K. J. Killgore

K. J. Killgore
Engineer Research and Development Center - U.S. Army | ERDC US Army · Environmental Laboratory

Ph.D.

About

121
Publications
32,347
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1,931
Citations
Citations since 2017
18 Research Items
509 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
The Bonnet Carre' Spillway diverts water from the Mississippi River through a floodway into brackish Lake Pontchartrain to reduce river stages at New Orleans and prevent flood damage. Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, a federally listed species under the Endangered Species Act, and Shovelnose Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, listed under t...
Article
Full-text available
A major spawning event of Silver Carp was documented in a tributary of the Lower Mississippi River. Peak spawning occurred during a rapid rise in river stage, a rapid rise in water temperature up to 18°C–19°C, and most commonly in a sinuous river reach with complex hydraulic patterns. Spawning behavior is described.
Preprint
Full-text available
The Bonnet Carre’ Spillway diverts water from the Mississippi River through a floodway into Lake Pontchartrain to reduce river stages at New Orleans and prevent flood damages. Pallid Sturgeon, a federally listed species under the Endangered Species Act, and Shovelnose Sturgeon, listed under the Similarity of Appearance rule, are entrained through t...
Article
The alluvial valley of the Mississippi River is an extensive area harboring hundreds of lakes created by fluvial dynamics. These floodplain lakes are scattered throughout the valley and carved over thousands of years by shifting river courses and other hydro-fluvial processes associated with contemporary and prehistoric rivers. These lakes have sig...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report assesses potential impacts to aquatic resources resulting from proposed navigation channel expansion activities within Mobile Bay, Ala-bama. This work was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Mobile District, to support development of a supplemental Envi-ronmental Impact Statement. Changes in water quality and hydrodyn...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial organization of fishes in a river system was investigated to evaluate the longitudinal distribution of uncommon species. It was anticipated that overall richness of the fish community would increase in a downstream direction together with habitat extent, but that more uncommon species would occur upstream owing to greater heterogeneity...
Article
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Benthic fish assemblages were compared in 2016-2017 among three different bank types in the Lower Mississippi River (LMR) using hoopnets: Articulated Concrete Mattress (ACM) along main channel banks, natural banks along main channel, and natural banks in a secondary channel. Species richness was highest in secondary channels (21 species), followed...
Article
• The interspecific relationships between abundance and site occupancy have been widely studied in plants and animals, but principally in terrestrial systems. With few exceptions, a positive abundance–occupancy relationship has been reported. Few publications have included freshwater fish, possibly suggesting a general lack of abundance–occupancy p...
Article
Mortality of fish early life stages was measured in a pressure vessel to simulate vertical displacement within the water column. Mortality was measured for three pressure regimes for four fish species: larval bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, larval blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and juvenile largemouth...
Article
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We identified in-stream and off-stream characteristics that influenced various species diversity metrics in reaches of the Duck River Basin, Tennessee, USA. This relatively small basin is home to one of the most diverse freshwater fish faunas in North America. In all, over 325,000 native fish representing 136 native fish species were electrofished...
Article
Many abiotic and biotic environmental characteristics in river basins show spatial gradients from river source to main stem. We examined the spatial organization of fish within the Duck River Basin to document patterns in diversity that could help guide conservation strategies relevant to controlling the detrimental effects of basin development. In...
Technical Report
Full-text available
An evaluation of a proposed technology to prevent invasive species migration using a treatment chamber using chlorination.
Article
The Mississippi Alluvial Valley includes hundreds of floodplain lakes that support unique fish assemblages and high biodiversity. Irrigation practices in the valley have lowered the water table, increasing the cost of pumping water, and necessitating the use of floodplain lakes as a source of water for irrigation. This development has prompted the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Mississippi River is heavily relied upon for commercial navigation, but it is also home to a diversity of organisms adapted to large river habitats. Macroinvertebrates have long been used as habitat/water quality indicators in wadeable streams, but because of sampling difficulty, large rivers have been understudied. Herein, the authors focused...
Technical Report
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Empirical swim speed data are needed to manage invasive bigheaded or " Asian " carps (Figure 1). However, such data are limited within the scientific literature. The large size and active temperament of the carp combined with current legislative restrictions concerning transport, make them difficult to acclimatize and test in traditional l...
Article
In the central United States, recovery efforts for populations of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus have been ongoing since its listing in 1990. Its congener, the Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus, has also recently been listed as threatened where it overlaps with Pallid Sturgeon. The status of both species in the Miss...
Article
The St. John's Bayou water control structure near New Madrid, MO, connects the main Mississippi River to two large backwater areas called the New Madrid Floodway and St. John's Bayou. While this area has been altered, the New Madrid Floodway and St. John's Bayou account for the only substantial portion of the historic Mississippi River floodplain t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Section 7(a)(1) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires all federal agencies to use their authority as appropriate to carry out programs for the conservation (i.e., recovery) of endangered and threatened species. For more than a decade, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has worked with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and stat...
Article
A substantial body of literature exists about depth distribution of fish in oceans, lakes and reservoirs, but less is known about fish depth distribution in large rivers. Most of the emphasis on fish distributions in rivers has focused on longitudinal and latitudinal spatial distributions. Knowledge on depth distribution is necessary to understand...
Article
Full-text available
The feeding habitats of young-of-year river sturgeon Scaphirhynchus spp. from the Lower Mississippi River were evaluated. Seventy specimens collected between 2001 and 2010 (99%: 2006–2010) were dissected and gut contents analyzed. The macrohabitats and habits associated with sturgeon prey items (primarily benthic macroinvertebrates) were used to ma...
Article
Full-text available
We observed a large adult Paddlefish entrained from the Mississippi River through the Bonnet Cane spillway, south Louisiana, which was injured and underweight. We captured, measured (23 metrics), and tagged the fish. After it had spent a week at large on the fioodway, we recaptured and released it back into the Mississippi River. The specimen was r...
Conference Paper
Restoration opportunities differ along the course of the Mississippi River primarily due to available funding mechanisms. Upper Mississippi River restoration has been driven largely by the Environmental Management Program’s Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Projects. Over 50 restoration projects have been completed focused on backwater lakes a...
Article
Full-text available
An individual of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) was collected in a diversion canal of the Mississippi River known as Davis Pond located at river kilometer (RKM) 191.03 in St. Charles Parish near Luling, LA. This locality is the southern-most record for Rainbow Trout in the Mississippi River Basin and represents a range extension of 733.5 RKM s...
Article
Borrow-pit lakes encompass about a third of the lentic water habitats (by area) in the active floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River, yet little is known about their fish assemblages. We investigated whether fish assemblages supported by borrow-pit lakes resembled those in oxbow lakes to help place the ecological relevance of borrow-pit lakes in...
Article
Full-text available
Harvesting of liver samples for toxicologic and other laboratory analyses is frequently undertaken in free-ranging fish to evaluate accumulations of various pollutants and chemicals. However, commonly used, lethal techniques for collecting liver tissues are unacceptable when dealing with protected species. We report the use of a nonlethal, single-e...
Article
Estimated number of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus impacted annually by towboat entrainment in navigation pools of the Upper Mississippi River were compared against estimates of fishery harvest and ambient population densities to evaluate the relevance of entrainment at the population level. Mean number of sturgeon entrained per ki...
Article
Multimetric indexes constructed by summing metric scores have been criticized despite many of their merits. A leading criticism is the potential for investigator bias involved in metric selection and scoring. Often there is a large number of competing metrics equally well correlated with environmental stressors, requiring a judgment call by the inv...
Conference Paper
Three floodways along the lower Mississippi River were operated during the 2011 flood: New Madrid, Morganza, and Bonnet Carre. There was concern that the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphiryhnchus albus) would be entrained through the floodways resulting in injury or death. Varying levels of sampling effort were conducted in each floodway...
Technical Report
Full-text available
EnviroFish is both a modeling approach and a computer software. As a modeling approach, EnviroFish estimates the value of floodplain habitat suitable for fish reproduction under a given set of hydrologic and hydraulic conditions. As a software, EnviroFish is a Java computer program facilitating the application of the modeling approach. This manual...
Conference Paper
The Lower Mississippi River (LMR) flows between six states beginning at the confluence of the Ohio River down to the Gulf of Mexico. Like most great rivers, the LMR has been impacted from river regulation for flood control and navigation. Despite these activities, the LMR remains free-flowing and supports the most productive floodplain fishery in N...
Article
Full-text available
A specially designed net was used to study fish entrainment and injury through towboat propellers in 13 pools of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois rivers. The net was attached to the stern of a 48.8-m-long towboat with twin propellers (in Kort propulsion nozzles), and sampling typically took place while the towboat pushed 15 loaded barges upstream...
Article
Summary Critical swimming speeds of sturgeon are presumably lower in vertically uniform, rectilinear flow than in heterogeneous boundary-layer flow. Movement in rectilinear flow of the water column necessitates frequent high-energy free-swimming, while movement in boundary-layers near the bottom of the river permits a variety of lower energy behavi...
Book
EnviroFish is both a modeling approach and a computer software. As a modeling approach, EnviroFish estimates the value of floodplain habitat suitable for fish reproduction under a given set of hydrologic and hydraulic conditions. As a software, EnviroFish is a Java computer program facilitating the application of the modeling approach. This manu...
Article
Thirty-six sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus spp.) were captured from the lower Mississippi River using baited trot-lines, anesthetized using tricaine methanesulfonate, and subjected to endoscopic evaluation of their coelom (coelioscopy) on the river bank. Using a 2.7 mm rod-lens telescope and gravity–fed sterile saline infusion, gender and reproductive sta...
Article
Full-text available
The Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) is imperiled by extensive changes in stream hydrology. Responses of shiners to changes or variation in stream hydraulics, however, have not been quantified, hampering conservation efforts. We quantified swimming endurance and behavior for Topeka shiners in a laboratory swim tunnel. Sustained swimming (>200 min) w...
Article
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The Danube and Mississippi Rivers are sharing experiences to overcome similar challenges in protecting fish populations.
Article
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Habitat models are used to evaluate impacts of water resource development activities such as flood control and navigation projects, and environmental benefits of restoration or mitigation projects. These models generally take the form of an index ranging from 0.0 (poor habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat), referred to as a Habitat Suitability Index (H...
Article
Full-text available
The impacts to Gulf and pallid sturgeon from a proposed Mississippi River water diversion into the swamps bordering Lake Maurepas were evaluated. Gulf sturgeon were unlikely to be affected by the diversion due to characteristics of their life history. Adult and subadult pallid sturgeon were relatively abundant in the proposed project area and could...
Article
Full-text available
Delta streams, forming in the floodplains of large river systems, are widespread throughout the United States. Delta streams are most prevalent in the Mississippi Embayment, also referred to as the lower Mississippi River Basin. The alluvial flood-plain deposits are typically rich in organic material. Consequently, most delta streams have been alte...
Article
Full-text available
This study summarizes recent observations of silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix, in small wetlands of the Lower Mississippi River and suggests management actions for their control based on wetland hydrology and pattern of fish movements.
Article
Pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) captured in the Middle and Lower Mississippi River (i.e. below St. Louis, MO, USA) are morphologically very similar to shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). Available empirical data are limited to a few studies based on low sample sizes from disjointed populations. Geneticists are currently search...
Article
Trotlines were used to capture pallid sturgeon in the free-flowing Mississippi River, which extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the mouth of the Missouri River. Trotlines were baited with worms, and set overnight usually along the channel border. The pectoral fin rays of 165 pallid sturgeon caught in the Mississippi River were aged; 118 were from th...
Article
Sturgeon specimens encountered in the wild that exhibit visible signs of gross physical trauma often look to the naked eye to be in otherwise good condition. Visible morphological anomalies were observed in 9.1% of 176 pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and 4.6% of 4904 shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) sturgeon specimens captured in the Middle (...
Article
Gut contents of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon from the lower and middle Mississippi River were obtained by colonic flushing, a safe and easily implemented alternative to gastric lavage. Diets of both species were dominated numerically by immature Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Diptera. Primary prey, based on volume, for shovelnose sturgeon were T...
Article
SummaryA multiyear study of pallid sturgeon distribution and relative abundance was conducted in the lower and middle Mississippi river (LMR and MMR, respectively). The LMR and MMR comprise the free-flowing Mississippi River extending 1857 river kilometers (rkm) from its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico upstream to the mouth of the Missouri River. A tot...
Article
Full-text available
NAVPAT evaluates the effects of commercial navigation traffic on riverine fish habitat. On the Winfield Pool of the Kanawha River, NAVPAT was used to evaluate changes in fish habitat as a result of lock improvements at the Winfield Lock and Dam made during the 1990's. Fifteen species/life stages were evaluated at a range of traffic levels. The Winf...
Article
Full-text available
This document is a report of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program. ANSRP Bulletin. Volume 4-1.
Article
The effect of fin ray removal on swimming performance was evaluated for shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus from the lower Mississippi River. Immediately upon collection, the marginal pectoral fin ray was removed from some fish, and others were left unclipped as a control group. Fish were promptly returned to the laboratory and held in...
Article
Full-text available
The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, a native of Eurasia, is spreading throughout the waters of North America. Native to the Black Sea and Caspian Sea systems, the round goby appeared in the St. Clair River, ONT-MI in 1990, and subsequently in the Great Lakes during 1993-1996 (Charlebois et al. 1997). Particular concern exists for the population...
Article
Full-text available
Small floodplain pools (less than 2 m deep, less than 500 sq m) are inhabited by some of the least common fishes in large river systems: species adapted morphologically and physiologically to shallow, periodically hypoxic water with wide variation in temperature (Baker, Killgore, and Kasul 1991; Hoover and Killgore 1998). They are also inhabited by...
Article
Full-text available
The mortality of ichthyoplankton entrained through a scale model of a towboat propeller was evaluated in a large (>2 million L) circulating water channel. Five species of fish (larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, larval lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, the larvae and eggs of paddlefish Polyodon spathula, larval blue sucker Cy...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Foraging behavior of juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was observed in aquatic plants using underwater videography. This note describes relationships between plant stem density and foraging of fish, and discusses application of these data to evaluate the habitat value of aquatic plant beds....
Article
Full-text available
The movements of triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes) were monitored in a coastal river flowing out of the Santee Cooper reservoirs, South Carolina. Twenty- two adult triploid grass carp (90 cm to 110 cm total length) were tagged during 1998 and 1999 with sonic and radio trans- mitters, released into the Cooper River, South C...
Article
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We evaluated fish species composition relative to dissolved oxygen concentrations in Mercer Bayou, a vegetated impoundment in southwest Arkansas. Sampling stations were distributed among three reaches that varied in dissolved oxygen concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 7.5 mg/l. Hypoxia was pronounced at the downstream reach of the bayou because of s...
Article
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Paddlefish rostra vary in size and shape suggesting existence of multiple morphotypes. Measurements for 118 adult paddlefish from a Mississippi delta river indicate that the rostrum becomes shorter, narrower, and straighter as a fish grows. Negative allometric growth of rostra, and high variation within size classes, may obscure existence of distin...
Article
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Approximately 768,500 triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyn- godon idella Valenciennes) were stocked into the Santee Coo- per reservoirs, South Carolina between 1989 and 1996 to control hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) . Hydrilla coverage was reduced from a high of 17,272 ha during 1994 to a few ha by 1998. During 1997, 1998 and 1999, at l...
Article
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PURPOSE: Benefits of restoring riverine backwaters using weirs or other types of water control structures are evaluated. This approach allows: (a) site-specific characterization of backwater fish assemblages ; (b) development of quantitative models of habitat quality ; and (c) incremental estimation of habitat benefits of weirs with different crest...
Article
The Gulf Sturgeon Recovery/Management Plan defines a strategy for removing the threatened Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon) from federal listing and invites revisions based on new information. The plan's objectives are reasonable and well-stated, but the criteria incorporated within the objectives may...
Article
Full-text available
During early life stages, fish in the Mississippi River system may become stranded by shoreline drawdowns induced by the passage of commercial vessels. We examined the stranding of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus and of juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus fu...
Article
Full-text available
Hatchery-reared, juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were subjected to swimming stamina tests in a 100-L Blazka-type swim tunnel at 17-20 C. Endurance was measured at fixed velocities ranging from 10-70 cm/sec, and sustained, prolonged, and burst swimming speeds were identified for two size groups: 17.0-20.5 and 13.0-16.8 cm FL. Maximum...
Article
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The Corps of Engineers has a central role in restoring aquatic ecosystems. Under the authority of the 1986 Water Resource Development Act and subsequent amendments, the Corps can modify or construct projects to restore fish and wildlife habitat, as well as assist states and other non-Federal agencies with ecosystem and watershed planning (Table 1)....
Article
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Bottomland hardwood wetlands are conspicuous features of many river systems in the lower Mississippi River basin. They occur on alluvial floodplains that are inundated in winter and spring. These forested wetlands are highly productive and support diverse aquatic communities. Despite their importance to riverine ecosystems, extensive tracts of bott...