Justin Moat

Justin Moat
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew · Herbarium

PhD

About

107
Publications
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Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Full-text available
Shell middens are conspicuous manifestations of the exploitation of rich, sustainable, easily seen and harvested marine resources that, worldwide, enabled hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility and increase population and social complexity. Globally, known sites tend to cluster chronologically around 6 k BP, after slowing eustatic sea-level rise, alth...
Article
Frédéric Engel (1981:24), el pionero de los estudios del Precerámico en el Perú, argumentó que la distribución de los sitios arqueológicos durante el Holoceno temprano fue determinada por “la capacidad de las lomas” –oasis estacionales producidos por la humedad oceánica que están presentes a lo largo de la costa del Perú– una proposición que aún se...
Article
Full-text available
Cultivated Arabica coffee outside Ethiopia is plagued by low genetic diversity, compromising disease resistance, climate resiliency and sensory potential. Access to the wider genetic diversity of this species may circumvent some of these problems. In addition to Ethiopia, South Sudan has been postulated as a center of origin for Arabica coffee, but...
Article
Cultivated Arabica coffee outside Ethiopia is plagued by low genetic diversity, compromising disease resistance, climate resiliency and sensory potential. Access to the wider genetic diversity of this species may circumvent some of these problems. In addition to Ethiopia, South Sudan has been postulated as a center of origin for Arabica coffee, but...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change poses a considerable challenge for coffee farming, due to increasing temperatures, worsening weather perturbations, and shifts in the quantity and timing of precipitation. Of the actions required for ensuring climate resilience for coffee, changing the crop itself is paramount, and this may have to include using alternative coffee cr...
Article
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The desert fog oasis ecosystem of Peru and Chile comprises numerous oases along 3000 km of the Pacific coastal belt, it hosts a highly endemic flora, providing vital ecosystem services and genetic resources. However, due to their marked seasonality and fog cover they are poorly mapped, greatly compromising their conservation. Here we redress this u...
Article
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The aim of our study was to assess the importance of different Colombian bioregions in terms of the supply of useful plant species and the quality of the available distribution data. We assembled a dataset of georeferenced collection localities of all vascular plants of Colombia available from global and local online databases. We then assembled a...
Article
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There are numerous factors to consider when developing climate-resilient coffee crops, including the ability to tolerate altered climatic conditions, meet agronomic and value chain criteria, and satisfy consumer preferences for flavour (aroma and taste). We evaluated the sensory characteristics and key environmental requirements for the enigmatic n...
Article
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The specialty coffee sector represents opportunities for coffee farmers and other actors due to increased value within the supply chain, driven by elevated consumer purchase prices. We investigated these relationships up to the export stage, as well as the potential for specialty coffee to improve stakeholder participation in biodiversity conservat...
Book
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The Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project is a 2.5-year initiative led by Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in collaboration with the Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute. Its aim is to develop pathways to enhance nature’s contribution to people in Colombia by increasing, consolidating and making accessible the knowledge of...
Article
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Our recent data, collected using remotely sensed imagery and unmanned aerial vehicle surveys, reveal the extremely well-defined patterning of archaeological plaza villages in the Brazilian Acre state in terms of size, layout, chronology, and material culture. The villages comprise various earthen mounds arranged around central plazas and roads that...
Article
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The coastal desert of Peru and Chile is home to Prosopis (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) tree species that are exceptionally well-adapted to the hyperarid conditions and keystone in dry-forest ecosystems. From 2001 to 2018, Prosopis in Peru have suffered widespread defoliation and die-back, with consequent deforestation and collapse in pod production. T...
Article
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Plants are under‐represented in conservation efforts, with only 9% of described species published on the IUCN Red List. Biodiversity aggregators including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the more recent Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN) contain a wealth of potentially useful occurrence data. We investigate the...
Article
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Aim Effective policymaking for biological conservation requires the identification and ranking of the most important areas for protection or management. One of the most frequently used systems for selecting priority areas is the Key Biodiversity Areas (hereafter KBAs), developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). However,...
Article
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Bioenergy is a major component of the global transition to renewable energy technologies. The plant and fungal kingdoms offer great potential but remain mostly untapped. Their increased use could contribute to the renewable energy transition and addressing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 "Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sus...
Book
Full-text available
Kew’s State of the World’s Plants and Fungi project provides assessments of our current knowledge of the diversity of plants and fungi on Earth, the global threats that they face, and the policies to safeguard them. Produced in conjunction with an international scientific symposium, Kew’s State of the World’s Plants and Fungi sets an important inte...
Article
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Plant and fungal biodiversity support all life on earth and merit careful stewardship in an increasingly uncertain environment. However, gaps and biases in documented extinction risks to plant and fungal species impede effective management. Formal extinction risk assessments help avoid extinctions, through engagement, financial or legal mechanisms,...
Article
Full-text available
Bioenergy is a major component of the global transition to renewable energy technologies. The plant and fungal kingdoms offer great potential but remain mostly untapped. Their increased use could contribute to the renewable energy transition and addressing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sus...
Article
Full-text available
1. Trees are a foundation for biodiversity in urban ecosystems and therefore must be able to withstand global change and biological challenges over decades and even centuries to prevent urban ecosystems from deteriorating. Tree quality and diversity should be prioritised over simply numbers to optimise resilience to these challenges. Successful est...
Article
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species TM (hereafter the Red List) is an important global resource for conservation that supports conservation planning, safeguarding critical habitat and monitoring biodiversity change (Rodrigues et al. 2006). However, a major shortcoming of the Red List is that most of the world's described species have not yet be...
Preprint
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Aim In order to implement effective conservation policies, it is crucial to know how biodiversity is distributed and one of the most widely used systems is the Key Biodiversity Areas (hereafter KBA) criteria, developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Here we develop a tool to rank Key Biodiversity Areas in a continuous...
Article
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Teloschistes peruensis is a bright orange lichen with a narrow distribution in Peru and Chile. Its AOO is 8 km2 and it is extant at only two locations. Its population size, area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO), habitat quality, and the number of locations where it occurs have declined substantially due to development, off-road recrea...
Article
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Karst is defined as landscapes that are underlain by soluble rock in which there is appreciable water movement arising from a combination of high rock solubility and well-developed secondary (fracture) porosity. Karsts occupy approximately 20% of the planet’s dry ice-free land and are of great socioeconomic importance, as they supply water to up to...
Article
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used for many scientific applications, including archaeological surveys. We test the suitability and practicability of UAV surveying in the tropical lowlands of Brazil and techniques for visualizing the resulting digital elevation models, specifically the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM). We present the r...
Article
More than 31,000 useful plant species have been documented to fulfil needs and services for humans or the animals and environment we depend on. Despite this diversity, humans currently satisfy most requirements with surprisingly few plant species; for example, just three crops – rice, wheat and maize – comprise more than 50% of plant derived calori...
Article
In an era of increasing threat most species of plant still lack an assessment of extinction risk or an understanding of priority for conservation. Evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) has been used in conjunction with extinction risk to prioritise species for conservation. We apply this approach to an economically important group of plants in Africa;...
Article
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Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is a key crop in many tropical countries and globally provides an export value of over US$13 billion per year. Wild Arabica coffee is of fundamental importance for the global coffee sector and of direct importance within Ethiopia, as a source of harvestable income and planting stock. Published studies show that clima...
Article
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Wild coffee species are critical for coffee crop development and, thus, for sustainability of global coffee production. Despite this fact, the extinction risk and conservation priority status of the world’s coffee species are poorly known. Applying IUCN Red List of Threatened Species criteria to all (124) wild coffee species, we undertook a gap ana...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Davis, A.P., Wilkinson, T., Challa, Z.K., Williams, J., Baena, S., Gole, T.W. & Moat, J. (2018). Coffee Atlas of Ethiopia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (UK).
Article
We are facing an ever-increasing environmental crisis on our planet, with multiple threats from humankind. Industrialisation, deforestation, overpopulation and exploitation of our natural resources is driving species to extinction and changing the environment we live in. We need to plan for the future in order to adapt or mitigate these risks. Rece...
Article
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The ‘modifiable areal unit problem’ is prevalent across many aspects of spatial analysis within ecology and conservation. The problem is particularly manifest when calculating metrics for extinction risk estimation, for example, area of occupancy (AOO). Although embedded into the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List cr...
Article
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Driven by limited resources and a sense of urgency, the prioritization of species for conservation has been a persistent concern in conservation science. Gymnosperms (comprising ginkgo, conifers, cycads, and gnetophytes) are one of the most threatened groups of living organisms, with 40% of the species at high risk of extinction, about twice as man...
Article
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The Pacific Equatorial dry forest of Northern Peru is recognised for its unique endemic biodiversity. Although highly threatened the forest provides livelihoods and ecosystem services to local communities. As agro-industrial expansion and climatic variation transform the region, close ecosystem monitoring is essential for viable adaptation strategi...
Article
Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) (more commonly called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs or drones), have the potential to enhance current understanding and management of a range of environmental applications. There has been much coverage on the use of UAVs for conservation applications in the recent years, yet little on specific applications in p...
Article
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Coffee farming provides livelihoods for around 15 million farmers in Ethiopia and generates a quarter of the country's export earnings. Against a backdrop of rapidly increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall, there is an urgent need to understand the influence of climate change on coffee production. Using a modelling approach in combination w...
Chapter
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Each year we take a closer look at the status of plants in a particular region. This year we look at the current status of knowledge on plants in Madagascar.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Moat, J., Williams, J., Baena, S., Wilkinson, Demissew, S., Challa, Z.K., T., Gole, T.W. & Davis, A.P. (2017). Coffee Farming and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Impacts, Forecasts, Resilience and Opportunities. Summary Report 2017. The Strategic Climate Institutions Programme (SCIP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (UK). Pp. 37.
Article
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The Falkland Islands are predicted to experience up to 2.2°C rise in mean annual temperature over the coming century, greater than four times the rate over the last century. Our study investigates likely vulnerabilities of a suite of range-restricted species whose distributions are associated with archipelago-wide climatic variation. We used presen...
Article
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Itigi thicket is a spatially restricted ecosystem only present in Zambia and Tanzania. It is thought to be highly threatened and therefore we need to urgently assess the threats to this ecosystem as well as extent and rates of change to derive its true conservation status. In this study we focus on the Itigi-Sumbu thicket surrounding Lake Mweru Wan...
Poster
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Establishing extinction of a given species is difficult, and species thought to be extinct are rediscovered with surprising frequency. Achieving precision in the fact or date of extinction of a plant species is particularly challenging. Before extinction is declared, analysis is required of factors such as collecting effort over time, life history...
Conference Paper
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Pine forests in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) have been under extreme threat of disappearing since the non-native, invasive and pine-specific pine tortoise scale insect (Toumeyella parvicornis) was accidentally introduced to the islands over a decade ago. This invasive species has killed the vast majority of the Vulnerable and endemic Caicos p...
Article
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Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO(2), their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene sett...
Article
Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settle...
Article
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Arthur Francis George Kerr’s life is reviewed and related to a previously published account. Kerr’s collecting activity is analysed using an expanded version of the Thai Biogeography Group’s database of collections. 8,666 of the total 48,970 collections are Kerr’s and 3,178 are those of his colleagues and friends. Therefore, the total number of col...
Article
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Lomas ? ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs ? were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity?s few independent hearths of agriculture and ?pristine? civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been mu...
Article
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Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an...
Article
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Extent of Occurrence (EOO) is a key metric in assessing extinction risk using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. However, the way in which EOO is estimated from maps of species' distributions is inconsistent between assessments of different species, and between major taxonomic groups. It is often estimated from the area of mapped distributi...
Conference Paper
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The Caicos pine Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis is endemic to the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) and the Bahamas, where it is the dominant species in the pine forest ecosystem. Pine forests in TCI cover only 13km2 and have been under severe threat of extinction in the past decade. A severe infestation by the non-native and pine-specific pine tortois...
Article
There is increased evidence that incorporating evolutionary history directly in conservation actions is beneficial, particularly given the likelihood that extinction is not random and that phylogenetic diversity (PD) is lost at higher rates than species diversity. This evidence is even more compelling in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, w...
Article
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The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of acc...
Article
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The recent acceleration of actions to conserve plant species using ex situ and in situ strategies has revealed the need to understand how these two approaches might be better developed and integrated in their application to tree species. Here we review some of the recent successes relating mainly to tree seed biology that have resulted in the devel...