Julio Candela

Julio Candela
Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education | CICESE · Department of Physical Oceanography

About

101
Publications
16,281
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4,765
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
1608 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (101)
Thesis
Full-text available
The transport through the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is investigated separating the flow into a set of temperature intervals that delimit the water masses present in the region. The analysis is based on observations collected by the CANEK Group from July 2016 to July 2018 on two mooring arrays, one located across the Yucatan Channel (~21.65 °N) and the o...
Data
Data to reproduce the results published in paper "In-Stream Energy by Tidal and Wind-Driven Currents: An Analysis for the Gulf of California", available from download at https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/5/1095. If you use the data, please cite the data source (do: 10.5281/zenodo.4091702) and the original paper (doi: 10.3390/en13051095).
Article
Full-text available
The erosion of the subsurface salinity maximum, signature of the Caribbean Subtropical UnderWater (SUW), within the Loop Current Eddy (LCE) Poseidon (August 2016 to July 2017) in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and the formation of the Gulf Common Water (GCW) during its journey westward, was observed using glider data. Most of the dilution of the SUW high...
Article
Four years (09/2012 to 08/2016) of simultaneous current observations across the Yucatan Channel (@ ~21.5° N) and the Straits of Florida (@ ~81° W) have permitted to investigate the characteristics of the flow through the Gulf of Mexico. The average transport in both channels is 27.6 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s), in accordance with previous estimates (Schmi...
Article
The near-inertial trapping of the wave wakes of two consecutive hurricanes, Gustav and Ike (2008), at the base of the Loop Current is described using observations of a triangular mooring array. Hurricane Gustav translates over the Loop Current twice as fast and leads to a sharper, but equally strong, wind intensity peak than Hurricane Ike. Followin...
Article
Full-text available
Velocity data from a mooring array deployed northeast of the Campeche Bank (CB) show the presence of subinertial, high-frequency (below 15 days) velocity fluctuations within the core of the northward flowing Loop Current. These fluctuations are associated with the presence of surface-intensified Loop Current frontal eddies (LCFEs), with cyclonic vo...
Article
Time-series of Yucatan Current transport, vorticity fluctuations and Loop Current northward extension during the 3 deployment periods only depict positive correlation in two of them. Given the wide spectrum of variability, much more data are required to determine if a statistically robust relation exists among these variables. Our results clearly i...
Article
Full-text available
Submarine groundwater discharge provides freshwater and nutrients to coastal environments. In some places throughout the world, this direct connection between aquifers and oceans may also allow saltwater intrusion. Saltwater intrusion was studied at a submarine spring within a fringing reef lagoon on the eastern Yucatán Peninsula by observing its i...
Article
The near-inertial wave wake of Hurricane Ida is examined of the basis of horizontal velocity observations acquired from 7 moorings instrumented with acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed across the shelf break, slope, and at the abyssal plain of the Yucatan Peninsula, from 130 m to ∼3300 m. During the forced stage, background mean-flow consis...
Article
Mooring measurements in the Yucatan Channel, from May 2010 to May 2011, and from July 2012 to June 2013 yield a mean transport of 27 and 25 Sv, respectively, with a subinertial standard deviation of 3.5 Sv. These mean transport values are higher than the 23 Sv reported from 21 months of similar measurements (1999-2001). Analysis of low frequency va...
Article
Subsurface pressure (SsP) observations from stations inside and outside of the Gulf of California (GC) are used to analyze the relationship between low-frequency currents, temperature and transport inside the GC and intraseasonal coastal-trapped waves (CTWs), which propagate poleward along the coast towards the GC. Correlation functions and coheren...
Technical Report
Three years of direct near-surface to bottom current measurements at the western Yucatan Channel (defined west of 85.6ºW) between 2008 and 2011 capture the main characteristics of the Yucatan Current. Average current structure shows a high degree of consistency over time, with mean near-surface velocities of about 1 m/s, decreasing significantly wi...
Article
Full-text available
The horizontal momentum balance in the upper layers of the Yucatan Channel is examined for a period of 22 months, from September 1999 to June 2001, using subsurface currents from ADCP measurements at eight moorings across the channel, pressure measurements from coastal pressure sensors on both sides of the channel, QuickSCAT winds and AVISO altimet...
Article
Full-text available
The upper layer circulation in the Bay of Campeche is analyzed with three years of data recorded by surface drifters, current meter moorings, and satellite altimetry. The measurements show that the mean cyclonic circulation observed by previous authors extends below 1000 m, and that its size and location are delimited by the particular topography o...
Article
Full-text available
Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon are investigated by means of a phase-resolving non-hydrostatic wave model (SWASH). This model solves the nonlinear shallow water equations including non-hydrostatic pressure. The one-dimensional version of the model is implemented in order to investigate wave transformatio...
Article
Full-text available
Variability of the mesoscale eddy field in the Caribbean Sea is analyzed over the period 1993-2009 using geostrophic anomalies derived from altimeter data and a high-resolution (1/ 12®) regional model. The Colombia Basin presents the largest values of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and its semiannual cycle, with a main peak in August-October and a secon...
Article
Intense currents having speeds between 10 and 40 cm.s-1 from 1000 m below the surface to the bottom have been measured in the Loop Current (LC) region and in the Western Gulf of Mexico (WGM). The observations come from moored current meters sampling from the near-surface to the bottom at 3300-3500 m and from August 2008 to August 2010. Ten intermit...
Article
Full-text available
The western boundary current in the North Atlantic is characterized by an intense flow (reaching 2.5 ms-1, at the surface) that enters the Caribbean Sea through the Lesser Antilles passages, crosses the entire Caribbean and enters the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel, where it is known as the Loop Current. A characteristic feature of the...
Article
Until recently, the Bay of Campeche was the most undersampled area of the Gulf of Mexico. Three years of mooring and drifter observations of the upper-layer velocity field have greatly improved our understanding of the dynamics in this region. They show that the mean cyclonic circulation, previously reported in the literature, is a persistent featu...
Article
Full-text available
A comparison based on eight months of simultaneous observations of the flow variability in the Yucatan and Cozumel channels shows that the portion of the Yucatan Current that crosses through Cozumel Channel is best correlated with the flow near the center of the Yucatan Channel within the core of the Yucatan Current (defined here as velocities in e...
Article
Full-text available
A comparison based on eight months of simultaneous observations of the flow variability in the Yucatan and Cozumel channels shows that the portion of the Yucatan Current that crosses through Cozumel Channel is best correlated with the flow near the center of the Yucatan Channel within the core of the Yucatan Current (defined here as velocities in e...
Article
Full-text available
Data from five moorings deployed in the Bay of Campeche during November 2007-July 2008 are used to analyze subinertial motions of waters below 1000-m depth. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such a comprehensive observational program of direct deep-current measurements has been carried out in the region. The mean currents are in agr...
Article
Full-text available
The circulation over the continental shelf break of the western and southwestern Gulf of Mexico is inferred from the analysis of drifter trajectories and 12-19 months of continuous current measurements at seven different locations. The interpretation of the data is backed up by satellite altimetry, coastal sea level from tide gauges and wind model...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fourteen months of direct surface to bottom current measurements off the coast of Tamaulipas, Mexico, in the NW Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 capture the evolution of currents as several oncoming warm Loop Current eddies and cyclonic eddies reach the mooring array. Results show that current variability is mostly associated with these eddies a...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic variation was evaluated in populations of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from the coast of Veracruz, eastern Gulf of Mexico. We sampled six lagoons and analyzed variation at five microsatellite loci. Significant Hardy-Weinberg deviations occurred at all loci and were attributed to the presence of null alleles. We found no...
Article
Full-text available
Sixteen months of observations from a surface-to-bottom mooring in the central Gulf of Mexico show that acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are useful for directly measuring the vertical velocity within mesoscale anticyclonic eddies, such as those shed from the Loop Current; and combining simultaneous temperature measurements, vertical heat...
Article
Two overflows, originating at sills in the northern Gulf of California, are marked by strong average downstream slopes of 17 and 4%. Near-bottom stratification upstream of both sills is relatively strong, but the near-bottom water is very well mixed downstream of the sills. The homogenization of a thick bottom layer downstream, albeit close to the...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed and compared 17 yr of monthly settlement indices of postlarvae of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, at two locations on the Mexican Caribbean coast. Along this coast, the shelf is very narrow and the local circulation is driven by waves overtopping subtidal coral reef crests. Settlement occurred year-round, but both location...
Article
Full-text available
Se presentan, a detalle sin precedente, las características de las corrientes de marea O1, K1, M2 y S2 en el canal de Yucatán. Mapas de los parámetros que defi nen las elipses, como son las amplitudes en los ejes principales, la orientación, la fase y la razón-señal-ruido se obtienen, por el clásico análisis armónico en mediciones de 10 meses en du...
Presentation
A well known feature of a large fraction of the zooplankton in the 300 m near-surface layer is the daily vertical migration cycle, which is phase locked with the light cycle. Less documented is the similar cycle in deeper layers away from significant light. Here we show, based on direct measurements, the mean vertical velocity cycle for layers 170...
Article
Chinchorro Bank is the only atoll-like reef in the Caribbean Sea, centered at 87° 21' W, 18° 35' N. It has an oval shape and approximately 44 km length and 20 km width. A channel separating its western rim from the Yucatan Peninsula has a width of 30 km and a sill depth of 700 m. The channel has a mean northward current of 30 cm/s implying a mean t...
Conference Paper
A set of five moorings deployed in front of the coast of Tamaulipas, western Gulf of Mexico, provided fourteen months (from August 2004 to November 2005) of surface to bottom observations of currents and temperature that document the processes associated with the collision and dissipation of two warm mesoscale eddies with the continental slope. Two...
Conference Paper
Recent observational results have shown that the water column in the Gulf of Mexico is characterized by different hydrographic and diffusive regimes into three layers. The variability within the upper layer (above the sill level at the Florida Straits, ~ 700 m depth), is driven mostly by the mesoscale eddies shed from the Loop Current, which domina...
Conference Paper
A year-long time series of current profiles, upward from ten meters off the bottom in 3750 m of water in the central Gulf of Mexico, shows that the measuring range of the instrument, and the velocity of the current in the boundary layer vary as a function of time, the former because the concentration of backscattering suspended matter fluctuates wi...
Article
Full-text available
The studies of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea within the CANEK Program initiated in December 1996 and continue until now. More than 12 oceanographic cruises, the deployment of year-long shallow and deep moorings at several locations within the GM and the Mexican Caribbean and numerical modeling efforts, have permitted to investigate impor...
Article
Full-text available
For a period of 22months beginning in September 2003, an array of four current profilers were deployed on the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon, a microtidal Caribbean environment characterised by the influence of the Yucatan Current (YC) and a Trade Wind regime. The dataset includes water currents, bottom pressure, and surface waves complemented...
Article
Full-text available
The horizontal momentum balance in the upper layers of the Yucatán Channel is examined for a period of 22 months, from September 1999 to June 2001, using subsurface currents from ADCP measurements at eight moorings across the channel, pressure measurements from coastal pressure sensors on both sides of the channel, QuickSCAT winds and AVISO altimet...
Article
Data from an array of seven subsurface upward-looking moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) and four subsurface pressure sensors deployed from August 2002 to August 2003 along the Caribbean coast of Mexico showed that the currents in the area have a predominant northeastward direction along the coast, are coherent within the upper 130 m...
Article
The fortnightly and monthly variability of the exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar has been studied from two simultaneous five-month long moored datasets, at Camarinal Sill and the East Section. The study focuses on the Msf and Mm tidal components and their role for the subinertial exchange. A significant monthly signal is observed in the uppe...
Article
Moored and hydrographic observations at the three most important sills in the northern Gulf of California (NGC) are used to describe the circulation. At the deepest San Esteban (SE) sill (600 m), the mean along-gulf flow is weak and outward (toward the mouth of the gulf) in the entire water column, whereas the mean deep flow is inward and bottom-in...
Article
The Mediterranean Sea transforms surface Atlantic Water (AW) into a set of cooler and saltier typical Mediterranean Waters (tMWs) that are formed in different subbasins within the sea and thus have distinct hydrological characteristics. Depending on the mixing conditions along their route and on their relative amounts, the tMWs are more or less dif...
Article
Full-text available
1] The Cayman Current flows to the west, and most of it turns north as it approaches the Yucatan coast, producing a persistent northwesterly flow on both sides of Cozumel Island. The transport between the Yucatan Peninsula and Cozumel Island (i.e., through the Cozumel Channel) is close to 5 Sverdrups in the mean, with velocities at midchannel rangi...
Article
This paper presents a comparison of two conventional detiding techniques carried out for ship-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data collected in the European shelf area of the Celtic Sea during the summer of 1998. One technique consisted of extracting the vertically averaged tidal currents obtained from a barotropic three-dimensiona...
Article
The Yucatan Current originates where the Cayman Current turns northwards off the Mayan coast. The latitude at which the current meets the coast fluctuates every few months from the Mexico-Belize border to the island of Cozumel, modulating the currents near the coast. A two-year measurement program recorded the Yucatan Current transporting close to...
Article
Full-text available
The statistical properties of the flow structure in the Yucatan Channel's main section based on 2 years of continuous observations (August 1999 to June 2001) are compared with those simulated by the Océan Parallélisé (OPA) primitive equation model in two different configurations: the ATL6 configuration from the CLIPPER project (the whole Atlantic d...
Article
Full-text available
1] The structure and variability of the velocity and temperature fields in Yucatan Channel are analyzed using data from an eight-mooring array deployed from August 1999 to June 2000. The area-averaged kinetic energy and transport fluctuations spectra show that the extrema of these quantities do not coincide, and that flow variability is dominated b...
Article
The objective of this study is to separate the subinertial, inertial, and tidal fields from vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (VM-ADCP) observations acquired during six cruises in the Catalan and Alboran Seas (western Mediterranean Sea). To fulfill this objective we use a method that successfully detects and filters out the main high...
Article
Nearly two years of detailed observations (Sept. 1999 to May 2001) with moored currentmeters and thermometers across the Yucatan Straits produce a mean transport estimate of 23.5 ± 1 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m^3 s-1; 95% confidence interval), with less than 5% variation from the first year to the next. This confirms our first year's results; it is significa...
Article
The Caribbean Current flows to the west impinging the Yucatan coast south of Cozumel Island, then, most of its flow turns north, surrounds the island and continues towards the Yucatan Straits. About 4 Sv in the mean pass between the Yucatan coast and the Cozumel Island; through the Cozumel Channel, where subinertial currents exhibit large ageostrop...
Article
Using two years (1999-2001) of velocity and temperature measurements from an eight-mooring array deployed in the Yucatan Channel,we estimate the energy exchange between eddies and the mean flow. Eulerian and stream coordinate systems are used to determine how much of the 'eddy' variance is associated with the meandering jet and/or changes in the st...
Article
The Yucatan and Cozumel Channels are located off Mexico's Caribbean coast, the former is about 196 km wide and has a sill depth of 2040 m, whilst the latter is 18 km wide and nearly 400 m deep. Portions of the Yucatan Current, a part of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, flows through both these channels. Based on two years of simultaneous moorin...
Article
The Yucatan Channel is one of the key restrictions of the North Atlantic surface circulation, and also a privileged location to understand the circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. From September 1999 to June 2000 a set of eight instrumented moorings measured currents and temperatures across the Yucatan Channel. The main resu...
Article
Full-text available
1] The first attempt to establish a relation between the Loop Current extension and deep flows in Yucatan Channel was made by Maul et al. [1985]; it was unsuccessful, probably because of the low spatial resolution of their observations. From September 8, 1999, to June 17, 2000, eight moorings with acoustic Doppler current profilers, current meters,...
Article
Full-text available
1] Two-year-long time series of current and density structure measurements across the Yucatan Channel's main section allow the calculation of the time-dependent potential vorticity flux between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, which is characterized by alternating periods of positive (cyclonic) and negative (anti-cyclonic) vorticity influx...
Article
Full-text available
1] The direct ocean current observations across the Yucatan Channel collected during the Canek program allow the best description to date of the exchange between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. A net transport of 23.8 ± 1 Sv (1 Sv = 10 6 m 3 s À1 ; 95% confidence interval) flowed through the Yucatan Channel from the Caribbean Sea into the...
Article
Recent two-year long time series of flow and density structure measurements in the Yucatan Channel's main section allow the calculation of the potential vorticity flux into the Gulf of Mexico coming in from the Caribbean Sea. The time integration of the horizontal shear vorticity flux is characterized by periods of positive vorticity ac- cumulation...