Julien Louys

Julien Louys
Griffith University · Environmental Futures Research Institute

PhD

About

154
Publications
76,460
Reads
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3,251
Citations
Citations since 2016
96 Research Items
2627 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - March 2011
Liverpool John Moores University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (154)
Article
Full-text available
Caves have been an important source of vertebrate fossils for much of Southeast Asia, particularly for the Quaternary. Despite this importance, the mechanisms by which vertebrate remains accumulate and preserve in Southeast Asian caves has never been systematically reviewed or examined. Here, we present the results of three years of cave surveys in...
Article
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Genetic evidence for anatomically modern humans (AMH) out of Africa before 75 thousand years ago (ka) and in island southeast Asia (ISEA) before 60 ka (93-61 ka) predates accepted archaeological records of occupation in the region. Claims that AMH arrived in ISEA before 60 ka (ref. 4) have been supported only by equivocal or non-skeletal evidence....
Article
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Extinctions have altered island ecosystems throughout the late Quaternary. Here, we review the main historic drivers of extinctions on islands, patterns in extinction chronologies between islands, and the potential for restoring ecosystems through reintroducing extirpated species. While some extinctions have been caused by climatic and environmenta...
Article
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The Wallacea Archipelago provides an extraordinary laboratory for the study of human colonisation and adaptation, yet few detailed archaeological studies have been conducted in the region that span the earliest phase of human settlement. Laili Cave, in northern Timor-Leste, preserves the oldest human occupation in this insular region with a cultura...
Chapter
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Numerous Australian caves have produced fossil records that have been critical in piecing together the story of the evolution of the continent’s ecosystems through time. Among the most important are those of the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northeastern Australia. Although the majority of caves in the region have since been destroyed as a res...
Article
Analyses of Pleistocene fossil proboscideans have long been used as indirect evidence for climactic and environmental shifts in the Sunda shelf of Southeast Asia. Reconstructing the biological effects of rainforest expansion at the Last Glacial Maximum on elephants can be enhanced by a better understanding of fossil proboscidean palaeobiology. We s...
Article
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Some of the earliest evidence for the presence of modern humans in rainforests has come from the fossil deposits of Lida Ajer in Sumatra. Two human teeth from this cave were estimated to be 73–63 thousand years old, which is significantly older than some estimates of modern human migration out of Africa based on genetic data. The deposits were inte...
Article
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Dietary variation within species has important ecological and evolutionary implications. While theoreticians have debated the consequences of trait variance (including dietary specialization), empirical studies have yet to examine intraspecific dietary variability across the globe and through time. Here, we use new and published serial sampled δ ¹³...
Article
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We report on results from surveys undertaken in Sumatra during 2018 and 2019. The surveys had three objectives: (1) to examine, sample, and record the extensive Quaternary fossil deposits from caves in West Sumatra; (2) determine the potential for fluvial deposits in Riau and Jambi provinces; and (3) relocate the fossil proboscidean remains reporte...
Article
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We provide the first numerical age constraints for the palaeontological assemblage and associated sediment from Ngalau Sampit, Sumatra, one of M. Eugène F.T. Dubois’ noted sites that he excavated in 1889, and of which we present a transcript of his unpublished report. A combination of U-series, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Luminescence (pIR-IR...
Article
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The study of faunal remains from archaeological sites is often complicated by the presence of large numbers of highly fragmented, morphologically unidentifiable bones. In Australia, this is the combined result of harsh preservation conditions and frequent scavenging by marsupial carnivores. The collagen fingerprinting method known as zooarchaeology...
Article
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We employ high-throughput thermal-neutron tomographic imaging to visualise internal diagnostic features of dense fossiliferous breccia from three Pleistocene cave localities in Sumatra, Indonesia. We demonstrate that these seemingly homogeneous breccias are an excellent source of data to aid in determining taphonomic and depositional histories of c...
Article
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Pleistocene hominin dispersals out of, and back into, Africa necessarily involved traversing the diverse and often challenging environments of Southwest Asia 1–4 . Archaeological and palaeontological records from the Levantine woodland zone document major biological and cultural shifts, such as alternating occupations by Homo sapiens and Neandertha...
Article
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Significance We provide global assessment of the possible link between Pleistocene hominin arrival and island extinction. The existing records on islands around the world do not support a significant and detrimental impact on island biotas following island colonization prior to the Holocene. This suggests that models using island extinctions as evi...
Article
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Ngalau Gupin is a broad karstic cave system in the Padang Highlands of western Sumatra, Indonesia. Abundant fossils, consisting of mostly isolated teeth from small-to large-sized animals, were recovered from breccias cemented on the cave walls and unconsolidated sediments on the cave floor. Two loci on the walls and floors of Ngalau Gupin, named NG...
Article
Despite its harsh and arid conditions, the Gobi Desert has played an important role in shaping Holocene populations , including the transition from hunting to herding lifeways. Here we present three newly documented rock art sites in the Gobi-Altai Mountains of south-central Mongolia, a cave (Gazar Agui 1), a rock shelter (Gazar Agui 13) and an ope...
Article
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Though hundreds of caves are known across Mongolia, few have been subject to systematic, interdisciplinary archaeological surveys and excavations to understand Late Pleistocene and Holocene environments. Previous cave excavations in Mongolia have demonstrated their potential for preservation of archaeological and biological material, including Pala...
Article
Ecological processes operating across the spatial scale can be equivalently found operating across the temporal scale. Such processes may affect community structure and species richness relationships in ways that can be analysed using the fossil record. The best studied involve the combination of the Species-Area-Relationship and the Species-Time-R...
Article
Human ribs are thought to be less affected by mechanical strain at the microscopic level than limb bones, implying that rib remodelling better reflects bone physiological homeostasis. Here, we test the hypothesis that rib tissue will be well vascularized and thus enhance susceptibility to metabolic influence. An intra-skeletal comparison of bone va...
Article
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Since the mid-1840s a diverse fossil vertebrate assemblage, referred to as the Chinchilla Local Fauna, has been collected from the Pliocene deposits of the Chinchilla Sand on the western Darling Downs of South-East Queensland. In large part because of this long history and the numerous collectors who have worked fossil deposits in the area, much am...
Article
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Karst-derived breccia is the most analysed deposit in fossil-bearing Southeast Asian caves due to its superior preservation potential for human, faunal, archaeological, and palaeontological data. The study of breccia can provide a better understanding of human and faunal histories, and an opportunity to investigate site taphonomy and insights into...
Article
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The archaeological record of Wallacea remains exceptionally fragmentary. This is especially the case for late Holocene human occupation of the region when lifestyle and culture in marginal island environments is relatively unknown. Here we report on the archaeology of Jareng Bori rockshelter, a Metal-Age site spanning c. 1800 cal. BP up to the late...
Article
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Two new fossil deposits from caves of the Broken River area, northeast Queensland, provide the first regional records of vertebrate species turnover and extinction through the late Quaternary. Fossil assemblages from Big Ho and Beehive Caves are dominated by small-bodied vertebrates, especially mammals. They represent owl roost deposits, although l...
Article
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The Nusa Tenggara island chain consists of an archipelago that runs roughly east-west in eastern Indonesia. As part of Wallacea, it has never been connected to any continental landmass, and has been subject to a variety of biological invasions that have populated the islands. Here, we examine the craniometric and molecular genetic records of severa...
Article
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[Excerpt] He was always a modest man, but Ken was a genius and the toughest man we knew. He was also extraordinarily generous of spirit. The way he gave of himself, his time, and his hard-won stores of knowledge, was legendary amongst his friends and colleagues. We admired him and we loved him. Ken was a world-renowned comparative anatomist, verteb...
Article
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Southeast Asia has emerged as an important region for understanding hominin and mammalian migrations and extinctions. High-profile discoveries have shown that Southeast Asia has been home to at least five members of the genus Homo1–3. Considerable turnover in Pleistocene megafauna has previously been linked with these hominins or with climate chang...
Article
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We report archaeological findings from a significant new cave site on Alor Island, Indonesia, with an in situ basal date of 40,208–38,454 cal BP. Twenty thousand years older than the earliest Pleistocene site previously known from this island, Makpan retains dense midden deposits of marine shell, fish bone, urchin and crab remains, but few terrestr...
Article
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The nature of human dispersals out of Africa has remained elusive because of the poor resolution of paleoecological data in direct association with remains of the earliest non-African people. Here, we report hominin and non-hominin mammalian tracks from an ancient lake deposit in the Arabian Peninsula, dated within the last interglacial. The findin...
Article
Orangutan (Pongo spp.) fossils have been found throughout much of Pleistocene Southeast Asia. Today, Pongo is restricted to three living species on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. They are predominately frugivores, and during fruit masting events their diets can consist entirely of fruit. However, food procurement strategies between masting even...
Article
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We describe the partial cranium and skeleton of a new diprotodontian marsupial from the late Oligocene (~26–25 Ma) Namba Formation of South Australia. This is one of the oldest Australian marsupial fossils known from an associated skeleton and it reveals previously unsuspected morphological diversity within Vombatiformes, the clade that includes wo...
Article
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A taxonomic and taphonomic study of Pleistocene fossil deposits from the western Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia – Addendum - Mathew Stewart, Julien Louys, Paul S. Breeze, Richard Clark-Wilson, Nick A. Drake, Eleanor M.L. Scerri, Iyad S. Zalmout, Yahya S. A. Al-Mufarreh, Saleh A. Soubhi, Mohammad A. Haptari, Abdullah M. Alsharekh, Huw S. Groucutt, Micha...
Article
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Explanations for the Upper Pleistocene extinction of megafauna from Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) remain unresolved. Extinction hypotheses have advanced climate or human-driven scenarios, in spite of over three quarters of Sahul lacking reliable biogeographic or chronologic data. Here we present new megafauna from north-eastern Australia that su...
Article
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The resource-poor, isolated islands of Wallacea have been considered a major adaptive obstacle for hominins expanding into Australasia. Archaeological evidence has hinted that coastal adaptations in Homo sapiens enabled rapid island dispersal and settlement; however, there has been no means to directly test this proposition. Here, we apply stable c...
Article
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Over the past decade, a growing interest has developed on the archaeology, palaeontology, and palaeoenvironments of the Arabian Peninsula. It is now clear that hominins repeatedly dispersed into Arabia, notably during pluvial interglacial periods when much of the peninsula was characterised by a semiarid grassland environment. During the intervenin...
Article
Skeletal growth rates reconstructed from bone histology in extinct insular hippopotamids, elephants, bovids and sauropods have been used to infer dwarfism as a response to island conditions. Limited published records of osteocyte lacunae densities (Ot.Dn), a proxy for living osteocyte proliferation, have suggested a slower rate of bone metabolism i...
Article
The common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) is equipped with a set of physiological and morphological adaptations suited to a fossorial lifestyle. These allow wombats to engage in efficient scratch-digging and maintaining a low basal metabolic rate while living underground. While bone microstructure has been described for several subterranean animals, wom...
Article
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The significance of the role of birds in hominin evolution in Island Southeast Asia is not clear. Few avian vertebrate deposits have been recovered from archaeological or fossil sites in the region, and their association with either hominin or natural deposition in caves and rock shelters complicates their usefulness in hominin behavioural and pala...
Article
The species-level systematics of the marsupial family Phalangeridae, particularly Phalanger, are poorly understood, due partly to the family's wide distribution across Australia, New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and surrounding islands. In order to refine the species-level systematics of Phalangeridae, and improve our understanding of their evolution...
Conference Paper
Ziphodonty, or dentition containing labiolingually compressed and serrated teeth, is a condition that has evolved multiple times within Crocodylomorpha, with ziphodont crocodylomorph remains known globally from Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. During the Cenozoic, most currently recognized ziphodont crocodylomorphs disappeared by the end of the Mio...
Article
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Drivers of Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions are relevant to modern conservation policy in a world of growing human population density, climate change, and faunal decline. Traditional debates tend toward global solutions, blaming either dramatic climate change or dispersals of Homo sapiens to new regions. Inherent limitations to archaeological...
Preprint
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The migration of anatomically modern humans (AMH) from Africa to every inhabitable continent included their dispersal through Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) to Australia. Significantly, this involved overwater dispersal through the Lesser Sunda Islands between Sunda (continental Southeast Asia) and Sahul (Australia and New Guinea). However, the timin...
Article
In recent years, the Arabian Peninsula has emerged as a key region for elucidating hominin and faunal evolution and dispersals between Africa and Eurasia. Central to this research is the middle Pleistocene site of Ti's al Ghadah (TAG) which has yielded a diverse and abundant fossil faunal assemblage and the earliest chronometrically dated evidence...
Article
Rat cortical bone does not typically undergo secondary (Haversian) remodeling. Haversian organization of rat bone has been mainly observed in experimental settings following biomechanical or dietary manipulation. Here, we report an observation of cortical secondary osteons within a histological femur cross-section from an extinct (late Quaternary)...
Article
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It is not unusual to come across an interesting fossil find while cave diving in Mt Gambier. Our natural curiosity makes us want to know what it is and how it got there, and instinctively we want to pick it up and take a closer look. However, rules and regulations are in place to protect these finds. It is our responsibility, as cave divers, to be...
Article
The Pig-footed Bandicoot, Chaeropus ecaudatus, an extinct arid-adapted bandicoot, was named in 1838 based on a specimen without a tail from the Murray River in New South Wales. Two additional species were later named, C. castanotis and C. occidentalis, which have since been synonymised with C. ecaudatus. Taxonomic research on the genus is rather di...
Article
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Fossils from caves in the Manning Karst Region, New South Wales, Australia have long been known, but until now have never been assessed for their palaeontological significance. Here, we report on late Quaternary faunal records from eight caves in the region. Extinct Pleistocene megafaunal taxa are recognised in two systems and include giant echidna...
Article
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Despite its largely hyper-arid and inhospitable climate today, the Arabian Peninsula is emerging as an important area for investigating Pleistocene hominin dispersals. Recently, a member of our own species was found in northern Arabia dating to ca. 90 ka, while stone tools and fossil finds have hinted at an earlier, middle Pleistocene, hominin pres...
Article
Abstract Timor has yielded the earliest evidence for modern humans in Wallacea, but despite its long history of modern human occupation, there is little evidence for human-induced Late Pleistocene extinctions. Here, we report on Late Pleistocene and Holocene bird remains from Jerimalai and Matja Kuru 1, sites that have yielded extensive archaeologi...
Article
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Archaeological records from Australia provide the earliest, indirect evidence for maritime crossings by early modern humans, as the islands to the north-west of the continent (Wallacea) have never been connected to the mainland. Suggested in 1977 by Joseph B. Birdsell, the two main routes from Sunda (mainland Southeast Asia) to Sahul (Australia-New...