Julie M. Thériault

Julie M. Thériault
Université du Québec à Montréal | UQAM · Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

About

71
Publications
10,162
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1,373
Citations
Citations since 2016
43 Research Items
1102 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
The Canadian Rockies are a triple-continental divide, whose high mountains are drained by major snow-fed and rain-fed rivers flowing to the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. The objective of the April-June 2019 Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide Experiment (SPADE) was to determine the atmospheric processes producing precipita...
Article
Full-text available
Freezing rain events have caused severe socioeconomic and ecosystem impacts. An understanding of how these events may evolve as the Earth warms is necessary to adequately adapt infrastructure to these changes. We present an analysis of projected changes to freezing rain events over North America relative to the 1980–2009 recent past climate for the...
Article
Full-text available
Winter storms in eastern Canada can bring heavy precipitation, including large amounts of freezing rain. The resulting ice accumulation on structures such as trees and power lines can lead to widespread power outages and damage to infrastructure. The objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of the processes that led to extreme f...
Article
Full-text available
Freezing precipitation has major consequences for ground and air transportation, the health of citizens, and power networks. Previous studies using coarse resolution climate models have shown a northward migration of freezing rain in the future. Increased model resolution can better define local topography leading to improved representation of cond...
Article
Given their potentially severe impacts, understanding how freezing rain events may change as the climate changes is of great importance to stakeholders including electrical utility companies and local governments. Identification of freezing rain in climate models requires the use of precipitation-type algorithms, and differences between algorithms...
Article
Winter precipitation is the source of many inconveniences in many regions of North America, for both infrastructure and the economy. The ice storm that hit the Canadian Maritime Provinces on 24–26 January 2017 remains one of the most expensive in history for the province of New Brunswick. Up to 50 mm of freezing rain caused power outages across the...
Article
A devastating storm struck southern Manitoba, Canada on 10–13 October 2019, producing a large region of mainly sticky and wet snow. Accumulations reached 75 cm, wind gusts exceeded 100 km h⁻¹, and surface temperature (T) remained near 0°C (−1°C ≤ T ≤ 1°C) for up to 88 h. It produced the largest October snowfall and was the earliest to produce at le...
Article
Freezing rain and ice pellets are particularly difficult to forecast when solid precipitation is completely melted aloft. This study addresses this issue by investigating the processes that led to a long-duration ice pellet event in Montreal, Québec, Canada, on 11–12 January 2020. To do so, a benchmark model initialized with ERA5 data is used to sh...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate snowfall measurements are necessary for meteorology, hydrology, and climate research. Typical uses include creating and calibrating gridded precipitation products, the verification of model simulations, driving hydrologic models, input into aircraft deicing processes, and estimating streamflow runoff in the spring. These applications are s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Freezing precipitation have major consequences for ground and air transportation, the health of citizens, and power networks. Previous studies using coarse resolution climate models have shown a northward migration of freezing rain in the future. Increased model resolution can better define local topography leading to improved representation of con...
Article
Full-text available
In the future, the intensity, phases, and frequency of precipitation are expected to change due to global warming, in particular during colder seasons when temperatures are near 0°C. To investigate the impacts of warmer atmospheric conditions on the microphysical processes that lead to several precipitation types, the extreme 1998 Ice Storm was sim...
Article
Full-text available
The interior of western Canada, like many similar cold mid- to high-latitude regions worldwide, is undergoing extensive and rapid climate and environmental change, which may accelerate in the coming decades. Understanding and predicting changes in coupled climate–land–hydrological systems are crucial to society yet limited by lack of understanding...
Article
Full-text available
The collection efficiency (CE) of a typical gauge-shield configuration decreases with increasing wind speed, with a high scatter for a given wind speed. The scatter in the CE for a given wind speed arises in part from the variability in the characteristics of falling snow and atmospheric turbulence. This study uses weighing gauge data collected at...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate snowfall measurement is challenging because it depends on the precipitation gauge used, meteorological conditions, and the precipitation microphysics. Upstream of weighing gauges, the flow field is disturbed by the gauge and any shielding used usually creates an updraft, which deflects solid precipitation from falling in the gauge resultin...
Preprint
Full-text available
The interior of western Canada, like many similar cold mid- to high-latitude regions worldwide, is undergoing extensive and rapid climate and environmental change, which may accelerate in the coming decades. Understanding and predicting changes in coupled climate–land–hydrological systems are crucial to society, yet limited by lack of understanding...
Preprint
Full-text available
The continental divide along the spine of the Canadian Rockies in southwestern Canada is a critical headwater region for hydrological drainages to the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic oceans. Major flooding events are typically attributed to heavy precipitation on its eastern side due to upslope (easterly) flows. Precipitation can also occur on the we...
Article
A prognostic equation for the liquid fraction of mixed-phase particles has been recently added to the Predicted Particle Properties (P3) bulk microphysics scheme. Mixed-phase particles are necessary to simulate key microphysical processes leading to various winter precipitation types, such as ice pellets and freezing rain. To illustrate the impacts...
Article
Full-text available
The 0 ∘C temperature threshold is critical for many meteorological and hydrological processes driven by melting and freezing in the atmosphere, surface, and sub-surface and by the associated precipitation varying between rain, freezing rain, wet snow, and snow. This threshold is especially important in cold regions such as Canada, because it is lin...
Article
Adjustments for the wind-induced undercatch of snowfall measurements use transfer functions to account for the expected reduction of the collection efficiency with increasing the wind speed for a particular catching-type gauge. Based on field experiments or numerical simulation, collection efficiency curves as a function of wind speed also involve...
Article
Full-text available
The phase of precipitation and its distribution at the surface can affect water resources and the regional water cycle of a region. A field project was held in March–April 2015 on the eastern slope of the Canadian Rockies to document precipitation characteristics and associated atmospheric conditions. During the project, 60 % of the particles docum...
Article
Full-text available
The interior of western Canada, up to and including the Arctic, has experienced rapid change in its climate, hydrology, cryosphere, and ecosystems, and this is expected to continue. Although there is general consensus that warming will occur in the future, many critical issues remain. In this first of two articles, attention is placed on atmospheri...
Article
Full-text available
Winter weather events with temperatures near \(0\,^\circ\mathrm{{C}}\) are often associated with freezing rain. They can have major impacts on the society by causing power outages and disruptions to the transportation networks. Despite the catastrophic consequences of freezing rain, very few studies have investigated how their occurrences could evo...
Article
Full-text available
The Introduction section of the article, in the fourth line, a mathematical expression “(T > 0 °C)” should be “(T < 0 °C)”. The original article has been corrected.
Article
Full-text available
The 0 °C temperature threshold is critical to many meteorological and hydrological processes driven by melting and freezing in the atmosphere, surface and sub-surface and by the associated precipitation varying between rain, freezing rain, wet snow and snow. This threshold, linked with freeze-thaw, is especially important in cold regions such as Ca...
Article
Freezing rain occurs in complex atmospheric conditions when the temperature is close to 0°C. To better understand how its occurrence will change in the future, there is a need to assess how well regional climate models can reproduce those conditions. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of horizontal resolution on the simul...
Article
Full-text available
The phase of precipitation and its distribution at the surface can affect water resources and the regional water cycle of a region. A field project was held in March–April 2015 on the eastern slope of the Canadian Rockies to document precipitation characteristics and associated atmospheric conditions. During the project, 60 % of the particles docum...
Article
Full-text available
The Interior of Western Canada, up to and including the Arctic, has experienced rapid change in its climate, hydrology, cryosphere and ecosystems and this is expected to continue. Although there is general consensus that warming will occur in the future, many critical issues remain. In this first of two articles, attention is placed on atmospheric-...
Article
Bulk microphysics parameterizations that are used to represent clouds and precipitation usually allow only solid and liquid hydrometeors. Predicting the bulk liquid fraction on ice allows an explicit representation ofmixed-phase particles and various precipitation types, such as wet snow and ice pellets. In this paper, an approach for the represent...
Article
Full-text available
Transfer functions are generally used to adjust for the wind-induced undercatch of solid precipitation measurements. These functions are derived based on the variation of the collection efficiency with wind speed for a particular type of gauge, either using field experiments or based on numerical simulation. Most studies use the wind speed alone, w...
Article
Full-text available
Precipitation events that bring rain and snow to the Banff–Calgary area of Alberta are a critical aspect of the region's water cycle and can lead to major flooding events such as the June 2013 event that was the second most costly natural disaster in Canadian history. Because no special atmospheric-oriented observations of these events have been ma...
Article
A freezing rain event, in which the Meteorological Centre of Canada's 2.5-km numerical weather prediction system significantly underpredicted the quantity of freezing rain, is examined. The prediction system models precipitation types explicitly, directly from the Milbrandt-Yau microphysics scheme. It was determined that the freezing rain underpred...
Article
Full-text available
Precipitation events that bring rain and snow to the Banff/Calgary area of Alberta are a critical aspect of the region's water cycle and can lead to major flooding events such as the June 2013 event that was the second most costly natural disaster in Canadian history. Because no special atmospheric oriented observations of these events have been ma...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE) was conducted as an internationally coordinated project, initiated and guided by the Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The SPICE field experiments took place between 2013 and 2015, with a preparatory stage during the...
Article
Full-text available
Precipitation episodes in the form of freezing rain and ice pellets represent natural hazards affecting eastern Canada during the cold season. These types of precipitation mainly occur in the St. Lawrence River valley and the Atlantic provinces of Canada. This study aims to evaluate the ability of the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Mode...
Article
A devastating flood-producing rainstorm occurred over southern Alberta, Canada from 19-22 June 2013. The long-lived heavy rainfall event was a result of complex interplays between topographic, synoptic and convective processes which rendered an accurate simulation of this event a challenging task. In this study the Weather Research and Forecasting...
Article
Full-text available
Regional climate models (RCM) are widely used to downscale global climate models’ (GCMs) simulations. As the resolution of RCM increases faster than that of GCM used for climate-change projections till the end of this century, the resolution jump will become an issue. Cascade with multiple nesting offers an approach to reach high resolution while k...
Article
In June 2013, excessive rainfall associated with an intense weather system triggered severe flooding in southern Alberta, which became the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This article provides an overview of the climatological aspects and large-scale hydrometeorological features associated with the flooding event based upon informat...
Article
Data obtained from a variety of sources including, the Canadian Lightning Detection Network, weather radars, weather stations and operational numerical weather model analyses were used to address the evolution of precipitation during the June 2013 southern Alberta flood. The event was linked to a mid-level closed low pressure system to the west of...
Article
The use of windshields to reduce the impact of wind on snow measurements is common. This paper investigates the catching performance of shielded and unshielded gauges using numerical simulations. In Part II, we investigate the role of the gauge and windshield aero-dynamics, as well as the varying flow field due to the turbulence generated by the ga...
Article
The aero-dynamic response of snow gauges when exposed to the wind is responsible for a significant reduction of their collection performance. The modifications induced by the gauge and the wind shield onto the space/time patterns of the undisturbed airflow deviate the snowflakes trajectories. In Part I we investigate the disturbed air velocity fiel...
Article
Recent studies have used numerical models to estimate the collection efficiency of solid precipitation gauges when exposed to the wind, in both shielded and unshielded configurations. The models used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the airflow pattern generated by the aerodynamic response to the gauge/shield geometry. These are us...
Article
The accurate measurement of snowfall is important in various fields of study such as climate variability, transportation, and water resources. A major concern is that snowfall measurements are difficult and can result in significant errors. For example, collection efficiency of most gauge-shield configurations generally decreases with increasing wi...
Article
It has been known for a long time that the shape of ice crystals depends on both the air temperature and the relative humidity of the environment. The relationships among these factors have been summarized in classification diagrams and are intensively referred to in the cloud physics literature. To put in perspective the atmospheric conditions in...
Article
The prediction of precipitation phase and intensity in complex terrain is challenging when the surface temperature is near 0 °C. In calm weather conditions, melting snow often leads to a 0 °C-isothermal layer. The temperature feedback from melting snow generates cold dense air moving downslope, hence altering the dynamics of the storm. A correlatio...
Article
Full-text available
With the refinement of grid meshes in regional climate models permitted by the increase in computing power, the grid telescoping or cascade method, already used in numerical weather prediction, can be applied to achieve very high-resolution climate simulations. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to illustrate the perspectives offered by cli...
Article
A subset of the overall needs identified in Ralph and co-researchers in the report on a workshop addressing improvements in short-term cool season quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF). All four workshop working groups reporting in Ralph identified issues and challenges associated with precipitation type among their key findings, with the da...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aerodynamic response of solid precipitation gauges when exposed to the wind is responsible for a significant reduction of their catching performance. This effect is known as the " exposure problem " and consists in the modification of the space/time patterns of the undisturbed airflow operated by the gauge itself or the employed wind shield, ca...
Article
Full-text available
A simple 1D kinematic cloud model coupled to a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme is used to perform quasi-idealized simulations of snow, with a prescribed upper boundary snow field based on observed radar reflectivity and temperature, falling into a low-level melting layer. The model realistically simulates the formation of a nearly isothermal la...
Article
Full-text available
Following up on an almost thirty year long history of International Cloud Modeling Workshops, that started out with a meeting in Irsee, Germany in 1985, the 8th International Cloud Modeling Workshop was held in July 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The workshop, hosted by the Institute of Geophysics at the University of Warsaw, was organized by Szymon Malin...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most challenging aspects of understanding and forecasting weather in the mountainous environment is the phenomenon of orographic precipitation. While it is the dynamics of orographic flow that yield upward motion and condensation, it is the field of cloud microphysics that addresses the question “How does the liquid or solid water mass t...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate forecasting of precipitation phase and intensity was critical information for many of the Olympic venue managers during the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. Precipitation forecasting was complicated because of the complex terrain and warm coastal weather conditions in the Whistler area of British Columbia, Canada. The go...
Data
The objective of this work is to better understand and summarize the mountain meteorological observations collected during the Science of Nowcasting Winter Weather for the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics (SNOW-V10) project that was supported by the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project. The Roundhouse (RND) meteorological station w...
Article
It is common to observe many types of precipitation such as wet snow, ice pellets, and freezing rain during winter storms. The vertical temperature profile composed of a melting layer aloft and a refreezing layer below, plays an important role in the formation of these precipitation types. The horizontal wind also influences the particle trajectori...
Article
Full-text available
A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather co...
Article
Full-text available
Precipitation is one of the most important atmospheric variables for ecosystems, hydrologic systems, climate, and weather forecasting. Despite its importance, accurate measurement remains challenging, and the lack of recent and complete inter-comparisons leads researchers to discount the importance and severity of measurement errors. These errors a...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate snowfall measurements are critical for a wide variety of research fields, including snowpack monitoring, climate variability, and hydrological applications. It has been recognized that systematic errors in snowfall measurements are often observed as a result of the gauge geometry and the weather conditions. The goal of this study is to und...