K-lynn Smith

K-lynn Smith
Macquarie University · Australian Institute of Health Innovation

PhD

About

44
Publications
7,887
Reads
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573
Citations
Introduction
Current research includes work on the connections between climate change, human health and health system sustainability, the development of learning health systems, and Australians' use and perceptions of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - September 2009
Macquarie University
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • One of my interests is in communication that can be perceived using more than one sensory modality, also known as multimodal signals. Many animals, including primates, spiders, frogs and birds communicate using multimodal signals.
January 1998 - May 2000
George Mason University
Position
  • Master's Student

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Climate change, human health, and healthcare systems are inextricably linked. As the climate warms due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, extreme weather events, such as floods, fires, and heatwaves, will drive up demand for healthcare. Delivering healthcare also contributes to climate change, accounting for ∼5% of the global carbon emissions. To r...
Article
Full-text available
The Australian Health Consumer Sentiment Survey is a population-based study of health consumer sentiment and provides an important barometer of satisfaction and opinions about the Australian health system. The survey was co-designed by academics and researchers from Macquarie University together with health consumer advocates and consumer-researche...
Presentation
Creating learning health systems to improve both environmental and health system sustainability. Talk available on YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WTlPKgcudv4
Article
THE climate crisis is also inextricably a health crisis. To prepare health care systems for the future, climate change must be seen as a priority issue. The voices and knowledge of health professionals and health consumers need to be incorporated into every country’s response. A broader view is crucial to understand not only the social determinant...
Article
Background: The development and adoption of a learning health system (LHS) has been proposed as a means to address key challenges facing current and future health care systems. The first review of the LHS literature was conducted 5 years ago, identifying only a small number of published papers that had empirically examined the implementation or te...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The emergent field of learning health systems (LHSs) has been rapidly evolving as the concept continues to be embraced by researchers, managers, and clinicians. This paper reports on a scoping review and bibliometric analysis of the LHS literature to identify key topic areas and examine the influence and spread of recent research. Met...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To identify current, policy-relevant evidence about barriers and enablers associated with referral, uptake and completion of lifestyle modification programmes (LMPs) for secondary prevention of chronic disease in adults. Design A rapid review, co-designed with policymakers, of peer-reviewed and grey literature using a modified Preferred...
Conference Paper
Background: Learning health systems (LHSs) and personalized medicine have fundamental synergy. Both advocate for the same underlying processes: to drive health system and practice improvement. These processes include the use of real-time data for clinical and patient decision making, cycles of iterative learning by communities of practice, and cont...
Article
Full-text available
Social prescribing (SP) is "a mechanism for linking patients with non-medical sources of support within the community." As Australia develops its 10 Year Primary Health Care Plan and considers whether or not to adopt the practice of SP, it is important to understand the evidence for the implementation and outcomes of SP for patients, for health pro...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of a learning health system (LHS) has been gaining traction for over a decade as we increasingly realise that current health systems are not fit-for-purpose. The Institute of Medicine (IoM; now the National Academy of Medicine) described an LHS as a health system where “science, informatics, incentives, and culture are aligned for conti...
Article
Full-text available
Laying hens housed in free-range systems have access to an outdoor range, and individual hens within a flock differ in their ranging behaviour. Whether there is a link between ranging and laying hen welfare remains unclear. We analysed the relationships between ranging by individual hens on a commercial free-range layer farm and behavioural, physio...
Article
Full-text available
In this exploratory study, we tracked free-range laying hens on two commercial flocks with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology with the aim to examine individual hen variation in range use. Three distinct outdoor zones were identified at increasing distances from the shed; the veranda [0–2.4 m], close range [2.4–11.4 m], and far range...
Article
The outdoor range in free-range egg production systems contains features that aim to promote the performance of natural behaviours. It is unclear what features of the range laying hens prefer and how these influence hen behaviour. We hypothesised that hens would demonstrate a preference for features of the environment in which their ancestor evolve...
Article
Abstract All non-human great apes are endangered, and for these animals, captive individuals play an important role in the species’ conservation management plan. Therefore, information about their current enrichment activities is essential for maintaining a healthy captive population. This paper reviews research where digital media is used as cogni...
Article
Full-text available
Many animals produce multiple displays during agonistic interactions, but the roles of these displays often remain ambiguous. The hierarchical signaling hypothesis has been proposed to explain their occurrence and posits that different displays convey different levels of aggressive intent, allowing signalers to communicate graded series of threats....
Article
Humans began the transformation of wild jungle fowl into modern day chickens over 8,000 years ago. Over the past 70 years, chickens have become an increasingly important economic and dietary stable throughout the world.There are now over 20 billion chickens on farms worldwide. However, research has revealed that chickens are not as simple as humans...
Poster
As technologies develop, increasing opportunities for humans and non-human species to interact will allow a greater understanding of each other. As wild populations decrease, quantitative knowledge determining the effects of digital enrichment will assist in supporting its relevance as an effective management tool in improving both animal welfare a...
Article
Extensive research has examined the effects of social isolation in neonatal and adult animal populations, but few studies have examined the effect of social isolation in early adulthood. Animals reaching reproductive age often experience extensive social changes as they leave their natal site, and a social stressor like isolation may uniquely affec...
Article
Many species produce specific signals in response to environmental events. The specificity of these signals allows receivers to react appropriately to the event in the absence of other contextual cues. These functionally referential signals can be auditory, visual or multimodal and occur in anti-predator, food and social cohesion contexts. In birds...
Article
Correctly directing social behavior towards a specific individual requires an ability to discriminate between conspecifics. The mechanisms of individual recognition include phenotype matching and familiarity-based recognition. Communication-based recognition is a subset of familiarity-based recognition wherein the classification is based on behavio...
Article
Full-text available
Game theory models provide a useful framework for investigating strategies of conflict resolution in animal contests. Model predictions are based on estimates of resource-holding potential (RHP) and vary in their assumptions about how opponents gather information about RHP. Models can be divided into self-assessment strategies (energetic war-of-att...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This symposium will explore the use of digital media as a tool to not only engage and interact with animals, but to also study their cognitive behaviour. Noted for their high intelligence, great apes, dolphins, elephants and parrots have been observed using touch screen activities to engage in various activities, and the list of animals continue to...
Article
Full-text available
Animals attempt to maximize their reproductive fitness by employing discrimination tactics that increase their fertilization success. Semelparous species are faced with high energy and time constraints. These constraints are predicted to affect the extent of discrimination tactics that may be employed. The semelparous giant Australian cuttlefish, S...
Article
Full-text available
Aposematism involves predators learning conspicuous signals of defended prey. However, prey species utilize a wide range of chemical (or physical) defenses, which are not likely to be equally aversive to all predators. Aposematism may therefore only be effective against a physiologically sensitive subset of potential predators, and this can only be...
Article
In the animal kingdom, some creatures are smarter than others. Birds, in particular, exhibit many remarkable skills once thought to be restricted to humans: Magpies recognize their reflection in a mirror. New Caledonian crows construct tools and learn these skills from their elders. African grey parrots can count, categorize objects by color and sh...
Article
Chickens are smart, and they understand their world, which raises troubling questions about how they are treated on factory farms
Article
Many animal signals are inherently multimodal, engaging more than one of the receiver’s sensory systems simultaneously, and it is the interaction between the two modalities that determines the signal’s function (s) and efficacy. It is hence necessary to quantify the effect of each modality relative to the other in order to fully understand animal c...
Article
Face recognition in humans is a complex cognitive skill that requires sensitivity to unique configurations of eyes, mouth, and other facial features. The Thatcher illusion has been used to demonstrate the importance of orientation when processing configural information within faces. Transforming an upright face so that the eyes and mouth are invert...
Article
Full-text available
Studies with captive fowl have revealed that they possess greater cog-nitive capacities than previously thought. We now know that fowl have sophisticated cognitive and communicative skills, which had hitherto been associated only with certain primates. Several theories have been advanced to explain the evolution of such complex behavior. Central to...
Article
Highlights ► We examined whether food-associated calls documented in birds and mammals communicate characteristic features of food. ► We explored the literature to determine whether a single unifying explanation exists for these calls. ► Variability and specificity of food-associated calls appear to be linked to social/environmental factors. ► A fe...
Article
The presence of eavesdroppers within a communication network can increase the costs associated with signalling. Hence, selection should favour the ability to vary signal structure with social context. One possible mechanism is the flexible combination of the components that form a multimodal signal. This phenomenon clearly occurs in social mammals,...
Article
Many animal signals have been produced by selection operating upon behavioural precursors that lack signal function, a process known as 'ritualization'. When the precursor remains in the repertoire, comparisons of its structure with that of the derived signal permit inference of the forces responsible. Selection for signal efficacy and recognition...
Article
Alarm calling is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. Although a signaller may increase the likelihood of survival for group members, which typically include kin and mates, there are inherent risks associated with any behaviour that increases conspicuousness to predators. Callers can increase their indirect benefits by calling only in the pre...
Article
Males of many species perform elaborate displays in which multiple ornaments feature prominently. However, female preferences often depend upon both display movements and a subset of the ornaments. This response selectivity means that female choice cannot explain the function of nonpreferred ornaments. These structures may instead have an ancillary...
Article
Full-text available
With the notable exception of bee dances, there are no established examples of multimodal referential signals. The food calls of male fowl, Gallus gallus, are functionally referential and the acoustic component of a multimodal display. However, the specificity of the receiver's response to the visual component (tidbitting) has never been tested. He...
Article
Full-text available
Many social birds produce food-associated calls. In galliforms, these vocalizations are typically accompanied by a distinctive visual display, creating a multimodal signal known as tidbitting. This system is ideal for experimental analysis of the way in which signal components interact to determine overall efficacy. We used high-definition video pl...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different rep...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Research on the development and uptake of learning health systems in theory and in practice.
Archived project
Free-range egg production has rapidly increased in Australia and contributes to 41% of the egg retail market value. Free-range production systems are often perceived as higher welfare than cage or barn systems, offering hens the opportunity to access an outdoor area and to perform ‘natural’ behaviours. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support whether this leads to higher welfare for the hens. Additionally there is variation in the actual use of the outdoor range on commercial farms, most notably the numbers of hens actually accessing the range on a regular basis. Therefore the welfare implications of free-range systems may vary in relation to actual range use. This research will characterise how laying hens utilise the outdoor range and relate this to the welfare status of individual birds. Behavioural observations, spatial tracking of hens in the outdoor range, and comprehensive welfare assessments will be performed to help define this relationship.