Justin S. Brashares

Justin S. Brashares
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management

About

150
Publications
66,092
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13,733
Citations
Citations since 2016
62 Research Items
8730 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400

Publications

Publications (150)
Preprint
Increasingly frequent megafires, wildfires that exceed the size and severity of historical fires, are dramatically altering landscapes and critical habitats across the world. Across the western U.S., megafires have become an almost annual occurrence, but the implications of these fires for the conservation of native wildlife remains relatively unkn...
Preprint
Anthropogenic climate and land use change has accelerated the frequency of extreme climatic disturbances such as megafire. These megafires dramatically alter ecosystems and threaten the long-term conservation of economically and ecologically important species, including native ungulates. Recent work suggests that ungulate species may be able to adj...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Access to natural resources is fundamental to human wellbeing. We aimed to disentangle the multiple pathways through which fishery resources benefit early childhood development. Although evidence has linked fish consumption and early childhood development, differences in nutrient content across fish species and the role of fishing incom...
Preprint
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Biophysical and socio-cultural factors have jointly shaped the distribution of global biodiversity, yet relatively few studies have quantitatively assessed the influence of social and ecological landscapes on wildlife distributions. We sought to determine whether social and ecological covariates shape the distribution of a cultural keystone species...
Article
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Wildfire dynamics are changing around the world and understanding their effects on ecological communities and landscapes is urgent and important. We report detailed food webs for unburned, low-to-moderate and high severity burned habitats three years post-fire in the Eldorado National Forest, California. The cumulative cross-habitat food web contai...
Article
After a century of fire suppression and accumulating fuel loads in North American forests, prescribed burns are increasingly used to prevent conditions leading to catastrophic megafire. There is widespread evidence that prescribed fire was used by Indigenous communities to manage natural and cultural resources tribes for thousands of years. Wildlif...
Preprint
Despite growing evidence of widespread impacts of humans on the behavior of animals, our understanding of how humans reshape species interactions remains limited. Here, we present a framework that draws on key concepts from behavioral and community ecology to outline four primary pathways by which humans can alter predator-prey spatiotemporal overl...
Article
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Non-invasive genetic sampling can facilitate the identification of individual animals across a landscape, with applications to management and conservation. Fecal material is a readily available source of DNA, and various methods exist for collecting fecal samples for DNA preservation. In particular, swab methods offer considerable promise, but thei...
Article
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Recent developments to spatial-capture recapture models have allowed their use on species whose members are not uniquely identifiable from photographs by including individual identity as a latent, unobserved variable in the model. These ‘unmarked’ spatial capture recapture (uSCR) models have also been extended to presence-absence data and modified...
Article
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With rapid global change, the frequency and severity of extreme disturbance events are increasing worldwide. The ability of animal populations to survive these stochastic events depends on how individual animals respond to their altered environments, yet our understanding of the immediate and short‐term behavioral responses of animals to acute dist...
Article
Spatiotemporal variation in predation risk arises from interactions between landscape heterogeneity, predator densities, and predator hunting mode, generating landscapes of fear for prey species that can have important effects on prey behaviour and ecosystem dynamics. As widespread apex predators, humans present a significant source of risk for hun...
Preprint
Coincident with an international movement to protect 30% of global land and sea over the next decade, the United States has committed to more than doubling its current protected land area by 2030. While federally-managed protected areas have been the cornerstone of area-based conservation in the United States and globally over the past century, suc...
Article
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1. Land-use change and political–economic shifts have shaped hunting patterns globally, even as traditional hunting practices endure across many local socio-cultural contexts. The widespread expansion of oil palm cultivation, and associated urbanization, alters land-use patterns, ecological processes, economic relationships, access to land and soci...
Article
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Human-wildlife interactions are embedded within socio-ecological systems (SES), in which animal behavior and human decision-making reciprocally interact. While a growing body of research addresses specific social and ecological elements of human-wildlife interactions, including conflicts, integrating these approaches is essential for identifying pr...
Article
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Aim Global change has spurred the escalation of megafires in California over the last 20 years throughout a variety of ecosystems. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of California wildfires and megafires from the last two decades (2000–2020) in relation to ecosystem types and biodiversity metrics. We offer insights into the prevalence of fir...
Article
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Human-carnivore conflict is a global challenge with complex and context-specific causes and consequences. While spatial analyses can use ecological principles to predict patterns of conflict, solutions to mitigate conflict must also be locally adaptable, sustainable, and culturally-sensitive. In Nakuru County, Kenya, rapid development and land subd...
Article
Human activity and land use change impact every landscape on Earth, driving declines in many animal species while benefiting others. Species ecological and life history traits may predict success in human-dominated landscapes such that only species with "winning" combinations of traits will persist in disturbed environments. However, this link betw...
Article
The fencing of protected areas is increasing worldwide. However, the implementation of fences for conservation has outpaced scientific assessment of their effectiveness, non-target impacts, and long-term costs. We assessed landscape predictors of fence crossing sites and employed camera traps over a one-year period to investigate wildlife responses...
Article
As local and global disturbances reshape African savannas, an understanding of how animal communities recover and respond to landscape features can inform conservation and restoration. Here, we explored the spatial ecology of a wildlife community in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique, where conservation efforts have fostered the recovery of large...
Article
Full-text available
The recent expansion of cannabis agriculture in rural areas of the western United States provides an ideal opportunity to study the outcomes of policy change for land use and wildlife. Small scale (<1 acre), private-land cannabis cultivation has the ability to coexist with or alter surrounding wildlife communities. To date, there has been little to...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. The widespread expansion of oil palm cultivation alters land-use, economic relationships, land ownership and access, and social practices across tropical forest landscapes globally. These shifts, primarily driven by broader structural forces of globalized commodity chains and transnational land grabs, profoundly reshape local socio-ecological re...
Preprint
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Entrenched political partisanship in the United States has placed long-standing constraints on conservation policy and climate change legislation. These barriers persist, demanding fresh insights into the ways that conservation has become a victim of political polarization, and pathways for encouraging bipartisan support for climate change and othe...
Article
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Investigations of the links between human infrastructure and ecological change have provided eye-opening insights into humanity's environmental impacts and contributed to global environmental policies. Fences are globally ubiquitous, yet they are often omitted from discussions of anthropogenic impacts. In the present article, we address this gap th...
Article
Carnivore predation on livestock is a complex management and policy challenge, yet is also intrinsically an ecological interaction between predators and prey. Human-wildlife interactions occur in socio-ecological systems, in which human and environmental processes are closely linked. However, underlying human-wildlife conflict and key to unpacking...
Article
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Conflict between livestock producers and wild predators is a central driver of large predator declines and simultaneously may imperil the lives and livelihoods of livestock producers. There is a growing recognition that livestock–predator conflict is a socio‐ecological problem, but few case studies exist to guide conflict research and management fr...
Article
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Aim Maintaining biodiversity in the face of land use and climate change is a paramount challenge, particularly when distributions of many species remain incompletely known. Emerging technologies help address this data deficiency by facilitating the collection of spatially explicit data for multiple species from multiple taxa. In this study, we comb...
Article
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Background: Pica, the craving and purposeful consumption of nonfoods, is poorly understood. We described the prevalence of pica among women on Mfangano Island, Kenya, and examined sociodemographic and health correlates. Methods: Our cross-sectional study included 299 pregnant or postpartum women in 2012. We used a 24-h recall to assess pica, define...
Article
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Water often limits the distribution and productivity of wildlife in arid environments. Consequently, resource managers have constructed artificial water catchments (AWCs) in deserts of the southwestern United States, assuming that additional free water benefits wildlife. We tested this assumption by using data from acoustic and camera trap surveys...
Article
Animals experience varying levels of predation risk as they navigate heterogeneous landscapes, and behavioral responses to perceived risk can structure ecosystems. The concept of the landscape of fear has recently become central to describing this spatial variation in risk, perception, and response. We present a framework linking the landscape of f...
Article
Understanding processes that determine biodiversity is a fundamental challenge in ecology. At the landscape scale, physical alteration of ecosystems by organisms, called ecosystem engineering, enhances biodiversity worldwide by increasing heterogeneity in resource conditions and enhancing species coexistence across engineered and non‐engineered hab...
Article
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The ecological importance of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) in aquatic ecosystems is becoming increasingly well known. These unique megaherbivores are also likely to have a formative influence on the terrestrial ecosystems in which they forage. In this study, we employed a novel exclosure design to exclude H. amphibius from experi...
Article
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An unprecedented era of climatic volatility is altering ecosystems across our planet1. The potential scale, pace and consequences of this global change have been modelled extensively2, yet little empirical research has quantified the impacts of extreme climate events on the composition of contemporary ecological communities. Here, we quantified the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We used data collected by automated recorders to generate baseline estimates of occupancy for >80 songbird species in the Great Valley. Site-level detection probabilities were high for the majority of songbirds, providing support for the effectiveness of automated recorders as a monitoring tool. Further, our research highlights potential starting p...
Article
Nocturnal refuge As the human population grows, there are fewer places for animals to live out their lives independently of our influence. Given our mostly diurnal tendencies, one domain that remains less affected by humans is the night. Gaynor et al. found that across the globe and across mammalian species—from deer to coyotes and from tigers to w...
Article
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Significance Hippopotami exert a strong influence on the biogeochemistry and ecology of freshwater ecosystems by excreting terrestrially derived organic matter into these systems. These impacts are likely to be strongly controlled by hydrology. In sub-Saharan Africa, anthropogenic water abstraction and climate change are significantly altering wate...
Technical Report
Full-text available
1. The rich biological diversity of the Mojave Desert Ecoregion is increasingly threatened by a changing climate and mounting land use pressures. An understanding of species distributions and their habitats is needed to guide management efforts that minimize the adverse impacts of these threats. We helped address this knowledge gap by determining b...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive Summary 1. In response to the drought State of Emergency declared in 2014, California's Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) prioritized monitoring of wildlife populations and their associations with drought stressors and habitat features. As part of this effort, CDFW initiated Terrestrial Species Stressor Monitoring (TSM) surveys in 2...
Article
Multi-year precipitation ‘legacies’ can have stronger effects on plant community composition than rainfall in the current growing season, but variation in the magnitude of these effects is not fully understood. Direct interactions between plants and animals, such as herbivory, and indirect interactions, such as ecosystem engineering (via changes in...
Article
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Native species that forage in farmland may increase their local abundances thereby affecting adjacent ecosystems within their landscape. We used two decades of ecological data from a protected primary rainforest in Malaysia to illutrate how subsidies from neighboring oil palm plantations triggered powerful secondary 'cascading' effects on natural h...
Article
Individual behavioural specialisation has far-reaching effects on fitness and population persistence. Theory predicts that unconditional site fidelity, that is fidelity to a site independent of past outcome, provides a fitness advantage in unpredictable environments. However, the benefits of alternative site fidelity strategies driving intraspecifi...
Article
As human populations grow and come into more frequent contact with wildlife, it is important to understand how anthropogenic disturbance alters wildlife behaviour. Using fine-scale spatial analyses, we examined how proximity to human settlements affects antipredator responses of ungulates. We studied seven common ungulate species (Kirk's dik-dik, T...
Article
Full-text available
Background Because empirical studies of animal movement are most-often site- and species-specific, we lack understanding of the level of consistency in movement patterns across diverse taxa, as well as a framework for quantitatively classifying movement patterns. We aim to address this gap by determining the extent to which statistical signatures o...
Article
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Restoration of degraded landscapes has become necessary to reverse the pervasive threats from human exploitation. Restoration requires first the monitoring of progress towards any chosen goals to determine their resilience and persistence, and second to conduct in a comparable adjacent area but with less human impact the restoration of trophic stru...
Article
Wildlife harvest and depletion compromise socioecological stability
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Significance We accept that the environment influences human health, but we know little about how human health affects the environment. However, millions of people around the world rely on natural resources for food and livelihoods and confront a high burden of illness. Experience of illness may change people’s physical capacities, outlook, and pla...
Article
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BACKGROUND: The pace and magnitude of human-caused global change has accelerated dramatically over the past 50 years, overwhelming the capacity of many ecosystems and species to maintain themselves as they have under the more stable conditions that prevailed for at least 11,000 years. The next few decades threaten even more rapid transformations be...
Article
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Armed conflict throughout the world’s biodiversity hotspots poses a critical threat to conservation efforts. To date, research and policy have focused more on the ultimate outcomes of conflict for wildlife rather than on the ecological, social, and economic processes that create those outcomes. Yet the militarization that accom- panies armed confli...
Article
Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes worldwide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate cha...
Article
Evaluating landscape connectivity and identifying and protecting corridors for animal movement have become central challenges in applied ecology and conservation. Currently, resource selection analyses are widely used to focus corridor planning where animal movement is predicted to occur. An animal's behavioural state (e.g. foraging, dispersing) is...
Article
Understanding how anthropogenic features affect species' abilities to move within landscapes is essential to conservation planning and requires accurate assessment of resource selection for movement by focal species. Yet, the extent to which an individual's behavioural state (e.g. foraging, resting, commuting) influences resource selection has larg...