni...
Article
Sustainable water use and water scarcity are major concerns in developing countries such as India. Rapidly growing population along with increasing economic and technological development in India have resulted in increased water use leading to severe water scarcity. The present study aims to quantify and assess sustainable water use and water scarc...
Article
Artificial neural network has been acknowledged as a promising tool for accurately forecasting the streamflow. However, several constraints limit its application in operational hydrology; the major one being, the non-availability (practically not available) of observed streamflow to be used as input to the model. In addition, progressive reduction...
Article
Distributed hydrologic models represent the spatial heterogeneity within the watersheds, but are computationally intensive. The problem of the computational effort is further exacerbated in the process of the model calibration, where iterative simulations are performed to estimate optimal parameter values. This study evaluates a parameter transfer...
Article
Watershed management practices aim at improving the agricultural productivity in rainfed agricultural areas by conserving rainwater for an extended period. The stored rainwater in the harvesting structures is used for meeting crop water demand. The water use efficiencies of these structures can be further enhanced through adoption of deficit irriga...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater scarcity and unsustainable water use are just some of the growing concerns in many parts of the world. Increasing water demand accompanied by a changing climate can lead to unsustainable use of freshwater resulting in water scarcity. Several studies have quantified sustainable water use and water scarcity at a continental-to-global scale...
Article
Watershed management (WM) aims at enhancing the water availability in rainfed areas through water conservation structures, which facilitate storage of water and recharge to ground water. Identification of suitable locations for placing these structures play a major role in the effectiveness of the water conservation. Site suitability evaluation of...
Article
Full-text available
Kerala state (India) experienced a devastating flood event during the month of August 2018. While an extreme rainfall event (ERE) was the primary reason for this flood, there was criticism at various levels that the authorities failed to manage the flood effectively through reservoir operations. One of the worst affected basins, Periyar River Basin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a single-objective optimization-based perturbation analysis to quantify model prediction uncertainty. A new index named coverage width index (CWI), which combines two commonly used uncertainty indices, the percentage of coverage (POC) and the average width (AW), was proposed to facilitate the optimization. Considering the outper...
Article
Full-text available
Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a river basin scale model widely used to study the impact of land management practices in large, complex watersheds. Even though model output uncertainties are generally recognized to affect watershed management decisions, those uncertainties are largely ignored in model applications. The uncertainties of SW...
Preprint
Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are popular conservation practices installed at the edges of agricultural fields to reduce losses of pollutants from agricultural areas to receiving waterbodies. The recent interest in using VFS areas as multifunctional landscapes necessitates an improved depiction of VFS in simulation models. This study is aimed to e...
Article
Full-text available
The physically based distributed hydrological models are ideal for hydrological simulations; however most of such models do not use the basic equations pertaining to mass, energy and momentum conservation, to represent the physics of the process. This is plausibly due to the lack of complete understanding of the hydrological process. The soil and w...
Article
Watershed management in rainfed agricultural areas of arid and semi-arid regions aims at alleviating agricultural drought by employing water conservation measures. Water conservation measures serve as mechanisms for recharging groundwater, and also for surface storage. While the benefits derived from these structures is widely accepted, there is in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
India which has the second largest population in the world and the largest in freshwater consumption faces severe freshwater scarcity. The primary drivers of water scarcity include increasing water demand and declining freshwater availability. Large-scale assessments using distributed hydrological models have become an important tool to quantify th...
Article
Biofuel has emerged as a substantial source of energy in many countries. In order to avoid the 'food versus fuel competition', arising from grain-based ethanol production, the United States has passed regulations that require second generation or cellulosic biofeedstocks to be used for majority of the biofuel production by 2022. Agricultural residu...
Conference Paper
Gridded precipitation data are being increasingly used as input to watershed hydrological models for better representation of spatial variability of the precipitation. The spatial variability of gridded data is best utilized by distributed and semi-distributed hydrological models, compared to the lumped models. Among the numerous watershed hydrolog...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Freshwater scarcity and unsustainable water use is a growing concern in many developing countries including India. Increasing water demand coupled with rainfall variability associated with climate change exacerbates water scarcity. The increase in water demand is attributed to population and economic growth as well as technological change, and the...
Article
Regional climate models (RCMs) are used to downscale the coarse resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs to a finer resolution for hydrological impact studies. However, RCM outputs often deviate from the observed climatological data, and therefore need bias correction before they are used for hydrological simulations. While there are a nu...
Article
Hydrologic models are developed for the accurate estimation of modeled variable, which closely reproduces the observation. Despite the availability of numerous models, the application of artificial neural network (ANN) based hydrologic models has received significant attention owing to their improved prediction/forecasting potential. However, the q...
Article
Full-text available
Application of artificial neural network (ANN) models has been reported to solve variety of water resources and environmental related problems including prediction, forecasting and classification, over the last two decades. Though numerous research studies have witnessed the improved estimate of ANN models, the practical applications are sometimes...
Article
Marginal lands are recommended as a viable land resource for biofeedstocks production, but their suitability for biofeedstock crops growth are poorly understood. This study assessed the suitability of marginal lands in Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for three promising biofeedstock crops, switchgrass, Miscanthus and hybrid poplar. The land su...
Article
Watershed hydrological models are effective tools for simulating the hydrological processes in the watershed. Although there are a plethora of hydrological models, none of them can be directly applied to make water conservation decisions in irregularly bounded areas that do not confirm to topographically defined ridge lines. This study proposes a n...
Article
Marginal land is considered promising for biomass production. However, understanding on biomass crop growth and total biofuel production from this land type is very limited. This study evaluated potential production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) on marginal lands in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB...
Article
Full-text available
Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (...
Data
PCR gel images of the amplified macrofungal DNA. Exemplary image of gel electrophoresis showing amplification of rDNA ITS of initially collected macrofungi sporocarp during the month of October. Lane 1: negative control; Lane 2: DNA from sample 1 which was found to be Agaricus bohusii after performing the sequencing; Lane 3: DNA from sample 2 which...
Data
Brightfield and fluorescence microscopic images of fungal spores obtained using fluorescence microscope (Nikon Eclipse LV100). Particles were excited with an illumination source having an excitation wavelength of λex = Blue (460–490 nm) and Red (360–390 nm) and emission wavelength λem for the captured images was between 510–560 nm. The spores belon...
Data
Scanning electron microscopic images of exemplary damaged fungal spores. a -Daldinia eschscholzii, b—Coprinellus aureogranulatus and c -Psathyrella gracilis. (TIF)
Data
Exemplary Agarose Gel Electrophoresis DNA bands obtained using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). (a) RFLP gel image for amplified ITS region of Agaricus bohusii, Agaricus hondensis, Chlorophyllum globosum and Clitopilus giovanellae using the restriction enzyme Hinf I and (b) same as (a) but digestion was performed using the enzymes M...
Data
Supplementary information. Contains tables (A to F), terminal velocity calculation, fungal spore fall speed calculation and an overview of the macrofungi species observed. (DOCX)
Article
The establishment periods of switchgrass and can be a time window when evapotranspiration, surface runoff generation, and sediment and nutrients losses are quite different from when the grasses become fully established, and this period may result in environmental concerns for large-scale biomass production. The current SWAT model does not simulate...
Article
A simulation-optimization (S-O) framework is developed for the hybrid stochastic modeling of multi-site multi-season streamflows. The multi-objective optimization model formulated is the driver and the multi-site, multi-season hybrid matched block bootstrap model (MHMABB) is the simulation engine within this framework. The multi-site multi-season s...
Article
Full-text available
India's agricultural output, economy, and societal well-being are strappingly dependent on the stability of summer monsoon rainfall, its variability and extremes. Spatial aggregate of intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events over Central India are significantly increasing, while at local scale they are spatially non-uniform with increasin...
Data
Trend in the spatial variability of the mean and extremes computed with a data resolution of 1°. The spatial variability of the mean does not exhibit a trend pre-1950 (a) and a significant decrease post-1950 (b). The spatial variability of extremes does not exhibit a trend pre-1950 (c) and a significant increase post-1950 (d). (TIF)
Data
Trend in the spatial variability of the ISMR for the period 1901–2013 computed with 0.25° resolution rainfall data over the Indian region with a 30-year overlapping moving window. (a) The spatial variability of the mean monsoonal rainfall (blue), with the black solid line indicating the fitted trend line, and (b) the spatial variability for rainfal...
Data
The stratiform and convective precipitation over all of India as derived from TRMM-PR with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and MERRA database with a spatial resolution of 0.5°× 0.667° for the years 1998–2013 and 1981–2005, respectively. (a) Ratio of convective to total precipitation obtained from TRMM for all of India. (b) Trend in the spatial variabi...
Data
Same as Figure S3 but for the central Indian region (74.5°E to 86.5°E and 16.5°N to 26.5°N) as adopted by Goswami et al. (2006). (TIF)
Data
Supplementary Information. Contains complete description of methods and also the Tables. (DOCX)
Data
Validation of VIC outputs. (a) Correlation between the simulated and observed soil moisture from 1979–2004. (b) Normalized Root Mean Square Error (nRMSE) for the same period. (TIF)
Data
Evapotranspiration (ET) trend and its association with surface temperature over India during monsoon season. Trends in temperature (a), ET (b) and soil moisture (c) over India during 1951–2004, respectively. (d) shows a scatter plot of ET and temperature over India. The values inset the figures represent magnitude of the correlation (R) and slope f...
Data
Trends in the spatial variability for convective and stratiform precipitation over the Indian region during the Monsoon with ERA-20C and JRA-55 data. (a) The trend in the spatial variability of convective precipitation (blue) during 1951–2004 for ERA-20c reanalysis data, where the black line indicates the fitted trend (linear) line. The modified Ma...
Data
Correlation between the mean of the given region and individual grids belonging to the same region and their respective trends. (a) Spatial correlation for the monsoonal mean and (b) spatial correlation for the seasonal maxima. (c) The trend in the spatial correlation of individual grid points over the given region estimated with a 30-year overlapp...
Data
Correlation between MERRA and IMD precipitation dataset. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Regionalization of model parameters by developing appropriate functional relationship between the parameters and basin characteristics is one of the potential approaches to employ hydrological models in ungauged basins. While this is a widely accepted procedure, the uniqueness of the watersheds and the equifinality of parameters bring lot of uncert...
Article
Streamflow forecasting, especially the long lead-time forecasting, is still a very challenging task in hydrologic modeling. This could be due to the fact that the forecast accuracy measured in terms of both the amplitude and phase or temporal errors and the forecast precision/reliability quantified in terms of the uncertainty significantly deterior...
Chapter
The research towards improving the prediction and forecasting of artificial neural network (ANN) based models has gained significant interest while solving various engineering problems. Consequently, different approaches for the development of ANN models have been proposed. However, the point estimation of ANN forecasts seldom explains the actual m...
Article
Full-text available
The application of artificial neural network (ANN) has gained significant interest while modeling various hydrologic processes. The main reason is the ANN models have produced promising results without the detailed information of watershed characteristics as required in physics based models. Still, the uncertainty in ANN models is a major issue tha...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable forecast of groundwater level is necessary for its sustainable use and for planning land and water management strategies. This paper deals with an application of artificial neural network (ANN) approach to the weekly forecasting of groundwater levels in multiple wells located over a river basin. Gradient descent with momentum and adaptive...
Article
Full-text available
Daily rainfall of 23 high resolution (1° x 1°) grid cells covering the Narmada basin has been analyzed to investigate the trend in extreme rainfall events. The trend analysis of the 1-day maximum rainfall series showed a significant positive trend at 95% significance level with the Mann-Kendall test statistic value of z = 3.66 over the entire basin...
Conference Paper
Landnutzungswandel im Kontext von ökonomischem Wachstum und Bevölkerungswachstum führt oftmals zur Verringerung des Wasserdargebots bei gleichzeitig wachsendem Wasserbedarf. Eine entsprechende Entwicklung ist in weiten Teilen Indiens zu beobachten, wo die Urbanisierung anders genutzte und naturnahe Flächen verdrängt und verringert. Zur Untersuchung...
Article
The quantification of uncertainty in the simulations from complex physically based distributed hydrologic models is important for developing reliable applications. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation method (GLUE) is one of the most commonly used methods in the field of hydrology. The GLUE helps reduce the parametric uncertainty by de...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the potential of nonlinear local function approximation in a Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model for river flow forecasting. Generally in a TS framework, the local approximation is performed by a linear model, while in this approach, linear function approximation is substituted using a nonlinear function approximation. The primar...
Article
Stream flow predictions in ungauged basins are one of the most challenging tasks in surface water hydrology because of nonavailability of data and system heterogeneity. This study proposes a method to quantify stream flow predictive uncertainty of distributed hydrologic models for ungauged basins. The method is based on the concepts of deriving pro...