Julius Kuhl

Julius Kuhl
Universität Osnabrück | UOS · Institute of Psychology

Dr. phil.

About

217
Publications
118,453
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
14,134
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
Universität Osnabrück
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Lower Saxony Institute for Education and Development
January 2008 - present
Universität Osnabrück
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Lower Saxony Institute for Early Childhood Education and Development

Publications

Publications (217)
Article
Full-text available
The achievement motive refers to a preference for mastering challenges and competing with some standard of excellence. Along with affiliation and power motives, the achievement motive is typically considered to occur on the level of implicit versus explicit representations. Specifically, whereas implicit motives involve pictorial, emotional goal re...
Article
Full-text available
Personality systems interaction (PSI) theory postulates two executive control modes: Self-control and self-regulation. Self-control, typical of state oriented persons, should result in “ego depletion” whereas self-regulation, typical of action oriented persons, should result in invigoration. State- and action-oriented participants performed the Pla...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are unconditionally confronted with social expectations and norms, up to a degree that they or some of them have a hard time recognizing what they actually want. This renders them susceptible for introjection, that is, to unwittingly mistake social expectations about doing relatively unpleasant activities for self-selected goals. Such introj...
Article
Emotion regulation ability (ERA) enables individuals to disengage from negative stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of ERA in the depression-related negativity bias. Seventy-four individuals with major depressive disorder and eighty-three nonclinical individuals were screened for depressiveness using the Beck Depression Inventory. ERA...
Article
Full-text available
Background Identifying pain-related response patterns and understanding functional mechanisms of symptom formation and recovery are important for improving treatment. Objectives We aimed to replicate pain-related avoidance-endurance response patterns associated with the Fear-Avoidance Model, and its extension, the Avoidance-Endurance Model, and ex...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last few decades, most personality psychology research has been focused on assessing personality via scores on a few broad traits and investigating how these scores predict various behaviors and outcomes. This approach does not seek to explain the causal mechanisms underlying human personality and thus falls short of explaining the proxima...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we present the theory of Personality Systems Interactions (PSI) as a meta framework for analyzing the functional architecture of human motivation and personality functioning. Section 1 delineates how PSI theory integrates various traditional motivation theories into seven distinct levels of human motivation and individual differ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity and cognitive performance are inconsistent. We investigated whether personality in terms of emotion regulation abilities (ERA) moderates the relationship between stress-contingent HPA activity and accuracy of intuitive coherence judgments.MethodERA a...
Chapter
Das Selbst wird als ein psychisches System beschrieben, das unzählige persönlich relevante Erfahrungen in einem ausgedehnten, parallel arbeitenden Netzwerk zu einem impliziten Bild integriert. Das experimentell und hirnbiologisch begründete Funktionsprofil des Selbst umfasst, neben der weitgehend unbewussten, in Ausschnitten aber bewusstseinsfähige...
Chapter
Diversität und Persönlichkeit: Begabungsentfaltung im Kontext der pädagogischen Beziehung
Article
Full-text available
Objective Our study investigated body image representations in female patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls using a size estimation with pictures of their own body. We also explored a method to reduce body image distortions through right hemispheric activation. Method Pictures of participants' own bodies were shown on the left or rig...
Data
Spreadsheet with proportions of responses of the anorexia nervosa patients and control pariticipants under various prime- and body-distortion conditions. BMI, handedness score, and age of participants as well as their scores in the personality tests reported in the results' section are also included. (XLSX)
Chapter
A functional approach of interacting neuropsychological systems
Chapter
Eine wichtige Grundlage für erfolgreiches Coaching ist dessen theoretisch-wissenschaftliche Fundierung (Greif 2008). Dennoch fehlt es Coaching an Theorie und Forschung (Möller et al. 2014), welche umfassend genug ist, um der Komplexität der menschlichen Psyche gerecht zu werden. Wenn mit einfachen Lösungen das Auffinden von Methoden gemeint ist, di...
Chapter
This chapter is based on the assumption that neglecting individual differences in psychological research impedes progress in psychological research. The existence of individual differences is a necessary condition for uncovering general rules of behavior. After describing the close connection between processes of motivation and self-regulation, the...
Chapter
Ausgehend von der These, dass die Vernachlässigung individueller Unterschiede in weiten Teilen der Psychologie auf überwindbaren Missverständnissen beruht, werden individuelle Unterschiede als notwendige Voraussetzung für die Entdeckung allgemeiner Gesetzmäßigkeiten beschrieben. Nach einer Darstellung der engen Verflechtung motivationaler und selbs...
Article
Self-report measures of affect come with a number of difficulties that can be circumvented by using indirect measurement procedures. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is a recently developed measure of automatic activation of representations of affective states and traits that draws on participants’ ratings of the extent to wh...
Article
Different lines of research suggest that individuals differ in accessing self-referential information, that is, to know who they are, what they think, want, need, or feel, and that this construct is positively associated with emotion regulation, adaptive functioning, well-being, and meaning in life. We developed a brief scale of five items, the Sel...
Book
Full-text available
Using the example of four colleagues working together in a small company, Now I Get It! shows us the main personality types and their strengths and weakness in such a way that we gain real “now I get it!” insights into what is going on in our own and others’ subconscious. How does my mind work and what kind of personality do I have? When we can an...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We aimed to look for differential mediators of the risk of suicidal behaviour (suicide attempts) and self-harm behaviour in a group of patients with borderline personality disorder. Materials and methods: Sixty four patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (48 women and 16 men) participated. The study included an interview t...
Article
According to the extended trust hypothesis, the ability to cope with negative experiences is grounded in intuitive positive feelings about one's existence (Kuhl, Quirin, & Koole, 2015). In the present study, the authors empirically tested this hypothesis by examining the nonlinear dynamics in a series of day-to-day autoregressive functions of affec...
Article
Unilateral hand contraction typically activates the contralateral hemisphere and has led to changes in psychological states and performances in previous research. Based on a right hemisphere model of the implicit self, we hypothesized and found that left hand contraction increases momentary levels of implicit self-esteem (Studies 1 and 2) and impli...
Article
Full-text available
Work craving theory addresses how work-addicted individuals direct great emotion-regula- tory efforts to weave their addictive web of working. They crave work for two main emotional incentives: to overcompensate low self-worth and to escape (i.e., reduce) negative affect, which is strategically achieved through neurotic perfectionism and compulsive...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eine wichtige Grundlage für erfolgreiches Coaching ist dessen theoretisch-wissenschaftliche Fundierung (Greif 2008). Dennoch fehlt es Coaching an Theorie und Forschung (Möller et al. 2014), welche umfassend genug ist, um der Komplexität der menschlichen Psyche gerecht zu werden. Wenn mit einfachen Lösungen das Auffinden von Methoden gemeint ist, di...
Article
Es wird ein Mentoringprogramm zur Potenzialforderung uberdurchschnittlich begabter und leistungsinteressierter Schulerinnen und Schuler im Rahmen eines Enrichmentangebotes des Gymnasiums Salvatorkolleg (Bad Wurzach) dargestellt. Die theoretischen Grundlagen des Programms (Theorie der Personlichkeits-System-Interaktionen: PSI-Theorie) und die diagno...
Article
Full-text available
A modified event-based paradigm of prospective memory was applied to investigate intention initiation in older and younger participants under high versus low memory load (subsequent episodic word recall vs. recognition). State versus action orientation, a personality dimension related to intention enactment, was also measured. State-oriented person...
Article
Social evaluation is a potent stressor and consistently leads to an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in action orientation influence the relationship between the cortisol response to social-evaluative threat and relative left frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asy...
Article
Objective: Implicit self-esteem, which is based on associative learning processes, is considered to be constituted earlier in life than explicit, verbalized self-esteem. While depressed individuals report negative explicit self-esteem, research has predominantly demonstrated equivalent levels of implicit self-esteem of depressed and healthy indivi...
Article
A modified event-based paradigm of prospective memory was applied to investigate intention initiation in older and younger participants under high vs. low memory load (subsequent episodic word recall vs. recognition). State- vs. action orientation, a personality dimension related to intention enactment, was also measured. State-oriented persons sho...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eine wichtige Grundlage für erfolgreiches Coaching ist dessen theoretisch-wissenschaftliche Fundierung (Greif 2008). Dennoch fehlt es Coaching an Theorie und Forschung (Möller et al. 2014), welche umfassend genug ist, um der Komplexität der menschlichen Psyche gerecht zu werden. Wenn mit einfachen Lösungen das Auffinden von Methoden gemeint ist, di...
Article
Fully functioning persons are characterized by a unity in thought, emotion, and action that amounts to “being someone” or having “an integrated self.” Psychologists have typically treated the integrated self as merely a descriptive term that summarizes significant behavioral achievements. In the present article, the authors seek to place the integr...
Article
Fully functioning persons are characterized by a unity in thought, emotion, and action that amounts to “being someone” or having “an integrated self”. Psychologists have typically treated the integrated self as merely a descriptive term that summarizes significant behavioral achievements. In the present article, the authors seek to place the integr...
Article
Full-text available
Personality systems interaction (PSI) theory postulates two executive control modes in volitional action: Self-control and self-regulation (self-motivation). Self-control should deplete energy whereas self-motivation should maintain energy and result in invigoration. There were three groups of participants: Self-control, self-motivation, and preten...
Chapter
Die PSI-Theorie ermöglicht es im Coaching, mögliche Erklärungen und Ursachen für Probleme zu erschließen und auf dieser Basis Interventionen und Methoden abzuleiten. In vielen Fällen findet ein Coach sinnvolle Interventionen ganz intuitiv. Trotzdem kann das theoretische Wissen für den Coach hilfreich sein zur Systematisierung seines bisherigen Wiss...
Chapter
Aus den beiden Modulationsannahmen lässt sich eine für die Coachingpraxis wichtige Schlussfolgerung ziehen: Persönlichkeitsentwicklung funktioniert umso besser, je besser die relevanten psychischen Systeme zusammenarbeiten. Die Zusammenarbeit zwischen zwei Systemen funktioniert am besten, wenn man gegensätzliche Gefühle selbst regulieren kann (emot...
Chapter
Die beiden zentralen Kompetenzen einer „gestandenen“ Persönlichkeit, die Integration neuer Erfahrungen in ein kohärentes Erfahrungssystem (Selbstentwicklung) und die Umsetzung selbst gewollter Absichten (Willensbahnung), sind von einem ausgewogenen Wechsel zwischen negativem Affekt bzw. der Dämpfung positiven Affekts und der Gegenregulierung dieser...
Chapter
Die PSI-Theorie geht von der Annahme aus, dass Selbstkongruenz in der Bildung der eigenen Absichten und Selbststeuerungseffizienz („Willensstärke“) im Umsetzen von Absichten von dem Wechselspiel zwischen vier psychischen Systemen abhängt. In einem beeinträchtigten Wechselspiel zwischen bestimmten Systemen liegen die Ursachen für viele Coaching-Anli...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews, for the first time in the Spanish Language, a recent personality integrative theory, which has generated and continues to generate a great amount of research, not only in Germany but internationally: The Personality Systems Interactions (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000, 2001). In this paper the main elements of the theory are describe...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the influence of personality and culture on effects of mortality salience (MS) over cultural worldview defense (CWVD). We hypothesized that CWVD reactions to MS differ between Germany and Poland because of the higher conservatism of the latter country, and that they are moderated by action vs. state orientation. In this study German...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the influence of personality and culture on effects of mortality salience (MS) over cultural worldview defense (CWVD). We hypothesized that CWVD reactions to MS differ between Germany and Poland because of the higher conservatism of the latter country, and that they are moderated by action vs. state orientation. In this study German...
Article
Full-text available
Mortality salience (MS) strengthens cultural values but individuals might differ in whether this process operates at a superficial, explicit level only or also at a profound, implicit level. Two studies investigated whether explicit and implicit attitudes toward Muslims after an MS induction vary as a function of threat-related action orientation (...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Both theoretical approaches and empirical evidence suggest that negative affect fosters analytic processing whereas positive affect fosters holistic processing, but these effects are inconsistent. We aim to show that (a) differences in affect-regulation abilities (“action orientation”) and (b) implicit more so than self-reported affect as...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents for the first time in Spanish a recent integrative theory of personality, which has generated and continues to generate a great amount of research, not only in Germany but internationally: The Personality Systems Interactions (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000, 2001). In this paper the main elements of the theory are described: The seve...
Article
Full-text available
Hintergrund: Der Zusammenhang zwischen Gesundheitsbeeinträchtigungen und Mobbing ist vielfach untersucht. Wenige Erkenntnisse liegen über die Bedeutung von selbstregulatorischen Mechanismen für die Gesundheit von Mobbingbetroffenen vor. Fragestellung: Unterscheiden sich niedrig handlungsorientierte Mobbingbetroffene hinsichtlich der Stärke gesundhe...
Article
Coaching fördert die Entwicklung der Selbststeuerungsfähigkeiten des Klienten, die für die Lösung eines Problems oder die Erreichung eines (meist) beruflichen Ziels bedeutsam sind. In diesem Beitrag wird die Persönlichkeits-System-Interaktions-Theorie (PSI-Theorie) dargestellt, mit der verschiedene Persönlichkeitstheorien, wissenschaftliche Befunde...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on relationships between affective-motivational traits and hemispheric asymmetries in resting frontal alpha band power as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) focused on individual differences in motivational direction (approach vs. withdrawal) or behavioral activation. The present study investigated resting frontal alpha asym...
Article
Full-text available
Obsessive-compulsive models of workaholism do not allow diagnosing it as an addiction. We introduce an empirical evidence for conceptualization and measurement of work addiction as work craving. The Work Craving Scale (WCS) comprises: (a) obsessive-compulsive desire for work, (b) anticipation of self-worth compensation, (c) anticipation of reductio...
Article
Full-text available
The present research investigates how individual differences in charming personality are related to occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence. Study 1 showed that sales representatives had higher scores on the charming personality style than executive managers. Study 2 showed that the charming personality style predicted...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research demonstrated that affiliation primes facilitate intuitive thought (Kuhl & Kazén, 2008). We investigated whether trait tendencies toward affiliation also predict intuitive thought. Thirty-nine students filled in the operant motive test for the assessment of social motives, a variant of the Thematic Apperception Test, and correspond...
Article
Full-text available
Focuses on one of the introspectively accessible concomitants of self-regulatory competence, namely 'uncontrollable rumination,' and provides a brief summary of the authors' theory of volition, and the theory of personality in which it is embedded (Kuhl, 1994, 1997). Specifically, two types of rumination are distinguished that relate to informed vs...
Article
Power versus affiliation motivations refer to two different strivings relevant in the context of social relationships. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural structures involved in power versus affiliation motivation based on an individual differences approach. Seventeen participants provided self-reports of power...
Article
Full-text available
Placebo effects spark more and more interest in both medicine and psychotherapy. Neurobiological findings have helped to understand underlying biochemical and neurological mechanisms although many questions remain to be answered. One common denominator of empirical findings regarding placebo effects across a wide range of clinical conditions (e.g.,...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates explicit –implicit motive discrepancies and their effect on well-being. Participants were 382 executive managers (107 females and 275 males). Female managers had higher explicit affiliation scores than males, whereas male managers had marginally significant higher explicit power scores than females. Males and females did not...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oqu...
Article
Oxytocin facilitates stress regulation but little is known about individual differences in this effect. The present study investigates whether the effect of intranasal oxytocin on stress-contingent cortisol release differs between individuals with high vs. low emotional regulation abilities (ERA). In a double-blind study thirty-six healthy male stu...
Chapter
Introduction to Personality SystemsInteractions (PSI) Theory Motives in PSI TheoryFour Types of Motives—Four Basic NeedsToward a Functional Explanation for Chronic Need FrustrationMotives in the Context of CounselingWorking with Implicit Motives: Some Suggestions for TrainingReferences
Article
Full-text available
Emotions have long been seen as counteracting rational thought, but over the last decades, they have been viewed as adaptive processes to optimize human (but also animal) behaviour. In particular, positive affect appears to be a functional aspect of emotions closely related to that. We argue that positive affect as understood in Kuhl's PSI model of...
Article
Full-text available
Upregulation of implicit positive affect (PA) can act as a mechanism to deal with negative affect. Two studies tracked temporal changes in positive and negative affect (NA) assessed by self-report and the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT; Quirin, Kazen, & Kuhl, 2009). Study 1 observed the predicted increases in implicit PA after e...
Article
Full-text available
A considerable body of evidence derived from terror management theory indicates that the awareness of mortality represents a potent psychological threat engendering various forms of psychological defense. However, extant research has yet to examine the neurological correlates of cognitions about one’s inevitable death. The present study thus invest...
Chapter
Individuelle Unterschiede werden in der Kognitionspsychologie und auch in weiten Teilen der Sozialpsychologie nicht berücksichtigt. Deshalb erscheinen am Anfang dieses Kapitels einige methodologische Überlegungen über individuelle Unterschiede in der Selbststeuerung angebracht. Die Gründe für diese Vernachlässigung individueller Unterschiede sind i...
Article
Was macht eine „gestandene“ Persönlichkeit aus? Was sind die entscheidenden persönlichen Kompetenzen? Zwei Aspekte sind besonders wichtig: Erstens, dass jemand seine Absichten und Ziele im Großen und Ganzen verwirklichen kann. Das meinen wir im Alltag, wenn wir jemanden „willensstark“ nennen. Zweitens gehört zu einer gestandenen oder gereiften Pers...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological approaches often conceptualize "free will" as self-determined decision-making. However, the functional mechanisms potentially underlying volitional freedom or its limitations have barely been elaborated. Starting from a functional definition of volition, we illustrate how personality systems interactions (PSI) theory may contribute to...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter provides an outline of Personality Systems Interaction (PSI) theory and its contribution to an understanding of implicit motives. It will be argued that the concept of motive can be applied across preconceptual, conceptual, and self-regulatory levels of analysis, which are related to three different motive measures (i.e., TAT/PSE, grid...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
What are the cognitive and affective prerequisites of adaptive behaviour and what can be learnt from human adaptive behaviour for modelling artificial systems? To answer these questions, this talk will present an information-processing architecture that we consider the minimum requirement for a functional analysis of personality. The architecture c...
Article
Past work indicates that persistent stress leads people to misremember assigned tasks as self-selected, a phenomenon known as self-infiltration [Baumann, N., & Kuhl, J. (2003). Self-infiltration: Confusing assigned tasks as self-selected in memory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 487–497; Kazén, M., Baumann, N., & Kuhl, J. (2003). S...
Article
To maintain religious standards, individuals must frequently endure aversive or forsake pleasurable experiences. Yet religious individuals on average display higher levels of emotional well-being compared to nonreligious individuals. The present article seeks to resolve this paradox by suggesting that many forms of religion may facilitate a self-re...
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT). This test draws on participant ratings of the extent to which artificial words subjectively convey various emotions. Factor analyses of these ratings yielded two independent factors that can be...